Test 2 Human Sexuality
Test 2 Human Sexuality PSYC 3260
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by csuzmorrison Notetaker on Monday October 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 3260 at University of Georgia taught by Welsh in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Human Sexuality in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 10/10/16
Exam 2: Human Sexuality Section 1: Childhood and Adolescent Sexuality: Chapter 8 (P. 188-190, 190- 195) Childhood Sexuality Studying Sexuality in Childhood is difficult Rely on adults report of their childhood Direct research usually on teens – is problem driven Talking to kids about sex Start by asking questions and listening o Then give honest, age appropriate answers with as much detail as kid asks for Talk early and often Use “Teachable moments” Balance the negatives with the positives Anticipate events Acknowledge diversity Communicate your values Give practical advice Sexuality in Adolescence (12-18) Adolescence: physical, cognitive and emotional changes in transition from childhood to adulthood Puberty: biological changes resulting in sexual maturity o Females start before males, typically 1.5 years before Sexual behavior Interest in sex increases with increase in hormones Masturbation o Rates increase sharply in boys btw 13-15 o Rates continue slow steady increase in girls o Boys more likely to report masturbating and report doing so more often than girls Most experience first real attraction during middle childhood o Average age = 10 regardless of sexual orientation Sexual Contact o Same sex sexual behavior 8-12% of teens, slightly more boys than girls o Contact with opposite sex partner typically begins within this age range Starts with kissing, petting Girl at younger ages than boys First kiss by most by 13 o Older research: oral sex more common than intercourse, happened first A little over half of 15-19 have had oral sex Viewed as less risky, way to have sexual contact and remain a virgin o New research: oral sex NOT happen 1 for most Sexual Intercourse o Are teens “having sex at younger and younger ages”? no – myth Proportion of teens having PIV sex has been declining since the early 1990s (46.8% in 2013 vs. 54.1% in 1991) Less likely to have first PIV before 15 More likely to use condoms o Mean age= 17.2 First experience with PIV gender differences o Males: 90% want to, 8% went along with it mostly did it because of curiosity o Females: 70% want to, 24% went along with it mostly did it because of affection o Usually first PIV experience with long term partner o Not usually planned o Around 20-30% don’t have PIV during teen years Abstinence: What does it mean? Refraining from a particular activity o More likely to be abstinent if they Have a positive self image Live with both parents Feel connected to their family Discuss sex and abstinence with parents Believe mother disapproves Believes friends are abstinent Are intelligent Homosexual Identity Development Awareness of sexual orientation on average: between 8 and 9 o May not adopt homosexual identity for many years however.. o Cass’s model Breaks homosexual identity development into 6 stages Non-linear, some don’t go through all stages, go out of order, slip back Wide variation in experience Cass’s Model of Homosexual Identity Development 1. Identity Confusion a. Same sex attractions/behaviors begins to surface, person feels confused b. Often deny feelings, rationalize behavior 2. Identity comparison a. Begins to compare self to other homosexual people and wonder about being homosexual b. Keep homosexual attraction/behavior separate from identity i. Behavior is homosexual, person is not 3. Identity Tolerance a. Begin to believe self is homosexual, search for community for affirmation b. Often live “double life” and not “out” to people in straight community 4. Identity Acceptance a. Begin to accept instead of tolerate new identity b. Increase ties to homosexual community c. Begin coming out to a select few heterosexual people 5. Identity Pride a. Begin to have pride in identity b. Immerse self in homosexual social groups c. May begin to have “us”(homo) vs. “them” (hetero) attitude, anger over mistreatment may surface d. Come out to more people 6. Identity Synthesis a. Sexual orientation into identity, no longer considered most important factor b. Stop the “us” vs. “them” thinking, become close to hetero people again Coming out o Establishing a personal identity and communicating that to others First need to recognize sexual orientation within oneself, then tell others Coming out is often difficult and important experience o Average age is 16 in US o Friends then family o Positive coming out experiences related to higher self-concepts, lower depression rates, and healthier psychological adjustment o People not “out” experience more mental, physical health problems o Parental rejection increases isolation, loneliness, depression, suicide, homelessness, prostitution and STI’s o Families of LGBTQ people must also face “coming out” o Coming out is not a single event but a lifelong process Book Notes: (P. 188-190, 190-195) Influences: Peers, Family and Religion 1. Peer Influences Most important influence on teen sexual behavior 2. Relationship with parents Latino, immigrant, religious and low socioeconomic status families are less accepting of LGBT teens Generally moms lead the first talk Contraception, Pregnancy, and Abortion: Complex Issues Condoms are the most frequently used contraceptive