Critical Popular Music Studies Midterm Studyguide
Critical Popular Music Studies Midterm Studyguide ARTS 031
Popular in Critical Popular Music Studies
Popular in Arts and Humanities
PHYS 201 002
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Date Created: 10/09/16
GASP 31 Midterm Study Guide Early History, Tin Pan Alley, and the Modern Music Industry Minstrel Show o A type of variety show popular in the US in the nineteenth century o Used stereotypes and caricatures of African American culture o They used burnt cork to blacken their faces for performers. o “Blackface minstrelsy” Racist form of entertainment Instruments they used was banjo and the fiddle Songs written in heavy dialect and portrayed Americans as unintellectual and doing hard labor. Stephen Foster (18261864) o America’s first composer o Professional songwriter o Wrote minstrel songs and sentimental ballads Old Folks at Home(1851) o Heavy dialect o Broken language o Promotes characters as uneducated. o Written in the eyes of an enslaved person with feelings. o Theatrical voice style Tin Pan Alley o Centralized US popular business as the ascendancy of vaudeville o Close connection between stage and publishing trade o Song pluggers singing a song over and over to set people to buy songs so no one can escape it. Trying to write music for the next hit song in a concentrated area o Catered to popular tastesunprecented stylistic homogeneity in music. o Graceful waltzes, ballads, and spirited marches o Dominated by JewishAmerican songwriters Charles K. Harris o Sentimental ballad o Hit of the decade (1890s) o $25,000/month from the sales of the sheet music. o After the Ball(1892) The story of an old man seeing his lover dancing with someone else is sung by a female singer. Musical Terms o Melody An organized series or succession of pitches. o Accompaniment A supporting musical part. o Rhythm A temporal aspect of music; how music unfolds in time. o Beat Basic unit of measurement for time in music; regular occurrence of short pulses. o Accent Emphasis or stress placed on some beats o Meter A background of stressed and unstressed beats in a simple, regular, repeating pattern. John Philip Sousa (18471931) o The March King o “The Star and Stripes Forever” (1897) Used a large band to perform Tin Pan Alley Hits. Popularized music. Worried the impact of recording would have on our natural singing voice Thomas Edison (18471931) o American inventor with laboratories in New Jersey. o Invented the lightbulb. o Experiments with the telegraph led to experiments in sound. o Resulted in the phonograph. First sound recorded was “Mary had a little lamb.” Phonographs were very fragile and only lasted a few times. Proposed list of propose uses for the talking machine such as: Connection with telephone Preservation of language Clocks Reproduction of music Irving Berlin(18881989) o Most successful songwriter of the 20 century o King of Ragtime o Wrote for broadway musicals o Musically illiterate Alexander’s Ragtime Band” by Irving Berlin(1911)Performed by Betsie Smith(1927) o Piano and brass instruments. Trombone, trumpet, and clarinet. o Advertising what the band was about. o Instruments has a sense of independence New Orleans Style Ragtime o Evolved from the cakewalk o Precursor to jazz o Style of piano playing developed by black musicians playing in bars, dives, and brothels. o Syncopation The accenting of certain beats of the meter that are ordinarily unaccented. Race Records, Hillbilly, and Audience Demographics Mamie Smith (18831946) o Demonstrated untapped market for black musicians. “Crazy Blues” Mamie Smith (1920) by Perry Bradford o Theatrical vaudeville voice o Call and response with the singer and the voice. o New Orleans Jazz Band. o Shift from minstrelsy to something more professional. o Black face minstrelsy shows racism still continuing. Blues o Emerges at the same time as ragtime o Improvised music of African origin o W.C Handy: “Father of Blues” o Musical characteristics: 3 line verse