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UA / Music / MUS 121 / What are the different string instruments?

What are the different string instruments?

What are the different string instruments?

Description

Midterm Notes 10/10/16


What are the different string instruments?



Musical Instruments and Basic Elements 

Types of Instruments (Families)

∙ Voice (soprano, mezzo soprano, alto, tenor, baritone, bass) ∙ Strings

∙ Woodwinds

∙ Brasses

∙ Percussion

∙ Keyboard

∙ Electronic

String Instruments

∙ Plucked

o Guitar  

o Harp

∙ Bowed

o Violin

o Viola

o Cello

o Double bass

o Articulations (pizzicato vs. arco)

Woodwinds

∙ Flute/piccolo


Why are they called woodwinds?



∙ Oboe/English horn

∙ Clarinet/bass clarinet

∙ Bassoon/contrabassoon

∙ Saxophone

Brasses

∙ Trumpet

∙ French horn

∙ Trombone

∙ Euphonium/baritone

∙ Tuba

Percussion: Pitched or Unpitched?

∙ Definite Pitch

o Timpani

o Bells (glockenspiel/ chimes)

o Marimba

o Xylophone

o Vibraphone

∙ Indefinite Pitch If you want to learn more check out How is exocrine different than endocrine?
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o Drums (brass, snare)

o Triangle

o Tambourine


What does unpitched mean in music?



o Cymbals

o Gong

o Bongos/congas

Keyboards

∙ Strings are plucked or struck with a hammer on some (piano,  harpsichord)

∙ Others have pipes, through which air is pushed through when the key Is pressed (organs)

Important Instrument Categories

∙ Aerophones – all kinds of wind instruments

∙ Chordophones – all kinds of stringed instruments

∙ Membranophones – Drums with a membrane (drum head)  stretched across all or part of the instrument If you want to learn more check out What is the total sales or profit value of a customer to a marketer throughout that customer’s lifetime?

∙ Idiophones – solid instruments struck, shaken, rubbed, etc., for  sound

Important Elements to Know

∙ Pitch – higher/lower sounds/frequencies

∙ Rhythm – durations and metrical placement

∙ Melody

∙ Harmony

∙ Musical staff (5 lines, 4 spaces)

∙ Key – major/minor

Music’s Beginnings 

Why Begin With Medieval Music?

∙ Notation Don't forget about the age old question of What will happen if the stalk of the pituitary gland is cut or destroyed in any way?

o It is hard to find written documentation about music in  ancient times

∙ Surviving instruments

∙ Writings about music/musicians

Lute

∙ Set of strings that are plucked and strung

The Centrality of Sacred Music

∙ The Catholic Church was the center of learning throughout  Europe in medieval times. Priests were literate and taught the  masses. Likewise, the Church served as the focal point of the  progress of music – at least, music that was written down,  preserved, and written about

∙ The Church began traditions that were expanded and developed  over hundreds of years to lead to what we now know as Western  Classical music Don't forget about the age old question of What is the satisfaction a consumer obtains from the consumption of a good or service?
We also discuss several other topics like How is gdp calculated?

Basics of Gregorian Chant

∙ Latin

∙ Melismatic vs. Syllabic settings

o Syllabic setting  every syllable gets a new pitch

o Melismatic setting  holding one syllable of text that have  a lot syllables that go with it

∙ Monophonic/polyphonic settings

o Monophonic setting  one note going on at one time o Polyphonic setting  multiple notes going on at the same  time

∙ Masses written by composers as complete musical works ∙ One of earliest (and most prolific) forms of musical notation Mass Ordinary vs. Proper

∙ Ordinary

o Same texts every service

o Kyrie

o Credo

o Gloria

o Sanctus

o Agnus Dei

∙ Proper

o Different based on calendar

o Processional

o Offertory

o Gradual (“Viderunt Omnes”)

o Dismissal

o + More

Medieval Secular Music

∙ Secular music used instruments while sacred music was purely  vocal. Rather than confining themselves to Latin texts, secular  songs were in the language of its listeners, or “vernacular.” They  could be about love, politics, telling stories, all in a serious or  humorous manner. They were easier to sing, more syllabic, with  repeated verses and choruses much like what we recognize in  hymns.