Sexually Transmitted Infections: Education and Prevention 15-24 year olds account for 50% of all new STI’s What Children need to know: Sexuality Education Ignoring questions reinforces child’s idea that sex is secret, mysterious and bad Today, majority of states either recommend or require sexuality education in public schools Different Sexuality Programs 1. Comprehensive Sexuality Education Programs a. K-12 b. Help students develop their own skills an learn factual information c. Positive view of sexuality d. Accurate information e. Relationships and interpersonal skills f. Responsible during sexual relationships 2. Abstinence-only sexuality education programs a. Abstinence from all sexual behaviors b. Usually no information about contraception c. Harmful to engage in out of marriage sexual activity d. Federal funding from 1996-2010 could only be used in these programs Effects and Results of Sexuality Education Programs Comprehensive programs are most effective in delay of involvement in sexual intercourse Abstinence only programs have not shown a delay of involvement Section 2: Communication: Enriching your Sexuality: Chapter 3 (P. 58-62) Communication Good Communication: allows wants, needs to be expressed o Helps build intimacy o Correlated with overall happiness, relationship satisfaction, relationship length Self-disclosure: telling personal things about yourself to another person o Usually builds/deepens gradually o Positively correlated with relationship and sexual satisfaction o Relationships more likely to succeed with greater self-disclosure Communication about sex is particularly hard o Can be hard for couples, even those that communicate well about other topics o Sexual likes/dislikes one of the hardest things for college students to talk to partners about Why? Lack of info Believing talking about sex is taboo Embarrassment, fear of judgment/rejection o Self-disclosing about sex = increased sexual satisfaction, relationship satisfaction Reduces unsafe sex Guidelines for improving sexual communication o Know what you want Use a sexual inventory checklist o Trust your partner o Communicate boundaries and respect your partners boundaries o Be responsible about casual sex Effective Communication Intent vs. Impact o Intent: message we are trying to get across o Impact: interpretation of message to partner Effective communication: impact matches intent o Often takes planning Skills of effective communication o Using “I” language Instead of criticizing, express complaint that focuses on you instead of your partner Helps avoid mind reading: making assumptions about what partner thinks/feels o Documenting Giving specific examples of issue being discussed o Leveling Telling partner how you feel, simply, clearly and honestly o Editing Not saying things that deliberately hurt your partner or are irrelevant to the issue o Must balance editing and leveling to be effective o Listening Non-defensive listening: focus on what partner is saying without trying to defend yourself Offer cues to speaker to indicate you are listening Men tend to do this less than women o Paraphrasing Saying in your own words what you think partner meant o Validating Telling your partner you understand/accept their feelings or thoughts o Non-verbal communication Not through words, through body Make sure non-verbal communication matches intent of message o Focus on the positive Happily married couples: have 5 times as many positive as negative interactions o Fight Fair Don’t bring up the past Don’t overgeneralize Don’t play amateur psychologist Don’t make threats you don’t mean Don’t save up and then dump irritation Don’t “hit and run” Don’t focus on blame or “winning” – focus on solving the problem Negative Communication People in unhappy relationships = communicate in negative, destructive ways 4 ways 1. Criticize: attacking personality or character 2. Contempt: intentionally insulting or abusing partner 3. Defensiveness: protect yourself against criticism instead of dealing with problem 4. Withdrawal: refusing to be a part of the conversation Book Notes: (P. 58-62) Communication and Gender Differences in the ways men and women communicate – Tannen’s Genderlect Theory o Women are less assertive Two categories of communication skills o Affective: comforting and involve listening o Instrumental: persuasive and narrative Women use more nonverbal communication techniques Cross-Cultural Communication Theory o US = individualistic country o Asian/Latin Cultures = collectivistic o US = low-context culture (rely on language to express thoughts and feelings) Communication and Sexual Orientation o Same sex couples are more positive Section 3: Love and Intimacy: Chapter 7 (P. 157-158, 165, 168-169) Attraction Field of eligible (FOE): all of the individuals who meet a persons criteria as a potential romantic partner o May not be consciously aware of our criteria o Criteria and FOE can change over time What causes attraction? o Affective influences = our mood matters Positive affect: more + evaluation Negative affect: more – evaluation Both direct and indirect influences Both men and women preferred innocuous or direct approaches Women very negative about pickup lines Brynne’s law of attraction o Tendency to like people who are nice/reward us and dislike who punish us o Attraction: proportion of rewards to punishments Proximity: tendency to be attracted to those we live near or interact with o Mere-exposure effect: the more were exposed to stimulus the more we like if the