form, call and response; flatted thirds and sevenths o Blues form: 3, 4bar phrases Poetry Astatement Arestatement Banswer o Specific chord progression(only uses 3 chords) IIII IV IV II V V I I Blind Lemon Jefferson(18931930) o King of the Country Blues o Influences every country blue artists of the 1920s. o Paid flat fee; studios and records get the benefit. o Influential to rock music. o Ralph Peer was most associated with field recordings finding different musicians in rural areas to record. “Match Box Blues”(1927) Blind Lemon Jefferson o AAB form o Southern like tone o Sparse texture singer doing two jobs. Vocal and guitar. o Rough and gritty voice o Lack of regular beat shows informality The Carter Family (192756) o “Wildwood Flower (1928) Classified as oldtime/hillbilly Prominent southern accents Used an autoharp String band instruments/microphones Folk lyrics passed down orally Jimmie Rodgers (18971933) o “The Singing Brakman o The first star of country music o Popularized yodeling Blue Yodel No.9 (Standing on the Corner) (1931) o Southern accent o Defines his own music that does not fit in the known categories at the time. o Piano/Trumpet played by Louis Armstrong and Lillian Hardin Big Band, Crooners, and Mass Culture (Swing Era) Popular between 193545 Mixture of blues, jazz, and Tin Pan Alley Dominated top sellers End came to rise in solo vocalist. Fletcher Henderson (18971952) and His Orchestra o American pianist and band leader o Led the most commercially successful of the African American jazz bands of the 1920s o Played at the Roseland Ballroom in Midtown o “Sugar Foot Stomp” (1925) o Uncrowned King of Swing Highlighted the vocalized appeal of race records for black consumers. Paul Whiteman (18901967) o “King of Jazz” o Experiments in Modern Music concert Aeolian Hall in NY in 1924. Featured George Gershwin’s “Rhapsody in Blue” for jazz band and piano Concert “to show the development of jazz” “Whispering” (1920) o Tried to make jazz safe which paved the way for the swing era. Rhapsody in Blue. King of Jazz (1930) o Huge production spectacle o Feels like a play o Idea that certain cultures are primitive. Bing Crosby (19031977) o Most popular media star of the 1 half of the 20 century; worked in radio, on recordings, and film o Baritone singer; “Crooner” o Understood the strength of the medium if radio o Sang with Paul Whiteman’s Orchestra in his early career o Crooning into the microphone to amplify his voice 32 bar song form (or AABA) o A statement 8 bars o A repetition 8 bars o B contrasts 8 bars o A statement 8 bars “Ol Man River (1927) Music by Jerome Kern Lyrics by Oscar Hammerstein II o Instruments are the main focused then the singer. o We hear different instruments take the roles of the song, taking turns to play the music. Frank Sinatra (19151998) o Baritone vocalist o Achieved first success in early 1940s as a vocalist with the Dorsey band o First pop vocalist to emphasize young fandoms. Bobby sockers o 194345 #1 in Hit Parade “I’ll Be Seeing You” (1940) o Soothing voice o Crooner o Swing Tom Dorsey and his Orchestra o Trombonist and important bandleader of the swing era Benny Goodman (19091986) o “King of Swing” o Clarinet player o Led a big band as well as smaller combos o Found audience in LA o His band performed on national TV in 1935. Benny Goodman Quartet, “Dinah” o Personnel: Benny Goodman, clarinet Lionel Hampton, vibraphone Teddy Wilson, piano Gene Krupa, drums o Label: Victor, 1936 o Style: Small combo swing o Form: 32 bar popular song (AABA) R&B, Country, and Western, and Novelty PreRock ‘n’ Roll Hits R&B (Rhythm and Blues) o Replaced “Race Music” in 1949 o Driving rhythms, small combos, backbeat, sexual content o Supported by man small independent record labels post WWII Atlantic Records, New York Ahmet Ertegun King Records, Cincinnati Syd Nathan Chess Records, Chicago Leonard and Phil Chess Louis Jordan and his Tympani Five (19081975) o Jump blues band leader and saxophonist o Defined instrumentation of