Life Span Development Exam 1 Study Guide
Life Span Development Exam 1 Study Guide Lifespan Development
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This 55 page Study Guide was uploaded by Aashika Kushwaha on Sunday October 9, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Lifespan Development at University of Texas at Dallas taught by John Santrock in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views.
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Date Created: 10/09/16
Life Span Development Review Exam Sept 22 ▯ We all have our own unique personalities that are mixed with how we are (biologically) and how we were raised by the environment. (Nature vs. Nurture) ▯ ▯ Lifespan perspective views development as lifelong, multidimensional, multidirectional, multidisciplinary, and contextual. ▯ Involves growth, maintenance, and regulation of loss ▯ Growth ▯ Maintenance ▯ Regulation of loss ▯ ▯ Growth- growing and maturing (birth to 30’s) ▯ ▯ Maintenance- caring for yourself without taking too many risks that could harm your body ▯ ▯ Regulation of loss- living until death (50-death) ▯ ▯ Development- the pattern of movement or change that begins at conception and continues through the human life span ▯ Involves growth and decline (death) ▯ ▯ Effected by 3 factors: ▯ Biological ▯ Sociocultural ▯ Individual factors ▯ ▯ Development is multidimensional and multidirectional ▯ ▯ Biological ▯ Cognitive ▯ Socio-emotional ▯ -Attention, memory abstract thinking, speed of processing information, and social intelligence are components of cognitive dimension. ▯ ▯ Multidimensional (multidirectional): Some dimensions expand and some shrink as we grow. ▯ Ex. We can acquire a language at a young age during our critical period, but as we grow, we become better at decision- making and problem solving, but have a difficult time learning new things. ▯ ▯ ▯ Development is Plastic ▯ ▯ Plasticity : capacity to change. ▯ Researchers have found that it is difficult to grow and change as we become old. There is only so long that you can continue to improve (until about 70’s). ▯ Researchers are working on creating more and more strategies to increase the capacity to change in older ages. ▯ Plasticity and its constraints is a key element in developmental research. ▯ ▯ Development is Co-construction of Biology, Culture, and the Individual ▯ -Our brain shapes to culture, although as we grow and experience new things, our brains change beyond biological capacities. ▯ ▯ Development is Contextual ▯ Development changes as the environment (context changes) ▯ ▯ Non-normative life events ▯ -Unusual occurrences that make a major impact on lives ▯ -These events do not happen to everyone. ▯ Ex. ▯ Death of a parent when child is young ▯ Pregnancy during adolescence ▯ Fire destroying ▯ Major natural disasters (Ex. Hurricane Katrina) ▯ Winning the lottery ▯ ▯ Normative age-graded influences ▯ Similar for a particular age group ▯ Ex. Puberty, menopause, beginning of formal education ▯ ▯ Normative history-graded influences ▯ Generation that experiences major historical events together. ▯ Ex. Youth during Cuban Missile Crisis, Great Depression, beginning of technology. ▯ Long-term changes in genetic and cultural makeup of a population. ▯ Also called Cohort Effects ▯ ▯ Development involves growth, maintenance, and Regulation of Loss ▯ Ex. 75 year old man might aim not to improve his memory of his golf swing but to maintain his independence and his ability to play golf. ▯ ▯ ▯ Physiological View of Childhood ▯ ▯ Original Sin- babies are born evil and are taught to be good ▯ -Id ▯ -Psychodynamics (Sigmund Freud) ▯ ▯ Tabula Rasa- experiences make babies good or bad ▯ ▯ Innate Goodness- Babies are born good but experiences/environment make them bad (Jean Piaget) ▯ ▯ Adolescence ▯ Storm and Stress Theory- change due to internal stress as you experience life. ▯ Strong biological View- genes ▯ Strong Stage Theory ▯ ▯ Stage- Unique ascendance of one or more characteristics at a particular point in development ▯ ▯ Inventionist View ▯ Adolescence is a socio-historical invention ▯ Ex. ▯ 19 th century stressed dependency of teens on adults ▯ -Made adult world manageable ▯ -Stopped increased amount of teen marriage ▯ ▯ ▯ -Between 1890-1920: 600% increase in high school graduation ▯ ▯ Lifespan- Max. number of years a species has been documented to live ▯ Jean Louis Calment (p. 514) ▯ ▯ Life Expectancy- average number of years a person is expected to live usually calculated at birth. ▯ Changed across the centuries ▯ ▯ K. Warner Schaie ▯ As you get old you don’t like change ▯ Lack of plasticity ▯ Built environment that was not made for old people ▯ ▯ Paul Baltes ▯ Multidimensional-many sub-dimensions (cognition) ▯ Multidirectional- old-more wisdom ▯ Slower processing speed ▯ Lifelong ▯ Plasticity ▯ Mulitdisciplinary ▯ ▯ Generations ▯ Silent Generation 1928-45 ▯ Baby Boomers 1946-1964 (Birth control pills created) ▯ Generation X 1965-1980 ▯ Millennials individuals in 80-later ▯ -technology ▯ entering adulthood ▯ more diversity ▯ ▯ Growth: (infant-30’s) ▯ Maintenance- maintain skills rather then getting new ones ▯ Decline: (Late 50’s) ▯ ▯ Biological Co-Construction ▯ -Genes, Biology, environment define identity ▯ -involves individual capacity of decision-making ▯ -mind can change ▯ -experiences can change expression of genes ▯ ▯ Cognitive Process-changes in individual’s thought, intelligence, and language ▯ ▯ Socio-emotional processes- changes in an individual’s relationships with other people, changes in emotion, and changes in personality. ▯ ▯ Ex. An infant’s smile in response to mother’s touch ▯ Adolescent’s joy at senior prom ▯ ▯ Periods of Development (p. 12) ▯ ▯ Prenatal Period ▯ Time from conception to birth ▯ Cell grows brain and behavioral capabilities ▯ ▯ Infancy ▯ Birth to about 18 to 24 months ▯ Extremely dependent on adults ▯ Speak, sensations, actions, think, learn ▯ ▯ Early Childhood ▯ Infancy to 5-6 years ▯ Called “preschool years” ▯ Become self-sufficient, care for themselves, school readiness skills ▯ First grade marks the end of this period ▯ ▯ Middle and Late Childhood ▯ 6-11 years ▯ Elementary school ▯ Reading, writing, arithmetic ▯ Self control increases ▯ ▯ Adolescence ▯ 10-12 years ▯ ending at 18-22 years ▯ -Rapid physical changes ▯ height ▯ weight ▯ body contour pubic/facial hair ▯ ▯ Cohort-group born in a similar period/point in history ▯ ▯ Ex. Living through Holocaust ▯ These events affected attitudes, experiences, and how children were raised. ▯ Due to a person’s time of birth (era), not age ▯ ▯ Millennials- born after 1980 ▯ Entering adulthood ▯ Ethnic diversity ▯ Connection to technology ▯ More tolerant and open-minded ▯ ▯ Nature-Nurture Issue ▯ -debate about whether development is influenced by nature (genes, etc.) or nurture (society and environment) ▯ ▯ ▯ Continuity-Discontinuity Issue ▯ -extent to which development involves gradual, cumulative changes (continuous) or distinct stages (discontinuity) ▯ Continuous- growing of child ▯ Distinct- caterpillar to a butterfly or puberty ▯ ▯ Early-later experience issue- degree to which early experiences (infancy) or later experiences are key determinants of a child’s development ▯ Are traumatic experiences at a young age more affective at development? ▯ ▯ Ex. Some developmentalists argue that infants that experiences warm, nurturing care during their first year or so for life, their development will n be optima ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Developmental Social Neuroscience ▯ Examines socio-emotional processes, development, and the brain. ▯ How we act and change in social settings ▯ ▯ Developmental Biological Cognitive Neuroscience ▯ Explores links between Processes development, cognitive processes, development, and the brain ▯ Some contemporary Concerns ▯ Health, well being, parenting, education, and sociocultural contexts play roles in development. ▯ ▯ Health Prefronta and well-being Prefrontal cortex/limbic l cortex system ▯ Issues -Middle of health and Decision making well-being to late play a role in clinical psychology Not repeating ▯ childhoo past mistakes d ▯ Parenting and Education ▯ -Can gay men raise a healthy family? Cognitive Processes ▯ -Are schools failing to teach Socio- adequately? emotional Processes ▯ -Effects of divorce ▯ -… and other issues related to parenting and education ▯ ▯ Sociocultural Contexts and Diversity ▯ Culture, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and gender shape, health, parenting, and education ▯ ▯ Culture- encompasses behavior patterns, beliefs, and other products of a particular group of people that are passed down by generations ▯ ▯ Cross-cultural Studies- compares aspects of two or more cultures and how development is affected ▯ ▯ Ethnicity- cultural heritage, nationality, race, religion, and language ▯ Ex. African American, Latino, etc. ▯ ▯ Socioeconomic Status (SES)- person’s position within society based on occupational, educational, and economic characteristics ▯ -Controls availability of you resources and participation in the society ▯ ▯ Gender- male or female affects identity, social relationships, diversity, educational opportunities, and challenges ▯ ▯ Social Policy- government course of action to promote welfare of its citizens ▯ Educational/Health reforms ▯ Children growing up in poverty create a special concern ▯ Health care ▯ ▯ Biological Processes ▯ -hormonal/genes produce changes in the individual’s thought, intelligence, and language ▯ Two word sentences- memorizing a poem-> completing a crossword puzzle ▯ Cognitive processes ▯ ▯ Cognitive Processes- changes in an individual’s thought, intelligence, and language ▯ ▯ Socio-emotional Processes- changes in relationships with other people, changes in emotion, and personality ▯ ▯ Connecting Biological, Cognitive, and Socio-emotional Processes ▯ Response to tough, like a baby smiling to mother’s touch ▯ Biological- responding when someone touches you ▯ Socio-emotional- smiling if someone gives you a compliment ▯ ▯ Scientific studies such as child development follow the scientific method. ▯ Conceptualizing the problem ▯ Collect data ▯ Use statistical procedures to understand data ▯ ▯ Hypothesis- specific testable assumption or prediction ▯ ▯ Theory- set of ideas that can explain and make predictions ▯ ▯ Psychoanalytic theories describe development as primarily unconscious and heavily colored with emotion ▯ Behavior is merely a surface with true understanding or development and meaning of behaviors below ▯ ▯ Piaget Cognitive Developmental Theory ▯ ▯ Sensorimotor- (birth-2 yr) seeing and hearing ▯ ▯ Preoperational- applying words to physical objects ▯ ▯ Concrete Operational- operations and reasoning, abstract thinking ▯ ▯ Formal- beyond concrete experiences logic ▯ ▯ Freud’s Theory (p.18) ▯ Id, Ego, Super Ego ▯ Id- totally unconscious, child-like ▯ Ego- reality “executive branch” ▯ Super Ego- considers whether something is right or wrong ▯ ▯ Erikson’s 8 Stages of Development ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Vygotsky’ s Theory – sociocultural cognitive theory ▯ - Emphasizes how culture and social interaction guide cognitive development ▯ ▯ ▯ Info- Processing Theory- An individual manipulates, monitors and strategizes information ▯ ▯ Behaviorism holds that we can study only what can be scientifically observed or measured ▯ ▯ Skinner’s Operant Conditioning ▯ Behavior as a result of punish/reward ▯ ▯ Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory ▯ -behavior, environment, and cognition are key to development ▯ Ex. Bobo dolls ▯ Observational learning ▯ ▯ Ethology- behavior is strongly influenced by Biology and is tied to evolution and is characterized by critical periods ▯ ▯ Bronfenbrenner’s ecological Theory ▯ -Development reflects the influence of several environmental systems ▯ Microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem, and chronosystem ▯ ▯ Microsystem- individual lives and interactions with others ▯ ▯ Mesosystem- relations with family, religious, and social experiences ▯ ▯ Exosystem- relationship with environment where individual doesn’t have an active role in immediate context ▯ Ex. Life at home my influences behavior in school ▯ ▯ Macrosystem- involves culture in which individuals live ▯ Passed down by generations ▯ ▯ Chronosystem- patterning of environmental events and transitions over life ▯ Ex. Transition to normal life after a divorce ▯ ▯ Erickson’s Theory best describes the changes that occur during development ▯ Piaget’s and Vygotsky’s and the information processing view of cognitive development ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Eclective Theoretical Orientation ▯ -Development is a combination of approaches made up of assumptions by many theorists ▯ ▯ Laboratory- a controlled setting where many of the real world complex factors are absent ▯ Participants need to know they are being studied ▯ ▯ Survey- questionnaire ▯ ▯ Standardized Test- uniform procedure for administration and scoring ▯ ▯ Case Study- in depth look at a single individual ▯ Mostly performed by mental health professionals ▯ Cautious when generalizing information ▯ Physiological Measures ▯ Study development at different points ▯ Ex. Level of cortisol ▯ -homone created by the adrenal gland which is linked to body stress ▯ -analyze blood samples ▯ ▯ ▯ fMRI: (functional magnetic resonance imaging) ▯ Electromagnetic waves that construct a person’s brain tissue and biochemical activity ▯ ▯ EEG: (electroencephaly) ▯ A physiological measure has been used to monitor electrical activity in the brain ▯ Research includes brain studies of infant’s attention and memory ▯ Brain changes during infancy, development, childhood, adolescence, and aging, and development of autism ▯ ▯ Descriptive Research-aims to observe and record behavior ▯ Ex. A researcher might observe the extent to which people are altruistic or aggressive toward each other ▯ ▯ Correlational Research: the goal is to describe the strength of the relationship between two or more events or characteristics. ▯ The more strongly the two events are correlated (associated) the more accurately we can predict one even from the other ▯ Correlatin coefficient ranges from +1 to -1. A negative number means an inverse relation. ▯ Higher the correlation coefficient (+/-), the stronger the association between the two variables ▯ CORRELATION DOES NOT INDICATE CAUSATION ▯ ▯ Experiments- carefully reguallation procedure in which one or more factors believed to influence the behavior being studied are maniupated while all ofther factors are held constant. ▯ Determining causation ▯ ▯ Independent Variable- a manipulated, influential, experimental factor (one, or many) ▯ A potential cause ▯ ▯ Dependent Variable- a factor that can change in an experiment, in response to changes in the independent variable. As researches manipulate the independent variable, they measure the dependent variable for any resulting effect. ▯ ▯ Control Group- a comparison group that is a comparison group that is as similar to the experimental group as possible and that is treated in every way like the experimental group except for the manipulated factor (independent variable). ▯ Serves as a baseline against which the effects of the manipulated condition can be compared ▯ ▯ RANDOMIZATION IS IMPORTANT!!! ▯ ▯ Cross-sectional approach- a research strategy that simultaneously compares individuals of different ages ▯ Ex. studying the groups of 5-year olds, 16 year olds, and studying 20 year olds together ▯ ▯ Longitudinal Approach- a research strategy in which the same individuals are studied over a period of time., usually several years or more ▯ ▯ Cohort- a group of people who are born at a similar point in history ▯ Share experiences may produce a range of differences among cohorts ▯ ▯ Cohort Effects- due to a person’s time of birth, era, or generation, but not actual age ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Millenials ▯ Individuals born ▯ First generation in 1980 to come to age and enter adulthood in the ▯ and later st 21 century. ▯ Ethnic diversity ▯ Technology ▯ Generation X ▯ Individuals born ▯ Described as between 1965 and lacking an identity 1980 and savvy loners ▯ Baby Boomers ▯ Individuals born ▯ Label used between 1946 and because this 1964 