∙ Poet-composers of noble families in France were called trouveres  in the North, troubadours in the south, while those in Germany  were called minnesingers. Lower-class street performers were  known as minstrels or jongleurs.

The Baroque and Bach 

Baroque Period Basics

∙ 1600-1750

∙ Also associated with trends in art, literature, and architecture ∙ Important composers

o Monteverdi

o Vivaldi

o Bach

o Handel

Political Happenings

∙ Germany/Italy – not unified countries, but collections of small  city-states each with their own rulers

∙ English Civil War – execution of Charles I, shift of power to  Parliament, Bill of Rights

∙ Wars between Catholics and Protestants raged across Europe ∙ Colonization of new lands

∙ Decline of Spanish empire

Claudio Monteverdi

∙ 1567-1643

∙ Wrote songs for solo voice and accompaniment (called monody)  and multi-voice works known as madrigals

∙ Also crucial in the origins of opera (L’Orfeo)

∙ Greek/Roman mythological texts, balance of singing vs. acting  (music and drama)

Antonio Vivaldi

∙ 1678-1741

∙ Violinist performer and composer

∙ Famous for “The Four Seasons”

∙ Concertos!

∙ Stylistic norms (sequence)

George Frederic Handel

∙ 1685-1759

∙ Most famous for oratorios, like “Messiah” and “The Creation” ∙ German, but is actually known as an English composer ∙ Also wrote operas

Johann Sebastian Bach

∙ 1685-1750

∙ Pretty much the greatest

∙ Created norms followed for centuries

∙ Works for solo instrument

∙ Chamber/orchestral works

∙ Master of writing techniques (counterpoint, voice-leading, fugue,  etc.)

The Modern Working Musician – Not an Oxymoron

Three Basic Types of Musical Careers

∙ Performing

∙ Teaching

∙ Composing

Performance Opportunities

∙ Solo tours/recitals

∙ Chamber ensembles – small

∙ Orchestra

∙ “In a band”

∙ Military groups

∙ Album recording

∙ All genres

∙ All instruments

How Performers Make Money

∙ Gigs/concerts

∙ Teaching positions

∙ Album sales

∙ Competition winnings

∙ Writing

∙ Instrument repair/resale

∙ Sponsorships

∙ Other jobs to support themselves

How Performers Spend Money

∙ Travel

∙ Instruments/accessories

∙ Music

∙ Accompanists

∙ Album/concert production

∙ Rent

∙ Coffee

Teachers

∙ High school

∙ Jr. High School/beginners

∙ School band/choir/orchestra

∙ Private students

∙ Collegiate teaching positions

o Full –time or part- time “adjunct” positions

o Applied lessons

o Music academics, i.e. music theory, history, composition,  education, arranging

o Directors: wind band, orchestra, athletic band, jazz  ensembles/combos

o Often serve in administrative roles, as well

Composers

∙ The importance of relationships

∙ Collaborating with performers

∙ Getting commissions

∙ Getting works published

∙ Compositional process

∙ Stability? Other jobs/gigs?

∙ Outlets for composition

o Individual, then publishing on your own

o Commission for particular groups/soloists/orchestras o For your own performance album (also for jazz, like The  Cairn Project or The Birmingham Seven)

o Film scoring

Intro Into Listening – 10/3 

Monophonic  all one line

Homonphonic  has different voices and implies that they are all  moving at the same time

Polyphonic  multiple voices and multiple parts

Kyrie – Missa Papae Marcelli - Palesrina

∙ 1500s  

∙ Polyphonic

Vedro ‘I mio sol

∙ Monody

o One person singing with some stuff in the background Troubador Love Song by Arany Zoltan

∙ Developed their own sound

∙ Traveled to perform  

∙ 1400s

Christ, Our Lord, Who Died to Save Us by Martin Luther ∙ Protestant Reformation

∙ Homophonic

∙ Hymn tradition  

Schubert

∙ Depict what the song is about in the music

∙ “Gretchen at the Spinning Wheel”

Battle of New Orleans

∙ Folk Song

∙ 1814

∙ No real hidden meanings behind the lyrics Sweet Caroline – Frank Sinatra

∙ Jazz, pop

Creedence Clearwater Revival

∙ Not afraid to get political

∙ 1960s

∙ Guitar playing/solos

Backstreet Boys – I want It That Way ∙ More about visual

Whitney Houston – I Will Always Love You

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