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Human Evolution Exam 1 Study Guide

by: Mallori Albright

Human Evolution Exam 1 Study Guide ANTH-UA 2

Marketplace > New York University > Anthropology > ANTH-UA 2 > Human Evolution Exam 1 Study Guide
Mallori Albright

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study guide covering all concepts for midterm on October 13th
Human Evolution
Scott Alan Williams
Study Guide
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Mallori Albright on Sunday October 9, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ANTH-UA 2 at New York University taught by Scott Alan Williams in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 192 views. For similar materials see Human Evolution in Anthropology at New York University.

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Date Created: 10/09/16
Anthropology:  the  study  of  the  evolution  and  culture  of  humans  and  other  primates.  Subfields  are   biological,  sociocultural,  linguistics,  and  archaeology.     • Primate:  member  of  mammalian  order;  primates  defined  by  series  of  traits  (all  shared)   • Hominin:  member  of  our  (direct)  lineage —humans  and  their  fossil  ancestors  after  their   evolutionary  split  from  apes   • Hominid:  humans  and  great  apes   • Evolution:  change  in  the  frequency  of  a  gene  or  trait  over  generations  (descent  with   modification)   • Culture:  the  sum  total  of   a  group’s  learned  traditions   • Biological  anthropology:  study  of  evolution  as  it  relates  to  human  species,  diversity,  or  indirectly   o Osteology:  study  of  skeletal  biology   o Paleoanthropology:  study  of  fossil  record  of  ancestral  humans  and  primate  relatives   o Bio  archaeology:  study  of  human  remains  in  archaeological  context   o Forensic  anthropology:  study  of  human  remains  applied  to  a  legal  context   o Primatology:  study  of  living,  non -­‐human  primates  and  anatomy,  genetics,  behavior,  and   ecology   o Human  biology:  study  of  human  growth  and  development,  adaptation  and  variation,   nutrition   o Molecular  anthropology:  study  of  genetics  in  humans  and  non -­‐human  primates   • Sociocultural  anthropology;  study  of  human  societies  in  cross -­‐cultural  perspective   o Theory   § Ethnology:  the  comparison  of  e thnographies  (cross-­‐cultural)   § Ethnography:  description  of  customs  of  individual  people  or  cultures   o Study  topics:  colonialism,  nationalism,  gender  and  sexuality,  feminism,  religion,  politics   and  law,  media,  etc.   • Linguistic  anthropology:  study  of  language;  it s  origin  and  use   • Archaeology:  study  of  material  culture  of  past  peoples   o Artifacts:  the  objects;  from  tools  to  art ,  left  by  earlier  groups  of  people   o Historical:  written  records  and  traditions  and  prehistorical  archaeology   Vertebrates:  animals  with  a  backbon e;  Tetrapods:  vertebrates  with  limbs;  Amniotes:  tetrapods  with   an  amniotic  egg  (amnion).     Incomplete  list  of  shared  derived  traits  to  know  for  the  exam:   o Mammals:     o Mammary  glands  (not  all  mammals  have  nipples)     o Hair  (all  mammals  have  hair)   o Heterodonty  (differentiation  of  teeth)   Primates   o All  primates  derived  traits:   o Nails     o Grasping  hands  and  feet   o Derived  traits:   st o  1  digit  opposability     § Pollex  on  hand   § Hallux  on  foot  (not  humans)   o Convergent  orbits  and  postorbital  bar  or  closure     o Reduced  snout  and  olfactory  bulb     o Increase  in  overall  brain  size.   st 1  major  division  of  primates:  Lemurs  and  lorises     o Strepsirrhines  (wet  noses)     o Grooming/toilet  claw  (hind  limb)   o Tooth  comb:  4  teeth  at  lower  jaw  for  grooming   2  major  division  of  primates:   Tarsiers  and  anthropoids     1.  Tarsiers   o Nocturnal   o Haplorrhines  (dry  nose)   o Loss  or  rhinarium   o Increased  postorbital  closure  (partial  closure  in  tarsiers)   o Because  they  have  no  eye  shine,  they  have  big  eyeballs   2.  