Midterm Notes 10/10
Midterm Notes 10/10 MUS 127-007
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sara Rice on Monday October 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to MUS 127-007 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Professor Timothy Harris in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 136 views. For similar materials see Intro Into Listening in Music at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 10/10/16
Midterm Notes 10/10/16 Musical Instruments and Basic Elements Types of Instruments (Families) Voice (soprano, mezzo soprano, alto, tenor, baritone, bass) Strings Woodwinds Brasses Percussion Keyboard Electronic String Instruments Plucked o Guitar o Harp Bowed o Violin o Viola o Cello o Double bass o Articulations (pizzicato vs. arco) Woodwinds Flute/piccolo Oboe/English horn Clarinet/bass clarinet Bassoon/contrabassoon Saxophone Brasses Trumpet French horn Trombone Euphonium/baritone Tuba Percussion: Pitched or Unpitched? Definite Pitch o Timpani o Bells (glockenspiel/ chimes) o Marimba o Xylophone o Vibraphone Indefinite Pitch o Drums (brass, snare) o Triangle o Tambourine o Cymbals o Gong o Bongos/congas Keyboards Strings are plucked or struck with a hammer on some (piano, harpsichord) Others have pipes, through which air is pushed through when the key Is pressed (organs) Important Instrument Categories Aerophones – all kinds of wind instruments Chordophones – all kinds of stringed instruments Membranophones – Drums with a membrane (drum head) stretched across all or part of the instrument Idiophones – solid instruments struck, shaken, rubbed, etc., for sound Important Elements to Know Pitch – higher/lower sounds/frequencies Rhythm – durations and metrical placement Melody Harmony Musical staff (5 lines, 4 spaces) Key – major/minor Music’s Beginnings Why Begin With Medieval Music? Notation o It is hard to find written documentation about music in ancient times Surviving instruments Writings about music/musicians Lute Set of strings that are plucked and strung The Centrality of Sacred Music The Catholic Church was the center of learning throughout Europe in medieval times. Priests were literate and taught the masses. Likewise, the Church served as the focal point of the progress of music – at least, music that was written down, preserved, and written about The Church began traditions that were expanded and developed over hundreds of years to lead to what we now know as Western Classical music Basics of Gregorian Chant Latin Melismatic vs. Syllabic settings o Syllabic setting every syllable gets a new pitch o Melismatic setting holding one syllable of text that have a lot syllables that go with it Monophonic/polyphonic settings o Monophonic setting one note going on at one time o Polyphonic setting multiple notes going on at the same time Masses written by composers as complete musical works One of earliest (and most prolific) forms of musical notation Mass Ordinary vs. Proper Ordinary o Same texts every service o Kyrie o Credo o Gloria o Sanctus o Agnus Dei Proper o Different based on calendar o Processional o Offertory o Gradual (“Viderunt Omnes”) o Dismissal o + More Medieval Secular Music Secular music used instruments while sacred music was purely vocal. Rather than confining themselves to Latin texts, secular songs were in the language of its listeners, or “vernacular.” They could be about love, politics, telling stories, all in a serious or humorous manner. They were easier to sing, more syllabic, with repeated verses and choruses much like what we recognize in hymns. Poet-composers of noble families in France were called trouveres in the North, troubadours in the south, while those in Germany were called minnesingers. Lower-class street performers were known as minstrels or jongleurs. The Baroque and Bach Baroque Period Basics 1600-1750 Also associated with trends in art, literature, and architecture Important composers o Monteverdi o Vivaldi o Bach o Handel Political Happenings Germany/Italy – not unified countries, but collections of small city-states each with their own rulers English Civil War – execution of Charles I, shift of power to Parliament, Bill of Rights Wars between Catholics and Protestants raged across Europe Colonization of new lands Decline of Spanish empire Claudio Monteverdi 1567-1643 Wrote songs for solo voice and accompaniment (called monody) and multi-voice works known as madrigals Also crucial in the origins of opera (L’Orfeo) Greek/Roman mythological texts, balance of singing vs. acting (music and drama) Antonio Vivaldi 1678-1741 Violinist performer and composer Famous for “The Four Seasons” Concertos! Stylistic norms (sequence) George Frederic Handel 1685-1759 Most famous for oratorios, like “Messiah” and “The Creation” German, but is actually known as an English composer Also wrote operas Johann Sebastian Bach 1685-1750 Pretty much the greatest Created norms followed for centuries Works for solo instrument Chamber/orchestral works Master of writing techniques (counterpoint, voice-leading, fugue, etc.) The Modern Working Musician – Not an Oxymoron Three Basic Types of Musical Careers Performing Teaching Composing Performance Opportunities Solo tours/recitals Chamber ensembles – small Orchestra “In a band” Military groups Album recording All genres All instruments How Performers Make Money Gigs/concerts Teaching positions Album sales Competition winnings Writing Instrument repair/resale Sponsorships Other jobs to support themselves How Performers Spend Money Travel Instruments/accessories Music Accompanists Album/concert production Rent Coffee Teachers High school Jr. High School/beginners School band/choir/orchestra Private students Collegiate teaching positions o Full –time or part- time “adjunct” positions o Applied lessons o Music academics, i.e. music theory, history, composition, education, arranging o Directors: wind band, orchestra, athletic band, jazz ensembles/combos o Often serve in administrative roles, as well Composers The importance of relationships Collaborating with performers Getting commissions Getting works published Compositional process Stability? Other jobs/gigs? Outlets for composition o Individual, then publishing on your own o Commission for particular groups/soloists/orchestras o For your own performance album (also for jazz, like The Cairn Project or The Birmingham Seven) o Film scoring Intro Into Listening – 10/3 Monophonic all one line Homonphonic has different voices and implies that they are all moving at the same time Polyphonic multiple voices and multiple parts Kyrie – Missa Papae Marcelli - Palesrina 1500s Polyphonic Vedro ‘I mio sol Monody o One person singing with some stuff in the background Troubador Love Song by Arany Zoltan Developed their own sound Traveled to perform 1400s Christ, Our Lord, Who Died to Save Us by Martin Luther Protestant Reformation Homophonic Hymn tradition Schubert Depict what the song is about in the music “Gretchen at the Spinning Wheel” Battle of New Orleans Folk Song 1814 No real hidden meanings behind the lyrics Sweet Caroline – Frank Sinatra Jazz, pop Creedence Clearwater Revival Not afraid to get political 1960s Guitar playing/solos Backstreet Boys – I want It That Way More about visual Whitney Houston – I Will Always Love You
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