Psychology 101 prenatal development study guide week 8 ish
Psychology 101 prenatal development study guide week 8 ish PSY 100
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Chaison Poonpiset on Sunday October 9, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 100 at Colorado State University taught by Lauren Bates in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 10/09/16
Psychology study guide for developmental and prenatal psychology What is Developmental Psychology? The development of human life 3 Major issues Nature vs. Nurture Continuity vs stages Stability and change Continuity: Constantly going up (Like an escalator) Stages: Like an elevator, always stopping) Temperament tends to remain stable Social attitudes are subject to change In some ways, we all change with age Life requires both stability and change Stability helps with identity(Knowing who you are) Crosssectuonal Research longitudinal Research Prenatal development: Conception: Gestational Age Zygote: cells of zygote begin to divide Embryo *Structure *Primitive streak: Starting to form the brain Fetus ( Can find out sex of baby about 3 months) Avg. 3 months, 3 inches long, 3 ounces Months 46: Months 69 Huge brain Development Lugs begin to eland and contract Age of viability Heart, arteries, veins, mature 22 weeks after conception Fetus gains about 4.5 pounds in the last three months Baby can be born and survive on its own Some factors affecting prenatal development Sounds If mom is bilingual, Baby likes both languages Teratogens: Anything that can upset a baby’s development Approxamitaley 38 eels after conception, fetal brain triggers release of hormones Oxytocin Labor “Hurricane phase” Delivery Afterbirth Reflexes Rooting Sucking Crying Preferences Human Voice Faces Mothers smell Infancy and childhood Physical Development: o Maximum number of neurons at birth. o Neural networks begin to grow, enrichment is good. o Frontal lobe is developing until adolescence and beyond. o Critical Periods. • Babies generally follow the same sequence of motor development o Infantile amnesia: can’t remember stuff super early from childhood. • Cognitive Development: o Cognition all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating. o Jean Piaget: Stages of cognitive development. o Schemas: Interprets new information coming in, Assimilation, Accommodation o Example of Schema: If a baby was to have a schema of a puppy, then they would think all four legged animals a puppy (assimilation), or then the baby will accommodate and will learn the difference between the two. • Birth2 Years: Sensorimotor is when babies use senses to explore the world. o Babies lack object permanence until about 8 months, • 2 years to 7 years: Preoperational is when they enjoy pretend play. o Egocentric: Troubles of thinking of someone else’s play. o Begin to develop theory of mind around age 4, thinking in terms of someone else. o Lack of concept of conservation. • 7 years to 11 years: Concrete operational is when they begin to grasp conservation and math. • 12 years old to adulthood: Formal Operation is when we are capable of abstract thinking. • Social Development: o Attachment: emotional tie with another person. o Do babies become attached to their nourishment or comfort? Harlow’s monkeys, attachment is more about comfort. o Attachment differences. § Mary Ainsworths: “Strange Situation” § Secure attachment: is when the baby is very comfortable. § Insecure attachment: They were less likely to explore, less comfortable, clinging to mom, cry a lot. • Authoritarian: Very strict, obedience from the children • Permissive: Submit to childs wishes, very few demands of child, low punishment. • Authoritative: Both demanding and responsive, impose Adolescence And Adulthood Physical Development: Begins at Puberty Your frontal lobes are still developing until about 25 Unused neurons are “pruned” (clipping away the things that you no longer need) Cognitive Development Start to develop reasoning power, frontal lobe is still developing (start using critical thinking and decision making more and more, the frontal lobes control this decision making and planning) Development of morality Khohlbergs levels of mental thinking: —> Preconventional Mortality: self interest, obey rules to avoid punishment or gain concrete rewards —> Conventional Mortality: Uphold laws and rules to gain social approval or maintain social order —> Postconventional: Actions reflect belief in basic rights and selfdefined ethical principals Social Development Erikson;s stages of psychosocial development Stages: Issues Infancy Trust vs. mistrust Toddlerhood Autonomy vs shame and doubt Preschool Initiative