small R&B combos o Decca Records “Choo Choo Ch’ Boogie” (1946) o Sold a million copies o Alto/tenor saxophone, guitar, bass, drums, piano. o Upbeat/Boogie woogie bass Wynonie Harris (19151969) o Mr Blues o King Records o Offered a blueprint for rock and roll artists a few years later. “Good Rockin Tonight(1948) Wynonie Harris o Back beat hand claps used for R&B and Rock and Roll. o Raspy voice Ruth Brown (19282006) o Influential R&B singer of the 1950s o Atlantic Records: “The House the Ruth Built” Ahmet Ertegun o “Teardrops from My Eyes” Topped R&B charts for 11 weeks in 1950. Went through a process (9 year ordeal) to gain access to their royalties. Expressive on how she is singing, minstrelsy reference Vocalist and instrumental balance Compelled to do this to her audience Country and Western o Replaced “hillbilly” records in the 1940s o Associated with the major recording companies such as MGM Records and Mercury Records Hank Williams (19231953) o “Father of Country Music” o Singersongwriter o Worked with MGM records in 1947 o Exhibited violent/selfdestructive behavior o “Hey, Good Lookin” (1951) AABA form Southern drawl Used pedal steel String band Takes inspiration from the blues Les Paul and Mary Ford o Overdubbing Single most important technology of recording separate tracks to layer into sounds is how popular music today is still being made. Early example of using this technology to make music. Patti Page (19272013) o Bestselling female singer of the 1950s o Known for her recordings of novelty adult pop songs o First pop vocalist to overdub harmony vocals o Mercury Records “Tennessee Waltz” (1950) o Harmonize vocals and multitracking o Recordings as snapshots of a performance, changes our relationship to the voice being the artwork itself rather than the performance. Elvis Presley, Cover Versions, and Appropriation Magnetic Tape o Can be edited, sliced, less expensive, durable, and sounded better which was being used by the Nazis. Transistor Radio o Receivers that help allow teenagers listen to music as a consumer market. o 45s are single records that marketed towards teenagers Record companies and public places introduce jukeboxes. Television becomes viable in the 1950s Atlantic Records o Founded in 1946 by Ahmet Ertegun o By early 1950s, most important R and B label in the country o Jerry Wexler, Artists and Repertoire (A and R) Ruth helped establish this label. King Records o Cincinnati o Started by Syd Nathan in 1945 o Produced R&B and Country and Western with equal success Launched career of Ruth Brown Blackboard Jungle (1955) o Rebellious teenagers against adults and authority o Dancing to music that was scandalous o First time market focuses on the youth market Comparison of “Shake Rattle and Roll” o Big Joe Turner “Boss of the Blues Innuendo: “Way you wear those dresses, the sun come shinin’ through, I can’t believe my eyes, all that mess belongs to you,” R&B 12 bar blues Backbeat Handclaps Piano, sax solo o Bill Haley and His Comets Sanitized lyrics: “Wearin’ those dresses, your hair done up so nice, You look so warm, but your heart is cold as ice.” Group singing in chorus Sax starts Tempo(faster) Diction Bill Haley and His Comets o First major white rock n roll act to reach the mainstream with R&B and C&W fusion that, by 1956, was referred to as Rockabilly. o Unlikely rock n rock star: balding, over 30. o Cleaned up Big Joe Turner’s “Shake, Rattle, and Roll” First million seller Appropriation o Steal Culture o Taking idea and claiming it o Musical/Cultural plagerism o False/Appreciation o Borrow/Share o Improve/Steal culture o Admire Little Richard (b.1926) o Chess Records o Promoted on air by DJ, Alan Freed o Not given the title of King due to his race, several songs turned down because he sounded to country or black. o “Uncrowned King of Rock N Roll” Maybellene Chuck Berry(1955) o Famous for his duckwalk o Electric solo showed off his skills Rockabilly o 1950s genre typically sung by white Southern men familiar with both