generation represents the spike in the number of babies born after WWII ▯ Largest generation ever to enter late adulthood in the US ▯ Silent ▯ Individuals born ▯ Children of the Generation between 1928 and Great Depression and 1945 WWII; described as conformists and civic minded ▯ ▯ ▯ Conducting Ethical Research ▯ -Without proper permissions, the most well-meaning, kind, and considerate studies still violate the rights of the participants ▯ ▯ Informed consent: participants must know what their research participation will involve and what risks might develop. They can withdraw when ever they would like to ▯ ▯ Confidentiality: Researches are responsible for keeping all datat collected on the individuals confidential, or keep the individual’s name as anonymous ▯ ▯ Debriefing: After the study has been completed, participants should be informed of its purpose and the methods that were used, or participants can be told the purpose of the research only if it it wont cause the participant to act in a different way ▯ ▯ Deception: telling the participants before hand about the research study can alter the participants’ behavior and invalidates the research’s data. Deception can be used to that the participants are not harmed, and the participants will be debriefed as soon as possible after the study is completed. ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Gender Bias ▯ Preconceived notion about the abilities of women and men from pursuing personal inters and achieving their potential. ▯ Less obvious effect within the field of life-span development ▯ Researchers will try to magnify gender differences ▯ ▯ Cultural and Ethnic Bias ▯ Ethnic minorities such as African Americans, Latino, Asians, and Latin Americans were exfluded from most research in the US ▯ Including ethnic minorities caused research data to deviate from the norm ▯ ▯ Ethnic Gloss- using an ethnic label such as “African American” or “Latino” in a superficial way that portrays an ethnic group as being more homogeneous than it really is. (Ex. The participants were 50 Latinos: group of 50 Latinos from a low-income homes in southern Los Angeles) ▯ Ethnic minorities not given adequate attention in light of their significant rates of growth ▯ ▯ Sub-periods in Late Adulthood ▯ ▯ Processes and Periods of Development ▯ Periods of development describe how people are at the age, biological, cognitive, and socio-emotional processes ▯ ▯ Young Old (65-84) ▯ Substantial potential for better physical and cognitive fitness ▯ Successive cohorts show gains in physical and cognitive fitness ▯ Effective strategies for managing gains and losses ▯ ▯ Oldest Old (85-Over) ▯ Sizeable losses in cognitive potential and ability to learn ▯ Increase in chronic stress (stress hormones stay in blood longer as you get older) ▯ Increasing prevalence of Alzheimer’s Disease ▯ High levels of frailties and problems in body functioning (falls, difficulty in movement) ▯ Problems in dying with dignity (difficulty in managing their bodily functions) ▯ ▯ Is there a best age to be? ▯ Life-Satisfaction Scale (Diener, Emmons, Larson, and Griffin, 1985) ▯ What does research suggest? ▯ Bernice Neugarten: ▯ -Biological Age ▯ -Cognitive Age ▯ -Socio-emotional Age ▯ What does research say? ▯ Older you get, happier your going to be, closer you get to people that you have relationships with, because they shorten their effort of meeting new people, but rather just try to do their best with people that they already know ▯ Study by Yang: found that the older you get, the more satisfied you get, studied people up to 88 years old (38% were happy) ▯ Cohort effects, baby boomers when they reached middle aged were less satisfied than previous cohorts, because they became overconfident about their future life ▯ ▯ Bernice Neugarten ▯ Argues that age (chronological age) is becoming a less effective predictor of how life is going to be like. The world has become much more complex ▯ ▯ Biological Age: how biologically fit, free from disease you are. Some really old people are weak and get sick, while some keep up their stamina and can run (pg 17) ▯ ▯ Psychological age: how good your coping skills are and how you can adapt to life ▯ ▯ Social Age: how good your social relationships are. How good you are at interacting with others (p. 18) ▯ 25 is the new 15 ▯ ▯ K Warner Schaie ▯ pioneer of adult development and aging ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Normal Aging: ▯ Most common pattern, characterizes most individuals ▯ Psychological funtining peaks in early midlife, followed by plateaus in late 50s and early 60s ▯ Modest declines occur thorugh early 80s, often followed by a marked decline prior to death (turmoil decline) ▯ ▯ ▯ Pathological Aging: ▯ -Greater than average declines in late adulthood ▯ -May have mild cognitive impairment in early old age, develop Alzheimer disease later, or have a chronic disease that impaires functioning ▯ ▯ ▯ Successful Aging: ▯ Physical, cognitive, and socio-emotional functioning ▯ Is maintaining for longer than most people ▯ Declines later than for most people ▯ ▯ Developmental Issues ▯ Nature vs. Nurture ▯ ▯ Continuity vs. Discontinuity (Non-stage vs. Stage): ▯ Stage: consistence between one or more periods of development ▯ ▯ Stability vs. Change ▯ -characteristics/traits: personality (introverted or extroverted) ▯ ▯ -Early vs. later experience (how are they like)- if you don’t have a secure attachment to your care