Anthropoids   o Closed  orbit  (complete   postorbital  closure)   o Further  increase  in  brain  size.   o Old  World  monkeys  and  apes     o Catarrhines:  loss  of  a  premolar     § Dental  formula:   § Cercopithecoids:  tall,  crested  (bilophodont)  molars  [vs.  hominoids,  which  have   simple,  rounded  molars]   o Apes  and/including  humans  (hominoids):     § Loss  of  tail     § Upright  body  plan     • Mobile  shoulder   • Wrist  joints   • Long  arms   • Short  trunk/torso.   Summary  of  primate  biogeography   • Lemurs:  Madagascar   • Lorises:  Mainland  African  and  SE  Asia   • Tarsiers:  SE  Asia   • New  World  monkeys:  Central  &  South  A merica   • Old  World  monkeys:  Africa  and   Eurasia   • Nonhuman  apes:     o Gibbons  and  orangutans:  SE  Asia   o Gorillas,  chimpanzees,  bonobos:  Africa   Mating  systems   Monogamy   • Pair-­‐bonded  groups  (male,  female,  dependent  offspring)   o Lifetime  monogamy:  mating  pairs  are  stable  over  lifetime   o Sexual  monogamy:  mating  pairs  are  stable  over  breeding  season   o Relatively  rare  in  mammals  (less  than  59%;  common  in  birds,  more  than  90%)   • Primate  example:   o Gibbons   Polygyny   • Polygamy:  any  mating  system  that’s  not  monogamy   o 1  male,  multi-­‐female   o Most  common  mammalian  patterns   o 2  main  types  in  primates:   § Female  defined  polygyny:  males  guard  cluster  of  females  (“harem”)   • Primate  example:  gorillas   § Dispersed  mating  (solitary)   • Can  be  polygynandry   • Primate  example:  orangutans   Polyandry   • 1  female,  mutli-­‐male   • Primate  example:   o Some  marmosets  and  tamarins   o Facultative  polyandry   o Related  to  twinning?     Polygynandry   • Mutli-­‐male/multi-­‐female   • Promiscuous  mating  (loaded  term)   • Primate  example:   o Chimps  and  bonobos   o Macaques   Primate  diets:  most  primates  are  generalists;  diet  affects  day/home  range   • Fruit  (Frugivory)   o Patchy  distribution  in  time  and  space  (some  trees  =fruit,  some  don’t;  depends  on   season)   o Easy  to  digest   o High  carbs,  low  protein   • Seeds  (Gramnivory)   o Tougher  to  process   • Flowers/nectar  (Nectivory)   o Like  fruit,  patchy  in  time  and  space  (similar  to  fruit)   • Leaves  and  stems  (Folivory)   o High  protein,  low  carbs   o Abundant  (more  than  fruit)  but  harder  to  digest   • Exudates—gum  and  sap  (Gumnivory)   o Requires  specialized  feeding  adaptations  (tusk -­‐like  incisors)   • Tubers,  roots,  bulbs,  etc.   o Important  for  savannas   o Requires  work  to  acquir e  and  ingest  (dig;  difficult  to  digest)   • Animal  matter  (Faunivory)   o Includes  invertebrates  and  vertebrates   o Good  source  of  energy  but  hard  to  catch     • Other   o Grass  (grass  seeds)   § Geladas   o Bark   § Orangutans   Body  size  and  diet:     • Larger  animalsàabsolutely  more  food,  relatively  less  energy,  lower  quality  foods  (leaves)     • Small  animalsàabsolutely  less  food,  relatively  more  energy,  highe r  quality  foods  (e.g.,  insects)   Primate  biomes  and  environments   Tropical  biomes   • Majority  of  primate  species   • Largely  defined  by  latitude  (ne ar  equator)   Tropical  rainforest   • Defined  by  latitude  and  rainfall   • No  water  and  summer—just  rainy  seasons   • Always  some  trees  fruiting  all  year  round   Tropical  seasonal  forests   • More  variable  rainfall  throughout  year   • Some  trees  will  lose  leaves   • Less  extensive  canopy   Other  tropical  biomes  occupied  by  primates   • Savanna   o Grasslands  with  some  trees/shrubs   o Primates  only  found  in  African  savannas   • Woodlands,  thorn  woods,  shrub  lands   o Areas  between  forest  and  savanna   • Habitats  based  on  water   o Coastal   o Mangrove   o Swamp   o Riverine   • Bamboo  forests   Temperate  biomes   • Very  few  genera  found  outside  tropics   o Some  macaques:  Japanese  snow  monkeys  and  Barbary  macaques   o Some  leaf-­‐eating  monkeys   Why  are  primates  social?  Why  live  in  groups?   • Anti-­‐predation  strategies   o Increased  vigilance  (awareness)   o Cooperative  defense   § “mobbing”  (group  defense)   o Alarm  calls     o Dilution  effect  (so  many;  predator’s  confused  and  can’t  focus  on  one)   o “selfish  herd”  (healthy  animals  protected;  leave  older,  or  young,  animals)   o predator  confusion   • Foraging:  finding  and  accessing  food   o More  eyes  to  find  food   o More  efficient  foraging   o Competition  for  resources   § Defense  of  takeover  of  food  patches/territory   § Cooperation  in  hunting   o Limited  resources   § More  resources  necessary   § more  competition  over  resources   § more  conspicuousness  to  prey   § more  territory  for  nesting  sites,  food,  water,  etc.   • Social  interaction   o Access  to  mates   o Assistance  in  child-­‐rearing   o More  learning  opportunities   o Information  sharing   o Cooperation/coalitions   o Presence  of  males  =  protection  form  predators   o Costs:  social  conflicts  and  disea se   § High  risk  of  disease   § Social  conflicts   § Competition  for  mates   § Aggression   § Presence  of  males  =  infanticide   • Infanticide  =  highest  cause  of  infant  mortality  in   mountain  gorillas   Phylogeny  (a  hypothesis  of  evolutionary  relationships)  vs.  taxonomy  (the  classifi cation  system  used)   o Phylogeny  =  hypothesis  because  information  is  always  changing   o Taxonomy  =  best  when  reflects  phylogeny   Catastrophism  (one  or  more  disasters  created  features  on  the  earth  in  a  short  time)  vs.   Uniformitarianism  (geological  processes  acting  today  were  acting  in  the  past;  the  earth  is  ancient)   o Catastrophism:  relatives  in  different  climates  experienced  biological  changes  due  to  new   environments   o Extinction  as  evidence  for  catastrophic  disasters  that  wiped  out  past  life  forms;  new   creations/migrations  replaced  them   o No  framework  for  mechanism  of  change   o American  degeneracy  (WRONG)   § Animals  in  the  Americas  degenerate  into  lesser  forms   o Uniformitarianism:  geological  processes  are  uniform  over  time;  slow,  gradual  changes  suggest   ancient  age  of  Earth   o Lyell’s  Principles  of  Geology:  major  evolutionary  influence   Typology  and  essentialism   (the  Greeks)  vs.  population  thinking  (i.e.,  emphasis  on  variation  –  Darwin)   • Plato  and  Aristotle’s  essentialism   o Early  attempt  at  understanding  and  ordering  the  natural  world   § The  eidos  (idea  or  type)  is  the  only  thing  that  is  fixed  and  real   o Gaps  in  nature  are  real  and  represent  discontinuities  between  types   § Immutability  of  species:  an  unalterable  fixity  of  essence   • Typological  thinking  and  the  great  chain  of  being   o Scala  naturae:  the  great  chain  of  being   § Life  arranged  in  orderly,  hierarchical  order   § Humans  at  the  top,  various  groups  below:   • Beasts  (mammals)   • Birds   • Fish   • Reptiles   • Insects   • Plants   • Minerals   • Carl  von  Linne,  Systema  Naturae  (book)   o Orders  primates;  first  time  humans  are  with   mammalian  order   § Humans  in  Hominidae;  great  apes  in  Pongidae   § Binomial  nomenclature;  genus  and  species   Inheritance  of  acquired  characteristics  (Lamarck)  vs.  natural  selection  (Darwin)  and  particulate   inheritance  (aka  Genetics  –  Mendel)   • Jean-­‐Baptiste  Lamarck   o Change  in  individual’s  lifetime  through  use  or  disuse   o Acquired  or  lost  traits  are  passed  to  next WRONGneration  =   § Ex:  giraffes  with  longer  necks   • Evolution  by  natural  selection:   o Lamarck’s  theory:  variation  is  acquired   o Darwin’s  theory:  variation  is  inherit ed   o Variation  is  the  key   o Differential  survival  and  reproduction   • Gregor  Mendel   o Demonstrated  particulate  inheritance:  the  concept  of  heredity  based  on  transmission  of   genes   § Common  garden  peas—dichotomous  variation;  independent  traits  are  bred   true—produce  strains  of  plants  that  resembled  their  parents’  generation  after   generation   Homology  (a  trait  shared  from  common  descent)  vs.  