blues and country styles o Band: lead electric guitar, acoustic rhythm guitar, slapped upright bass, and drum kit o Wild, sexy intense singing o Sam Philips at Sun Records in Memphis (Elvis, Johnny Cash, Roy Orbison, Jerry Lee Lewis, Carl Perkins) Big Mama Thorton o “Hound Dog” was only national hit she had. o Written by Leiber and Stoller o Elvis version outsold her by a lot Elvis Presley o Learned to play the guitar at a young age o Circus introduced him to Delta man o Associated with Sam Philips o Enlisted in the army which lead rock n roll to a standstill between 19581960. o 19601967 is when he started his film career o Died in Memphis because of drugs and being overweight “Jailhouse Rock (1957) o Synchronize music o Comes out same year as “West Side Story” o Inspiring moral panic of being free to move your body. o Stage production only performed by men. The “InBetween Years,” Youth Culture Takes place between 1958/1959 – 1963/1964 Music historians say nothing important happened in this era End of Rock N Roll o Elvis goes to the army. o Little Richard goes to Bible college o Chuck Berry goes to jail. Buddy Holly (19361964) o Buddy Holly and The Trickets o Popularity happened in less than two months. o R&B and Blues o Decca Records (1956) Wrote their own original songs o Joe Mauldin, bass o Buddy Holly, lead vocals and guitar o Jerry Allison, drums All band members died in a plane crash. Peggy Sue – Buddy Holly (1957) o Low and constant percussion sound o Mimicking and experimenting sound by cutting air. o Combination of guitar, bass, drums, and vocals. Model of Rock Music Used timbre which is a unique quality of sound particular to any given instrument or voice. Ritchie Valens (19411959) o Pioneering blend of rock n roll and Latin music o Influenced by Little Richard, Rockabilly, and Latin music. o Recorded in 1958 “La Bamba” La Bamba(1958) o Used electric bass which was new at the time o Hailed as Rock n Roll teen idol. o Toured with Buddy Holly to hit the road tour to reach midwestern states in 3 weeks. o Cold condition and bus stops; Buddy Holly decided to book a plane where all 4 passenger had died, The Day Music Died Chubby Checker, “The Twist” (1960) o Urges people to loosen up, feeling sense of freedom Girl Groups o More black artists appeared on year end charts in 1962 than any other year, thanks to girl groups o Associated with Brill Building songwriters o Young teenage women singing, syncopated rhythm, rebellious, and giving girls voice with sexuality. Brill Building, 1619 Broadway, New York, NY o By 1962, there were over 169 music businesses in the building. o Many music businesses come in during the Great Depression. o Housed many girl groups The Shirelles o First hit song was “I Met Him on a Sunday” Written by Carole King and Gerry Goffin #1 on pop chart>first for a female group #2 on R&B chart Will You Love Me Tomorrow (1960) o Sense of maturity in the song o String instruments convey seriousness o Expressing sense of desire to homosexual desire but also shows what may be the consequences o Drum beat was a syncopation The Ronettes o “Be My Baby” (1963) was their first hit single Written by Jeff Barry and Ellie Greenwich Produced by Phil Spector o Formed in NY, inspired by girl groups o When they met Phil Spector, they signed them. o Not the most commercially successful o Phil Spector cantered a sort of incredible sound known as the “Wall of Sound” Be My Baby (1963) o Syncopated drum pattern o Phil Spector concentrates on echoey sound o Many instruments layered together. Phil Spector o Released records at a very slow pace for the time o Produced girl group like the Ronettes and the Crystals, and “Blueeyed soul” of Righteous Bros. o Phillies Records Phil Spector’s Wall of Sound o Background dancers elevated o Singers have carefully coordinated dance movements o Independent dancing; sense of freedom o Less clothing; rebellious The ShangriLas o Leiber and Stoller’s Red Bird Label o Based in New York o White girl group o Aspect of