giver, then that is going to set a cascade of experiences that are going to prevent you from developing optimally ▯ ▯ ▯ Theories of Life-Span Development ▯ Psychoanalytic ▯ -Freud ▯ Cognitive ▯ Behavioral/Social Cognitive ▯ Ethological ▯ Ecological ▯ ▯ Erikson’s 8 stages of development ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Albert Bandura- responsible for Observational Learning ▯ -we learn by watching and listening to other people ▯ Bobo Dolls ▯ ▯ Social Cognitive Theory: Reciprocal Determinism ▯ -Not Stage theorists (Skinner is also not a stage theorist) ▯ ▯ Self-Efficacy: expectation that you can control your behavior and environment, if you believe that you cant do something, then you wont have the confidence to get anything done ▯ ▯ Skinner: believes cognitive doesn’t have much to do with a person’s development ▯ -behavior is determined by external consequences ▯ -like Bandura’s Reciprocal of Determinism but only with Environment and Behavior. Enviroment influences behavior ▯ ▯ Essay questions on comparing theories/people ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Ethological Theory ▯ Conrad Lorenz (zoologist):studied geese ▯ ▯ Imprinting: gosling spent time with him and grew attached to him rather than their own mother ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Theory ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Macr osystem: influence from learning from family/teachers: about how to do things ▯ ▯ Exosystem: environment where individual doesn’t actually participate but can still be influenced by them ▯ ▯ Mesosystem: enviorment interacting with us ▯ ▯ Microsystem: ideologies of culture, comparing how US individuals live differently than people in other parts of the world, poverty ▯ ▯ Chronosytem: interactions with patterning of environmental events and transitions over the sociohistorical conditions ▯ Life events ▯ Cohort effects ▯ ▯ Developmental psychologist- decides wheter he/she want to do a cross sectional study or a longitunical study ▯ ▯ Cross sectional Study- studying stability and change in adult (20-80 years of age), all at one time. Go out and find x number of people, assess them and finish within a few months (6 MONTHS OR SO) ▯ ▯ Longitudinal Study- study the same people for many years. THE SAME PEOPLE! (years) ▯ ▯ Intra-individual-occurring within an individual ▯ ▯ Reaction Range- argues that there is a limited range to which the environment can influence your behavior (phenotype) and development (expansive but also limited). ▯ ▯ Genotype- genes ▯ ▯ You are not a blank slate coming into the world ▯ ▯ ▯ Canalization- There is a very narrow path to which genetics take path in nature that keeps you in a developmental path. (Staying resilient) ▯ ▯ Repository for Germinal Choice- sperm bank Noble Prize winner ▯ Intent to create geniuses ▯ Is intelligence the ultimate positive value? ▯ Sperm available to women whose husbands were infertile ▯ 229 babies born from this sperm bank. Sperm Bank closed when Graham (creator of the bank) died. ▯ No study of the individuals born ▯ ▯ Adoption ▯ Until 1960s, most e children were: ▯ -Healthy, non-Latino White infants ▯ -Adopted within a few days of birth ▯ More mothers are keeping their children ▯ More adoptions from other countries ▯ Russia stopped allowing Russian babies to be adopted ▯ Lithuanian babies adopted ▯ More foster babies being adopted ▯ More diversity in adoptions and no income required ▯ Gov gives money to adults that adopt ▯ Foster care: 50% of adoption ▯ 30% adoptions by relatives ▯ Closed Adoption- Not sharing origin of biological parents ▯ ▯ Open Adoption- sharing of origin of biological parents information ▯ ▯ Research: ▯ -Harold Grotevant ▯ Kids that grow up in adoptive families will have ▯ -more likely to have internalized problems (anxiety, depression (aggression) ▯ -attention problems (ex. ADHD) ▯ Kids are more caring ▯ Different genetic makeup than other kids in their adoptive family. ▯ Adopted under the age of 2, more positive opportunities to gain attachment to adoptive parents ▯ Adopted at 10, may have been in foster care or have been adopted before ▯ Adopted as a teenager- sexuality, puberty changes, identity changes (Negative aspects) ▯ ▯ Nomothetic- research in groups ▯ -including their differences ▯ - involves vulnerabilities ▯ ▯ Idiographic – research on individuals ▯ -including their differences ▯ ▯ ▯ -Majority of kids adopted do fine, even though differences exist ▯ ▯ ▯ Essay: adoption, including differences, history, effects of adoption ▯ ▯ Molecular Genetics- research of our actual DNA ▯ -linked to behavioral outcomes, disease, etc. ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Human Genome Project- effort to document the entire human genome ▯ ▯ ▯ Interest in finding susceptibility genes, longevity genes ▯ Alzheimer’s gene (ApoE4)- 1/3 of Alzheimer’s genome have a variant of this gene ▯ Used to be thought that human genes have over 100 thousand genomes ▯ Only 25,000 genes ▯ Believed that it will go below 20,000 genes ▯ ▯ David Moire ▯ “The Dependent Gene” book ▯ Argues that are behavior is not totally linked to our genes, instead genes are dependent on the kind of environment we grow up in ▯ Research that factors like stress, exercise, nutrition, temp, sleep, etc. in influence genetic expression in DNA/RNA ▯ Actual gene structure hasn’t changes, gene expression is either turned on or turned off by environmental effects ▯ ▯ Behavior Genetics ▯ ▯ Twin Studies ▯ Identical (MZ) vs. fraternal (DZ) twins ▯ Identical twins separated from birth ▯ ▯ Adoption Studies ▯ Biological vs. adoptive parents ▯ Biological vs. adopted siblings ▯ ▯ Identical twins: more similar personality wise than fraternal ▯ ▯ ▯ Adopted kids are more similar to their biological parents than adoptive parents, more genetic influence ▯ ▯ More genetic parents identified ▯ ▯ Passive: ▯ Passive Children inherit genetic tendencies from parents ▯ Parents also provide environment that matches their own gentic tendencies ▯ Examples ▯ Musically inclined parents usually have musically inclined children. ▯ These parents are likely to provide an environment rich in music for their child ▯ ▯ Evocative ▯ Child’s genetic tendencies elicit environmental stimulation that supports a particular trait ▯ ▯ Examples: ▯ A happy, outgoing child elicits smiles and friendly responses from others. ▯ ▯ Active (niche-picking) ▯ Children actively seek out environmental “niches” that reflect their own interests and talents ▯ ▯ Examples: ▯ Children mat seek out libraries, sports fields, music stores if they have intellectual interests in these domains ▯ ▯ Epigentic View: Gilbert Golttlieb ▯ Heredity-Environmental Correlation View ▯ -Heredity=> Environment ▯ Epigenetic View ▯ Heredity Environment ▯ Serotonin (5-HTTLPR) ▯ -Long version: less likely to get depressed ▯ -Short version: more likely to get depressed ▯ ▯ Gene expression is not __% genetic and ___% environment. ▯ ▯ Genes produce proteins throughout the lifespan not just when we are born ▯ ▯ Nature (genes, birth complications)/Nurture (environment) are both extremely important ▯ ▯ Behavior and development have been studied in a misleading way because it is all so complex, they have not gotten all of the information because of how complex it is ▯ ▯ There may be more than just nature and nurture that affect the developmental path ▯ ▯ We are both the creatures and creators of our world, affected by our present choices Ch. 3 Prenatal Development ▯ Prenatal development is divided into trimesters At six months (almost the end of the 2 nd trimester) babies are able to live as a premature Can tell the gender of the baby at 7 weeks (used to be studied by sonograms at 3 months) o Problematic: especially in countries where mothers want to only have sons, when wanting an abortion, etc. ▯ ▯ Germinal period- period of prenatal development that takes place in the first two weeks after conception Includes the creation of the fertilized egg, called a zygote, cell division, and the attachment of the zygote to the uterine wall Implantation ▯ Mitosis- process of cell division ▯ ▯ Blastocyst- inner mass of cells that will eventually develop into the embryo ▯ ▯ Trophoblast- outer layer of cells that later provide nutrition an =d support for the embryo ▯ ▯ Implantation- the attachment of the zygote to the uterine wall, takes place about 10-14 days after conception ▯ ▯ Embryonic period- period of prenatal development that occurs from two to eight weeks after conception. ▯ During the embryonic period, the rate of cell differentiation intensifies, support systems for cells form, and organs appear. Organogenesis: formation of organ systems: very vulnerable to environmental effects (mother’s drug use, nutrition, stress) ▯ Mesoderm- the middle layer, which will become the circulatory system, bones, muscles, excretory system, and reproductive system ▯ ▯ Ectoderm- outermost layer, which will become the nervous system and brain, circulatory system, respiratory system, sensory receptors (ears, nose, and eyes, skin parts (hair and nails)) ▯ ▯ Amnion- bag or an envelope that contains a clear fluid in which the developing embryo floats ▯ ▯ Umbilical cord- contains two arteries and one vein that connect the baby to the placenta ▯ ▯ Placenta: consists of a disk-shaped group of tissues in which small blood vessels from the mother and the offspring intertwine but do not join ▯ ▯ Neural Tube: 18-24 days after conception (Fig. 3.4 pg 48) Spina bifida- failure of neural tube to close Lack of folic acid ▯ ▯ Organogenesis: process of organ formation during the first two months of prenatal development ▯ Eyes begin to appear after 21 days ▯ 24 days heart cells begin to differentiate ▯ arms and legs differentiate at 5-8 weeks ▯ 1 inch long and weighs 1/30 of an inch ▯ ▯ Fetal period: prenatal period of development that begins two months after conception until birth ▯ Lasts about 7 weeks Babies born in the US are about 8 lbs 2 oz ▯ ▯ The Brain ▯ Neurons- nerve cells ▯ Handle information processing at the cellular level in the brain ▯ As the human embryo develops inside its mother’s womb, the nervous system begins forming as a long hollow tube located on the embryo’s back. ▯ The pear shaped neural tube, which forms n, develops out of the ectoderm ▯ ▯ Neurogenesis: generation of new neurons 5th prenatal week 20 billion to 100 billion neurons (amount of neurons you will have as an adult forming 200 neurons a minute ▯ Neuronal migration- cells moving outward from their point of origin to their appropriate locations and creating the different levels, structures, and regions of the brain (forming hippocampus or other parts of the brain) 6-24 weeks after conception ▯ ▯ Neural connectivity: 20-23 weeks-continues to develop during the first couple of years ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Teratogen- any agent that can potentially