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Abnormal Psychology Exam 2 Notes

by: Kristyle L.

Abnormal Psychology Exam 2 Notes Psych 2245

Marketplace > University of Missouri - St. Louis > Psychology > Psych 2245 > Abnormal Psychology Exam 2 Notes
Kristyle L.
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About this Document

Study Guide for Exam 2
Abnormal Psychology
Francesca Manzella
Study Guide
Psychology, abnormal, Psych2245
50 ?




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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kristyle L. on Monday October 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 2245 at University of Missouri - St. Louis taught by Francesca Manzella in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychology at University of Missouri - St. Louis.

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Date Created: 10/10/16
Major Topics of Focus for Unit/Test #2 Ch. 5: Anxiety, Trauma- and Stressor-Related, and Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders ● Difference between Anxiety, Fear, & Panic ○ Anxiety is a negative mood state shown by bodily symptoms of physical tension and by apprehension about the future. Could be uneasiness, fidgeting, physiological response starting in the brain causing an elevated heart rate and muscle tension. ○ Fear is an immediate emotional reaction to current danger shown by strong escapist actions and a surge in the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system. ○ Panic (the Greek god Pan who terrified travelers with bloodcurdling screams) is the overwhelming reaction you have when you experience panic. Also can cause panic attacks. ● Causes of Anxiety and Related Disorders ○ Anxiety can be caused by biological, psychological and social contributions, as well as interpersonal stressors. The integrated model explains the theory of how anxiety is developed based on the contributions of anxiety. ● Anxiety Disorders (know clinical description/presentation, prevalence, causes, and treatment) ○ Generalized Anxiety Disorder is a consistent and excessive and unrealistic worry about everyday things ○ Panic Disorder and Agoraphobia is diagnosed in people who experience spontaneous seemingly out-of-the-blue panic attacks and are preoccupied with the fear of a recurring attack. Agoraphobia is the fear of being in places that would be difficult or embarrassing to get out of if you had a panic attack. ○ Specific Phobia-is an irrational fear of a specific object or situation that markedly interferes with an individuals’ ability to function, in the earlier versions of the DSM this category was called simple phobia, this distinguished it from the more complex agoraphobia conditions ● Trauma- and Stressor-Disorders (know clinical description/presentation, prevalence, causes, and treatment) ○ PTSD Posttraumatic stress disorder is clinically defined as a mental disorder that can develop after a person experiences trauma, may cause a person to experience severe anxiety, nightmares, flashbacks, unwanted memories of the event, (could cause phobias to situations and objects that remind them of the event) ● Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders ○ OCD features a pattern of unreasonable thoughts and fears (obsessions) that lead you to do repetitive behaviors (compulsions). These obsessions and compulsions interfere with daily activities and cause significant distress. ○ Body Dysmorphic Disorder is a mental illness involving obsessive focus on a perceived flaw in appearance. ○ Hoarding Disorder is a persistent difficulty discarding or parting with possessions because of a perceived need to save them. A person with hoarding disorder experiences distress at the thought of getting rid of the items. Ch. 6: Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders  Somatic symptom disorder is an excessive or maladaptive response to physical symptoms or health concerns. This is referring to an individual disorder, NOT the class of disorders. o Presence of one or more somatic symptoms o Excessive thoughts, feelings, and behaviors related to the symptoms o Substantial impairment in social or occupational functioning o Soma=Body: Preoccupation with health or symptoms, physical complaints, usually no identifiable medical condition o Relatively rare condition—Onset usually in adolescence—More likely to affect unmarried, low SES women—Runs a chronic course  Illness anxiety disorder is severe anxiety about the possibility of having or acquiring a serious disease. Very similar to DSM-IV hypochondriasis; consistent overreaction to physical signs and sensations o Strong disease conviction o Medical reassurance does not seem to help o Affects all ages apx equally o Often comorbid with anxiety and mood disorders o Affects apx 1-7% of the general population o Genetic component is present; may have learned from family to focus anxiety on physical sensations o Causes: Stressful life events—Illness in family during childhood--- Benefits of illness (sympathy or attention) o Treatment: Antidepressants—Reduce supportive consequences of illness—gatekeeper physician assigned to limit excessive use of medical services  Conversion disorder (or Functional Neurological Symptom Disorder) altered motor or sensory function that is inconsistent with neural/medical conditions and not better explained by another disorder o Must cause significant distress/impairment o May display indifferent attitude toward symptoms o Not deliberately faking symptoms for the purpose of concrete gains (Malingering) o Rare condition, with a chronic intermittent course; often comorbid with anxiety and mood disorders o Seen primarily in females, onset usually in adolescence o Sociocultural factors—more common in lower education, lower SES o Treatment: May need to process trauma or treat posttraumatic symptoms Remove sources of secondary gain Reduce supportive consequences of talk about physical symptoms  Factitious disorder more commonly known as Munchausen syndrome by proxy, where a person purposely faking physical symptoms o May actually induce physical symptoms or just pretend to have them o No obvious external gains  Only external gain may be benefit of ‘sick role’ (sympathy)  Distinguished from malingering, in which physical symptoms are faked for the purpose of achieving a concrete objective o Inducing symptoms in another person; typically, a caregiver induces symptoms in a dependent (child) Ch. 7: Mood Disorders and Suicide ● Unipolar/Depressive Disorders (know clinical description/presentation, prevalence, causes, and treatment). ○ Major Depressive Disorder is a brain disorder characterized by persistently depressed mood or loss of interest in activities, causing significant impairment in daily life. ○ Persistent Depressive Disorder is a chronic (ongoing) type of depression in which a person's moods are regularly low. But, symptoms are not as severe as with major depression. Persistent depressive disorder used to be called dysthymia ○ ● Bipolar Disorders (know clinical description/presentation, prevalence, causes, and treatment) ○ Bipolar I Disorder had at least one manic episode in his or her life. A manic episode is a period of abnormally elevated mood and high energy, accompanied by abnormal behavior that disrupts life. Most people with bipolar I disorder also suffer from episodes of depression. ○ Bipolar II Disorder A less severe type of bipolar disorder characterized by depressive and hypomanic episodes. It involves at least one depressive episode lasting at least two weeks and at least one hypomanic episode lasting at least four days. Depressive symptoms include sadness or hopelessness. Hypomanic symptoms include a persistently elevated or irritable mood. ○ Cyclothymic Disorder A mood disorder that causes emotional highs and lows. The mood shifts in cyclothymia aren’t as extreme as those in people with bipolar disorders. People with cyclothymia can typically function in daily life, though it may be difficult. ○ ● Prevalence of Mood Disorders & How They Vary by Age ○ Mood disorders prevalence Approximately 20.9 million American adults, or about 9.5 percent of the U.S. population age 18 and older in a given year, have a mood disorder ○ ● Suicide Warning Signs, Risk Factors lost of interest in daily activities ○ Loss of interest in activities ○ Extreme mood swings ○ Change in eating and sleeping habits ○ Sudden weight loss and weight gain ○ A heighten fixation with death and/or violence ○ Engaging in self destructive or harmful behavior ○ Increased use of alcohol or drugs ○ Buying what may be needed to harm themselves ○ Loss of interest in relationships with friends and/or family ○ Being a victim of bullying, sexual abuse, violence ○ Saying thoughts like they wish they were dead ○


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