conversation in the song>Advice song “Leader of the Pack” (1964) o Written by Ellie Greenwich and Jeff Barry o Tragic song ends with a motorcycle crash Motown o Detroit, Michigan o Hillsville, USA Studios o Mimicking assimilation of popular music o Founded by Berry Gordy, a black business owner Recording label, studio, and publishing sheet. Integrate dancing into pop. Surf Rock o Not seen as important by critics o Music for partying and going in the beach “Dead Man’s Curve” Jon and Dean>Splatter Platter o Falsetto male singing o Rise in crashes in car culture for young people as a sense of freedom The Ventures o Example of surf rock The Beatles, British Invasion, and Female Sexuality British Invasion o Influx of British bands kicked off by the success of the Beatles in 1964, o Refers to British Bands including: Gerry and The PeacemakersLiverpool The KinksLondon The HolliesManchester The Yardbirds London and Syrie o JFK assassination led to uplifting in music The Beatles o John Lennon vocals, rhythm guitar (19401980) o Paul McCartney vocals, bass (b.1942) o George Harrison lead guitar, vocals (19432001) o Ringo Starr drums, vocals (1940) Wrote their own songs; originality becomes important From Liverpool, rock n roll flourished with US businesses sending records Played genre of skiffle, then became Beatles in 1960. The Cavern Club, Liverpool o British youth dominated by youth subcultures o Mods and rockers invested in this music, Beatles said they were Mockers o Played and formed identity as a band o George Martin was their producer and encouraged them to write their own song Known as the fifth Beatle April 9, 1964 o Top 5 spots are songs by the Beatles; unprecedented takeover of the charts o Toured in the U.S in 1964 o “Please, Please, Me” 73 million viewers tuned into the Ed Sulevavan Show “The Fab Four” o From Liverpool, England o First performed as the Quarrymen o Managed by Britain Enstein o Recorded on Parlophone Record label o Produced by George Martin Twist and Shout (1963) o Recorded in a single day o Last song recorded in session o Harmonies of building up vocals o John Lennon’s raspy voice sounds like shouting Voice was blown; managed to get through one more song o Mix of a lot of genres Blues R&B o Beatles established 2 guitar, bass, and a drum. o Overt call and response o Band broke up in 1970, The Kinks o From London o Led by Ray Davies, writer/vocalist/guitarist o Blues and R&B o “You Really Got Me” (1964) More aggressive than before More present and distorted music, The Yardbirds o Started the careers of 3 of the most famous rock guitarists Eric Clapton Jeff Bek Jimmy Page o “For Your Love”(1965) Vocal harmonization Gerry and the Pacemakers o From Liverpool o Direct competition with the Beatles in London o Managed by same Beatles managers o “From Across The Mercy” Smooth; sounds like a crooner. Experimental like Buddy Holly. Bob Dylan, Folk Rock, and the Question of Authenticity Merging of Rock and Folk in the mid 60s. (196465) Revival of folk music. FolkRock is meaningful poetic lyrics with energy of electrified rock. Authenticity connected to its root and artist’s sincerity Used for protest and opposition. The Animals o R&B o Played House of the Rising Sun which was an early version of folk rock. “House of The Rising Sun” (1964) o Rock band using electric music to simplify sound o About a house in New Orleans o Person struggling in the working class, where father us gambling and mom is a tailor. Woodie Guthrie (19121967) o Influential folk musicians of the folk movement. Bob Dylan influence by Bound for Glory. Pete Seeger (19192014) o Part of the folk quartet o “Turn,turn, turn” Black listed in McCarthy witch hunts Founder of New Port Folk Festival Focused on Folk music Introduced Bob Dylan Newport Folk Festival, Summer 1965 o Traditional songs/working class songs o Acoustic instruments by amateurs o Wide range of musical experience particularly political o Small crowds/sitting down. Peaceful performance o Make themselves