cause a birth defect or negatively alter cognitive and behavioral outcomes ▯ ▯ Teratology- field of study that investigates the causes of birth defects ▯ The dose, genetic susceptibility, and the time of exposure to a particular teratogen influence both the severity of the damage to an embryo or fetus and the type of defect. o Teratogens are less likely to cause anatomical defects o Exposure during the fetal period is more likely to stunt growth or to create problems in the way that the organs develop ▯ ▯ Dose: The does effect is rather obvious. The greater the dose of an agent, such as the drug, the greater the effect ▯ Genetic susceptibility: type or severity of abnormalities caused by a teratogen is linked to the genotype of the pregnant woman and the genotype of the embryo or drug can influence the degree to which the drug effects are transmitted to the embryo or fetus. The extent to which an embryo or fetus is vulnerable to a teratogen may also depend on its genotype Male fetuses are far more likely to be affected by teratogens than females. ▯ Time of exposure: exposure to teratogens does more damage when it occurs at points in development than at others. Damage during the germinal period may even prevent implantation Embryonic period is more vulnerable than the fetal period ▯ ▯ Teratogens Caffeine Alcohol o Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Disorders (FASD) -if mothers drink heavily (mother binge drink) -learning problems -mental disability o Light Drinking -US and French government argue that mothers should not have any alcohol during pregnancy -Great Britain says that light drinking will not affect fetal development o National Institute of Health (NIH) recommends woman not to drink at all -affects spontaneous abortion -issues in neurogenesis ▯ Nicotine o Preterm birth o Low birth weight o Fetal/neonatal death o Respiratory problems o SIDS o ADHD ▯ Cocaine o Low birth weight o Shorter o Smaller head circumference o Impaired motor development o Poor self-regulation o Language problems o Information processing problems ▯ Meth-Amphetamines o Stimulant o High infant death rate o Low birth weight o Developmental problems ▯ Marijuana o Learning and memory difficulties o Lower intelligence o Depressive symptoms at age 10 o Marijuana use at age 14 Heroin o Behavioral difficulties at birth o Withdrawal symptoms o Tremors o Irritability o Abnormal crying o Disturbed sleep o Impaired motor control o Attention deficit ▯ Incompatible Blood Types Incompatible blood types between mother and father o Blood types A, B, AB, and O o Rh positive or Rh negative o If a mother is Rh negative and the father is Rh negative, the baby will be Rh positive o If the mother is Rh negative and the baby is Rh positive, the mother’s body will create antibodies to fight the Rh positive fetus, so blood transfusions will have to be given to the baby right after birth ▯ Environmental Hazards Environmental hazards can harm the fetus, such as radiation, toxic waste, X-ray radiation, carbon monoxide, mercury, and lead found in fertilizers and pesticides, and other chemical pollutants If a mother needs an X-ray, the woman’s abdomen must be protected by a lead apron ▯ ▯ Nutrition and Weight Malnourished mothers o Malformations o Low birth weight Overweight/obese mothers o Excessive birth weight o Fetal death o NICU ▯ Diet Folic acid (B complex vitamin) o Neural tube Large fish (shark, swordfish)-AVOID o Linked to miscarriage (mercury content) Important: Folic Acid and B-Complex ▯ ▯ Stress ADHD Language Delay Infant death ▯ ▯ Depression-depressed mothers (mothers that use some kind of antidepressant Low birth weight ▯ ▯ Mother’s Weight: Obesity or increased weight of the mother can result in hypertension, diabetes, respiratory issues, or infections in the mother. This can result in a stillbirth. ▯ ▯ Maternal Age Adolescent o Negative outcomes for fetus. Adolescent body not fit for pregnancy 35+ years old o intellectual disability o Downs Syndrome ▯ -Men exposed to radiation, petrochemicals, smoking, etc. can have issues in their sperm that can cause abnormalities in the sperm tha can lead to cancer or diseases o lead to child developing cancer, such as Leukemia o Increased risk of spontaneous abortion, schizophrenia, increased risk for Autism etc. if father is 40+ o Intellectual disability o High marital stress (causing abuse causes mother stress, which may impact the baby’s development ▯ Preterm & Low Birth Weight Preterm- born 3 or more weeks before full-term pregnancy Low Birth Weight (LBW) o Under 5.5 lbs Very LBW o Under 5.5 lbs Extremely LBW o Under 2 lbs ▯ ▯ Lower the LBW, the more problems Especially brain damage, learning disabilities, ADHD, asthma About 50% enrolled in special ed ▯ ▯ Tiffany Field Research Premature infants who were massaged, stabilized heart rate, breathing temperature, gain weight, cry less Kangaroo care- babies held skin-to-skin with parent, as many hours every day (3 times a day) Prenatal Care Includes medical care and screening for manageable conditions and treatable diseases Comprehensive educational, social, and nutritional services Exercise during pregnancy helps prevent constipation, reduces likelihood of excessive weight gain associated with positive mental state, including reduced levels of depression -yoga ▯ ▯ ▯ Stages of Birth 1 Birth Stage: Uterine contractions 15-20 minutes apart, dilating the cervix to an opending of about 10 