Homoplasy  (conve rgent  or  independent   evolution)   • Homology:  similarity  of  traits  resulting  from  shared  ancestry,  a  result  of  descent  wi th   modification   o Ex:  humans  are  similar  to  birds   o Different  from  each  other  but  with  similar  base   • Convergence  (analogy,  homoplasy);  appearance  of  similar  traits  due  to  similar  use,  not  common   ancestry   o Wings  in  insects,  birds,  bats   o Warm-­‐bloodedness  (endotherm y)  in  birds  and  mammals   o In  contrast  to  homology   “Ontogeny”  does  not  “recapitulate  phylogeny”   –  development  proceeds  from  general  to  specific   • Ernst  Haeckel  (1834-­‐1919)   o Ontogeny  recapitulates  phylogeny:  independent  development  retraces  the  evolutionary   history  of  a  species  (ex:  fish,  amphibian  stages)   o Ontogeny:  growth  and  development   § Ex:  see  embryo  pass  through  different  evolutionary  stages  =     WRONG     • Karl  Ernst  von  Baer  (1792-­‐1876)   o Primary  germ  layers;  all  organism  made  with  same  tissues   o Von  Baer’s  law  of  development  proceeds  from  general  to  specific   Steroid  hormones:  androgens,  estrogens,  gonad  and  genital  formation,  secondary  sexual   characteristics   Steroid  hormones   • Gonads  (ovaries  or  testes)  create  androgens   • Androgens  can  then  be  converted  into  estrogens   • Estrogens  and  androgens  are  present  in  males  and  females  at  different  concentrations   • Androgen   o Converted  from  progestin  in  gonads   o Testosterone  in  primary  androgen   o Necessary  for  penis  formation  and  spermatogenesis  (sperm  creation)   o Influence  male  secondary  sexual  characteristics—pattern  and  density  of  body  hair;   comb  size  in  roosters;  antler  growth  in  deer,  etc.     o Behavior  effects—mating,  aggression,  etc.     • Estrogen   o Converted  from  androgen  in  gonads   o If  excess  androgens  are  produced  and  not  immediately  converted  to   estrogen,  they  can   affect  female  physiology  and  behavior   o Influence  genital  tract  formation  (ex:  uterus  size)   o Influence  female  secondary  sexual  characteristics  (ex:  breasts)   o Influence  sexual  behavior  and  maternal  aggression   Why  chromosomes  don’t  necessarily  determine  sex  (and  certainly  not  sexuality  or  gender).  Think   androgen  insensitivity,  adrenal  hyperplasia,  and  XO,  XXY,  and  other  nondisjunction  errors   • Complete  androgen  insensitivity  syndrome   o XY  but  inability  to  respond  to  androgen   o Manifests  in  undescende d  testicles  and  “feminized”  genitalia   o Intersex   • Congenital  adrenal  hyperplasia   o XX  with  oversized,  overactive  adrenal  glands   o Can  result  in  male  sexual  characteristics  (external  genitalia,  facial  hair,  etc.)   • 5-­‐alpha-­‐reductase  deficiency  (testes  descend  at  age  12)   • sex-­‐chromosome  variants:   o XO  (Turner’s  syndrome):  only  1  sex  chromosome   o XXY  (Kleinfelter’s  syndrome):  trisomy  of  sex  chromosomes   o XYY   Adaptive  radiation  and  island  biogeography   –  e.g.,  Galapagos  tortoises  and  finches   • Adaptive  radiation:  diversification   from  one  founding  species  into  man  species  occupying   different  niches     o Galapagos  Finches:     § Beak  differences   • Cactus  finch:  long  beak   • Ground  finch;  short  beak   • Tree  finch:  parrot-­‐shaped  beak  for  stripping   o Galapagos  tortoises   § Giant  tortoises  vary  in  shell  shap es   • Dome-­‐shaped  on  lush  islands   • Saddle-­‐shaped  on  arid  islands   Artificial  selection  as  a  special  type  of  natural  selection  in  which  humans  select  wh ich  plants  or   animals  reproduce   • Artificial  selection:  process  by  which  humans  select  which  member  of  a  species  reproduce   o Farmers  select  for  certain  features  in  plants  (seeds,  stems,  leaves,  fruit)   o Animal  breeders  select  for  woolier  coats,  milk  or  meat  production,  etc.   • Natural  selection  but  humans  are  doing  it   Preformationism  vs.  blending  inheritance  vs.  epigenesis t  (formation  of  a  zygote  –  fertilized  egg)   • Preformationism:   WRONG   o Tiny  version  of  fully  formed  individual  in  sex  cells  (homunculus)   o Problems:   1. Infinite  homunculi   2. Hybrid  domestic  animals   o Eventually  replaced  by  the  concept  of  epigenesist:  an  organism  develops  from  a   fertilized  egg   • Darwin’s  blending  inheritance:  uniform  blend  or  parents’  phenotypes  (outward  appearance)  are   passed  on  to  offspring     o Problem:  fitness  effects  of  1  parent  would  be  blended  out  by  the  other  parent;  this   diminishment  continues  with  offs pring     o Variation  can’t  be  maintained  in  this  way   DNA  replication,  transcription,  translation,  prot ein  synthesis,  mitosis,  meiosis   • DNA  replication   o Occurs  during  cell  division   o Enzyme  separates  bonds—DNA  is  “unzipped”   o Assembly  of  complementary  nucleotides   o 1  parent  DNA  strand  into  2  daughter  strands   • Protein  synthesis:  assembly  of  proteins  from  amino  acids,  which  occur  at  ribosomes  in   cytoplasm  via  mRNA   A. Transciption  (in  nucleus)   1. DNA  unzips   2. RNA  strand  forms  and  copies  DNA   3. mRNA  leaves  nucleus  and  goes  to  ribosome   B. Translation  (in  ribosome)                1.  mRNA  binds  to  ribosome                2.  ribosome  reads  codon  1  by  1                3.  tRNA  brings  coded  for  amino  acid  for  each  codon   a. Protein  chain  formed               • Mitosis:  somatic  cell  division  that  results  in  formation  of  2ls;  1  diploid  cell  to  2   diploid  cells   • Meiosis:  sex  cell  division  in  testes  and  ovaries;  results  in  genetically  distinct  gametes;  1  diploid   cell  to  4  haploid  cells -­‐mitosis_meiosis.gif     • Locus:  location  of  a  gene  on  chromosome   • Allele:  variant  form  of  a  gene   o Homozygous:  same  allele  at  both  loci  of  gene   o Heterozygous:  2  different  alleles  at  loci  of  gene   • Dominant:  allele  always  expressed  when  present   • Recessive:  masked  allele  when  dominant  allele  is  pres ent     • Codominant:  the  alleles  are  co-­‐expressed;  neither  is  dominant   o Ex:  ABO  blood  system     • Punnett  square   Forces  of  evolution   • Gene  flow:  exchange  of  genetic  material  between  populations  (admixtu re)   o Migration  with  reproduction   o High  genetic  relatedness  between  populations   o Introduce  new  genotypes  and  phenotypes  to  populations   o High  variation  within,  low  variation  between   § Populations  within  a  species  (generally)   • Mutation:  errors  during  DNA  replication  =  random  alterations  in  DNA  sequence   o Mutations  in  non -­‐coding  regions  are  neutral   o Mutations  in  coding  regions  are  neutral  or  good/bad   o Mutations  in  gametes  are  passed  on   o Ultimate  source  of  novel  genetic  variation   NO  MUTATION  =  NO  VARIATION  =  NO  EVOLUTION   • Genetic  drift:  random  changes  in  gene  frequencies  in  population  due  to  random  sampling;   neutral  theory   o Effect  inversely  proportional  to  population  size;  strongest   in  small  population   o Effect  often  greater  over  longer  time  periods   o Random:  no  directionality   o Fixation  or  disappearance  of  alleles   § Can’t  affect  population  quickly   o Ex:  Bottleneck:  dramatic  drop  in  population  size   § Results  in  low  genetic  variation   § Long,  slow  process  of  mutation  accumulation  to  rebuild  genetic  diversity   § Disease  threat  (anti-­‐disease  resistance)   o Ex:  Founder  effect:  new  populations  that  become  isolated  from  their  parent  populati on   and  carry  a  subset  of  genetic  variation   • Natural  selection:  differential  survival  and  reproduction   o Acts  on  phenotype,  not  genotype   o Directional  selection:  selection  against  1  extreme   o Stabilizing  selection:  selection  against  both  extremes  (or  average)   • Genetic  drift  and  natural  selection   o Drift:  strongest  in  small  populations  over  long  time  periods   o Selection:  can  be  strong  in  large  populations  over  short  time  periods   § Ex:  stabilizing  selection:  7  vertebrae  in  mammals   Darwin’s  theory  of  evolution  +  Mendel’s  theory  of  inheritance  =  Evolutionary  synthesis    


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