relatable to the audience Harry Smith Anthology of American Folk Music (1952) o Folk/Blues/Country o Folkway records o Portrayed 19201930s as golden age of music Bob Dylan o From Duluth. Minnesota o Influenced by folk artists such as Woody Guthrie and Pete Seeger o Began performing at coffeehouses in New York’s Greenwich Village in early 1960s. o Signed by John Hammond, A&R for Columbia Records o Positive review from New York Times sought by John. o Political protest songs in 1962. o Booed up stage at Newport for using an electric band. Folk community didn’t like this Turning back on folk authenticity. Rock music seen as commercial. “Mr. Tambourine Man” (1965) Bob Dylan Recorded by The Byrds o Byrds version is using amplified electric band. Merging of folkrock, potential of being successful. What prompted him to turn his music to folkrock. Betrayal of values for folk community th Bringing It All Back Home (1965) 5 Studio Album o A side: electric “Subterranean Homesick Blues” o B side: acoustic “Mr. Tambourine Man” Moving towards personal experience Birth of Rock Journalism Bob Dylan Press Conference (1965) o Calls his music “mathematical” o Smoking/ under the influence of drugs o Jokes about his answers; evading answers o Doesn’t care what answer he gives o Press trying to pinpoint significance of words o Bob making music to be interpreted, not giving his explanation to what it means. The Band o Initially called “The Hawks: o “Music Fom Big Dink” Album from Bob’s backing band. Simon and Gartunkel o Tom Welson added drums and electric instruments to their acoustic recording. Added without permission. o “Sounds of Silence” Established themselves as folkrock duo. Using music to speak out against political topics. Sounds of Silence Simon and Gurtunkel (1965) o Civil Rights Movement; Act passes. Things don’t change much. Heightened political era. o “People talking without speaking; People hearing without listening.” Festival and Performance Counterculture o Against the status quo o Against social norms o Peace, love, liberal thinking. o Youth o Opposed to conventional or dominant culture o San Francisco Nonviolence; Hippies. Associated with sexual revolution and AntiVietnam War movement. “White Rabbit” Written by Grace Slick; Recorded by Jefferson Avrplane (1967) o Song about widespread use of drugs o Expand your consciousness, escape from reality o Military style percussion; building intensity and suddenly stops. o Sense that music will sound different if your high >cycadelic rock movement Surrealistic Pillow o Blues revival enjoyed white rockers o Reproduce experience of being high. \ The Electric KoolAid Acid Test (Tom Wolfe) o Ken Wesley o Festivals were for capitalism. (Monte Ray Pop) o Beatles take this genre as the first concept album. Meant to be heard as a unified album, not a singles. “Lucy In The Sky with Diamonds” Rock Documentaries o Monterey Pop (1968) D.A. Pennebaker o Woodstock (1969) Michael Wadleigh o Gimmie Shelter (1970) David Maysles, Albert Maysles Monterey International Pop Festivals (1967) o Artist: Tom Wilkes Launched the careers of the Otis Redding, Janis Joplin, and Jimi Hendrix. o Changed to a nonprofit festival. Janis Joplin (19431970) “Ball and Chain” o Demanding attention, expressing emotion through movement and festival. o White females blues singer; died of heroin overdose. o Performance brought her to mainstream. Otis Redding/Jemi Hendricks o Experimented with guitar; to use noise in an expressive way. o Relationship with drums, electric guitar, and sexuality. Jimi Hendrix o Power Trio Hendrix (guitar + vocals) Noel Redding (bass) Mitch Mitchell (drums) o Album: Are You Experienced (1967) Virtuoso showing off their skills on an instrument Hendricks died from drugs in 1970. Distorted sound in a mysterious way. Woodstock o August 1969: Bethel, NY o Max “Yas Gur’s farm o 400000 people attended the festival/ expected 40000 o Insufficient food/water and rain o Celebrated as counterculture’s finest hour. o Seem as temporary