centimeters 2nd Birth Stage: baby’s head starts to move thought the cervix and the birth canal. -this stage terminates when the baby completely emerges form the mother rd Afterbirth (3 Stage): at which time the placenta, umbilical cord, and other membranes are detached and expelled. -lasts only a couple of minutes ▯ ▯ Midwifery- a profession that provides health care to women during pregnancy, birth, and postpartum period Health and gynecology exams ▯ ▯ Doulas- a caregiver who provides continuous physical, emotional, and educational support for the mother before, during, and after childbirth Remain with the parent throughout labor, assessing and responding to the mother’s needs Positive effects when a doula is present at the time of birth -2X less likely to have birth complications with a doula Analgesia- used to relieve pain. Includes tranquilizers, barbiturates, and narcotics ▯ ▯ Anesthesia- used in the late first-stage labor and during delivery to block sensation in an area of the body or to block consciousness ▯ ▯ Oxytocin- a hormone that promotes uterine contractions; a synthetic form called Pitocin Used to decrease the duration of the firwst stage of labor ▯ ▯ Natural childbirth- method that aims to reduce the mother’s pain by decreasing her fear thought the education about childbirth and by teaching her and her partner to use breathing methods and relaxation techniques during delivery Bradley Method-involves husbands as coaches, relaxation for easier birth, and prenatal nutrition and exercise ▯ ▯ Prepared Childbirth- includes a special breathing technique to control pushing in the final stages of labor, as well as a more detailed education about anatomy and physiology ▯ ▯ Breech position- the baby’s buttocks are the first part ot emerge form the vagina ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Ch. 4 Physical Development ▯ ▯ “Babies are such a nice way to start people” ▯ “Baby is the most complicated thing made by unskilled people” ▯ ▯ Bonding Klaus and Kennel: came up with the concept of bonding Making sure that mother with newborns were in close contact with newborns Typically, newborns were taken away from the mother when she was under anesthesia Now, baby is put next to the mother If physical contact is not given with the mother, in the first 24 hours, optimal development will be harmed Ex. Goslings following Lorenz Babies that stayed with their mother as new born, vs babies that were kept away and eventually taken to mother. There wasn’t much difference because human beings are resilient. Bonding is important for secure attachment Children are vulnerable and learn and are influenced by their parents and anyone around them (actions, social skills, etc.)— especially the mother (security, support) If they are cared for, then they will try to imitate and care for other people ▯ Exercise Strenuous exercise classes are hard on developing bones and muscles They still need to be active Should not be put in exercise classes Breast vs. Bottle Feeding Breast Feeding Prevent Gastric disturbances, babies are less likely to develop SIDS Benefits to the mothers: helps reduce risk of cancer (breast cancer) Fewer respiratory infections Less chronic skin inflammation Les likely to be overweight Mother has a lower risk of developing ovarian cancer or diabetes ▯ Benefits of breastfeeding vs. Bottle feeding ▯ For Babies ▯ Prevents gastrointestinal infections, such as diarrhea ▯ Lower risk of SIDS (Sudden Infant Death Syndrome) ▯ Better antibody response to vaccines ▯ ▯ For Mothers ▯ Lower risk of postmenopausal osteoporosis “When a woman is lactating, her body absorbs calcium much more efficiently.” (Carole Anderson Lucia) ▯ ▯ Better healing post delivery The oxytocin released when your baby nurses helps your uterus contract, reducing post delivery blood loss. Plus, breastfeeding will help your uterus return to its normal size more quickly—at about six weeks postpartum, compared with 10 weeks if you don't breastfeed. Decrease risk of cancer for baby Decrease risk of breast cancer ▯ Apgar Scale- used to assess the health of newborns at one and five minutes after birth evaluates an infant’s heart rate, respiratory effort, muscle tone, body color, and reflex irritability ▯ ▯ Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale ▯ -performed within 24-36 hours after birth used as a sensitive index of neurological competence to one month after birth measures infant’s development ▯ ▯ Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Network Neurobehavioral Scale ▯ - provides an assessment of the newborn’s behavioral, neurological, and stress responses, and regulatory capacities ▯ ▯ Physical Adjustments Mother may have a great deal of energy or feel exhausted Reported loss of sleep due to stress, marital conflict, and impaired decision making – linked to postpartum depression ▯ ▯ Emotional and Psychological Adjustments Postpartum blues- feel depressed, upset, or anxious about 2-3 days after giving birth. May go on for several months ▯ ▯ Cephalocaudal pattern- the sequence in which growth starts at the center of the body and moves towrd the extremities ▯ ▯ -babies lose 5-7% of their body weight in the first couple of months until they begin sucking, swallowing, and digesting ▯ ▯ Frontal Lobe- voluntary movement, thinking, personality, and intentionality, and purpose ▯ ▯ Occipital Lobes- function of vision ▯ ▯ Temp
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