vs. guilt Adolescence Identity vs Confusion Early adulthood Intimacy vs. isolation Adulthood Generativity vs. stagnation Old age Integrity vs. despair Adolescence is all about forming an identity Social development In western cultures, adolescents generally pull away from their parents in favor of their peers Selection effect Positive parentteen relations and positive teenparent relationships Adulthood Physical Development: Physical health declines BUT is dependent on a persons health Decline in fertility (Menapause, men testosterone decline) Change in sensory abilities (not able to see or hear as well)( As older adults start to lose hair cells in the ear that help hear high frequencies) Immune system Neurological Changes Expectation are key( Go into it with positive attitude, it will be positive, negative attitude, will be negative) Cognitive Development: Memory decline is selective—only certain things are harder to remember Skill memory last(if ever) to decline Crystalized intelligence( vs Fluid intelligence Crystalized: Facts from life, stories, Fluid: Decline, pattern analyzation Social development: Love and intimacy are key issues of young adulthood Marriage can be predictive of happiness and health Keys to a happy marriage 5 good arguments1 negative argument Not living together together before marriage Growing older is just part of life Most people assume happiness declines in later life =Most older adults tend to be more happy/positive than younger adults Biopsychosocial approach to successful aging death is just part of life Greif varies from person to person Gender development How are we alike? How are we different? Sex: Our biology status that helps define our gender Gender: Socially constructed roles and characteristics by which culture defines male and female Similarities of Genders 45/46 chromosomes same between 2 genders Intelligence is relatively similar Happiness Selfesteem Differences: Women experience puberty before men Women typically live longer than men Body type (less muscle and more fat) Women more likely to develop depression Men more prone to suicide, drink alcohol, and be colorblind Overall we are more similar than different! Sex/gender differences Males: More likely to engage in physical aggression Males: Tend to have higher social power, acting more assertive Males: Less socially connected Females: More likely to engage in social aggression Tend to have less social power than men, (nurturing and collaborative, more democratic) Express more support More interdependent These differences tend to peak in later adolescents Nature: Our biology Prenatal sexual development (Father picks if you are male or female, he either gives you an X or a Y chromosome) Adolescent sexual development develop sex organs and secondary sex structures Variations on sexual development Gender role: Social expectation of what males and females "should do” Gender roles have changed over the years, depending on where you live/culture Gender Identity: A persons sense of being male or female Social learning theory: Gender schemas form very early in life Nurture: Our Culture Transgender people have a gender identity that differs from their birth sex Gender identity is not the same as sexual orientation (who you are attracted too) Emotion • Emotions are a mix of: ? Bodily arousal: ? Expressive behaviors: Behavior changes by something you’re experiencing. ? Conscious experience: Having the thought of that you should have or could have. • Theories of Emotion: ? JamesLange Theory: We feel sorry because we cry, we’re angry because we strike. The emotion Arousal comes before emotion. Ex: See a bear, heart rate increases, then you are feared. ? CannonBard Theory: Arousal and emotion occur simultaneously. Ex: when you see a bear, your heart rate and fear are going at the same time. ? SchacterSinger Two Factor Theory: Arousal + Label = Emotion. Ex: When you see a bear, your heart rate is pounding and you’re scared, and now you’re telling yourself how you feel. • The Basic Emotions (10): ? Joy: Happiness ? Interest: Excitement ? Surprise ? Sadness ? Anger ? Disgust ? Contempt ? Shame ? Guilt • Detecting Emotion in Others: ? Expressive behavior implies emotion. ? Nonverbal communication: Gestures can relay how someone is. ? We get a lot of information from the eye of others. ? We can gather information from tiny details. ? Research shows that we are primed quickly to negative emotions. ? Introverts tend to excel at reading others’ emotions. ? Extraverts are generally easier to read. • Effects of Facial Expressions: ? Facial feedback effect: An study to change someone’s mood.
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