peace blueprint for modern society o Defining moment of their generation o Spirit of cooperation The Rolling Stones o Mick Jagger (vocals) o Brian Jones (lead guitar)died in July in a swimming pool. o Keith Richards (Rhythm guitar) o Charlie Watts(Drums) o Bill Wyman (Bass) o Manager: Andrew Long Oldham market and promote o Formed in 1962; first performance in Markee pub. o Started as blues band. First tour in 1964. o Present a rebellious attitude o Altamount event centered this image End in 1969, December Hells Angels as security for beer Last minute changes Misreporting that murder took place in “Sympathy for the Devil. Happened in “Under My Thumb” Rolling Stone (Magazine) o Founded in 1967 in San Francisco by John Weiner and Ralph Gleason o Press tried to distance themselves from implication of the Altamount event o Era where rock criticism is born Many magazines emerge after this. Rock and Sexuality in the 1970s Led Zeppelin o Example of cock rock; aggressiveness of sex. o Jimmy Page(guitar) o Robert Plunt (vocals) o John Paul Jones (bass and keyboards) o John Bonham (drums) Muddy Waters (19151983) o Most important blues artist of postwar era. o Chicago electric blues. o Guitarist, songwriters o Chess records o Moved Deep South Blues o Influenced by Blind Lemon Jefferson. Rolling Stones “Under My Thumb” o Men’s power over woman; boastful o Strutting; prowess o Offensive of genders “You’ve Got a Friend” (1971) o Recorded and written by Carole King on Tapestry Album. o Also recorded by James Taylor in the same year. o Calm and relaxing; piano emphasizes the message o Carole King was a songwriter for the Brill Building. o Signaled retreat from political culture. Genre known as soft rock. The Eagles o Best selling soft rock band of the 70s o Two albums best selling of all time. o Focused on folkcountry type style. o Most critically reviled bands of all time. Lester Bungs said their music was bland. “Peaceful Easy Feeling” (1972) The Eagles o Describing women by how they look. o Soft tone of acoustic guitar which aligns to soft rock. “She’s Gone” (1973) Written and Recorded by Hall and Oates o Depressing sort of tone that sounds nice. o Funky vibe; low electric bass that flowed slowly. Philadelphia Soft Rock; smooth sound Blueeyed soul o Rose to fame in the 70s. Most successful duo of rock. o Display feminine feature of long hair Soft rock not received well by critics by a homophobic lens. Critics known as “cultural gatekeepers” Soul and Black Power Movement Gospel Connection o Arises in the 1940s of the genre of R&B o African American music played in church. o By the 50s, the gospel singers move towards a secular world. o Atlantic Records sold these types of labels o Ray Charles incorporated all kinds of genres o Sam Cock saw no contradiction between R&B and Gospel. Motown o Detroit, Michigan o Hittsville, USA Studios o Founded by Berry Gordy Have integrated to mainstream culture. Sense of community Civil Rights Movements moves from integration to using tactics to self idenity. Aretha Family (b.1942) o “Respect” (1967) Written by Otis Redding(Monte Ray Pop) o “Ladysoul” Atlantic Records success with producer Jerry Wexler Muscles Shoals Sound Studio in Alabama. Went to Columbia Records for a few years. Brings out her most soulful traits Became biggest international stars Representing symbol of black pride and identity. “Respect” (1967) o Held R&B chart for 8 weeks. o Demand for selfidentification of the black community. Sly and the Family Stone o San Francisco o Integrated band: men and women; black and white. o Known for live performances; appearances at Woodstock was a highlight o Introduced funk music o Sly grew addicted to drugs; slower and darker music.. o Disbanded by 1975. “Everyday People” (1969) o First million seller o Aspects of inequality o All part of the human race o Childlike nursery; Accepting social difference so kids can understand it as simple. o Biases and Prejudice.
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