initial impression is neutral/positive Homophily: tendency to attraction to those who are similar to us o Greatest in race, education, age, religion Physical Attractiveness o Given choice people will choose most physically attractive option o How attractive we fin someone affected by peer perceptions and social comparisons o More important at beginning of relationship o A little more important to men than to women Typically partner with those who match our “worth” in the “dating marketplace” Physiological arousal o Meeting someone when physiologically aroused increased likelihood of attraction Misattribution of arousal Love and the Brain Brain chemicals associated with love o Increased: dopamine, norepinephrine, oxytocin o Decreased: serotonin Theories about love 1. Lee’s Colors of Love Like colors, 3 primary styles of love 1. Eros: romantic, passionate love Strong attraction, love idealized version of person 2. Ludus: love playing game No commitment, intimacy not expected or valued 3. Storge: Friendship love Value intimacy and stability, long term commitment Can be combined into complementary styles 1. Mania (Eros + Ludus) Obsessive and intense, often dependent on partner, jealousy 2. Pragma (Lusus + Storge) Practical, goal of finding a compatible long term partner 3. Agape (Eros + Storge) Selfless love completely Couples with compatible styles happier than ones with mismatched styles Mania and ludus correlated with worse psychological health Storge and Eros correlated with better psychological health 1. Men more often Ludus 2. Women more often Pragma 3. Men more acceptable Eros, less to show Agape 4. Women acceptable agape, less to show Ludus 2. Sternberg’s Triangular Theory of Love Love made up of 3 components 1. Intimacy: emotional component of love Sense of mutual understanding between two people 2. Passion: motivational component of love Physical attraction, drive for sexual expression 3. Commitment: cognitive development Short term: decision to love and establish relationship Long term: commitment to maintain relationship Sternberg arranged 3 components on sides of triangle 3 components to create forms 7 forms of love Believed couples would be happier if triangles matched Women = higher on intimacy and commitment but equal to men on passion 4. So in average hetero relationship, slight imbalance 3. Attachment Theory Attachment: emotional bond between people First attachment between a baby and caregiver @ 7-8 months Early attachment forms model for adult attachments 3 styles of attachment 1. Secure Lovers (about 55% of adults) Low in anxiety, low in avoidance Secure attachments to caregivers Easy to trust other Self-discloses properly gradually self-disclose Mutually dependent 2. Avoidant Lovers (about 25% of adults) Often had avoidant attachment to caregivers Uncomfortable trusting others Don’t’ self-disclose Difficulty depending on lover Dismissing – avoidant low in anxiety, high in avoidance a. Don’t enjoy getting close/depending on others Fearful-avoidant: high in anxiety, high in avoidance a. Want to be close to others, but afraid 3. Preoccupied lovers (about 20% of adults) High anxiety, low avoidance Resistant/anxious attachment to caregivers Difficulty trusting others, very insecure Self-discloses too much too quickly Very dependent on partner Gender and Love Men hold more romantic view of relationships o Fall in love earlier in relationships Say “I love you” first/sooner o Stay in failing relationships longer o More likely to commit suicide after breakup o 30 years ago, men more likely to marry for love Today 80% of both men and women say no to marriage without love Book Notes (P. 157-158, 165, 168-169) Origins of Love Theories 1. Behavioral Reinforcement Theories a. Lott and Lott: a rewarding or positive feeling in the presence of another person makes us like them even if the reward has nothing to do with that person. b. Griffitt and Veitch: found that people tend to dislike people they meet in a hot, crowded room no matter what their personalities are like. c. We like people we associate with good and love people if the association is very good. Love develops through a series of mutually reinforcing activities 2. Cognitive Theories a. If we are with a person often and find ourselves doing things for them, we think its because we love them. Action comes first and the interpretation comes later. Also if we think that people like us, we are more likely to be attracted to them. 3. Evolutionary Theory a. Love is a strategy that helps us form the bonds we need to reproduce and pass our genes to the next generation b. We tend to fall in love with people who’s traits we think are positive so we can pass them on to our children c. Evolutionary theorists point out that attractive men have higher quality sperm and more attractive women are more fertile 4. Physiological Arousal Theory a. Schachter and Singer: gave students shots of adrenaline to show how you can misattribute the physiological arousal to love b. Connection between love and sex 5. Other Biological Factors a. Pheromones: odorless chemicals that are processed in the hypothalamus and influence attraction b. Look for MHC different from your own Love- It’s all in your head o Certain areas of the brain increase in blood low when shown a picture of person in love with o Dopamine, oxytocin, adrenaline and vasopressin contribute to feelings of euphoria o Motivation centers light up, motivated to spend time with that person The Dark side of Love 1. Jealousy: an emotional reaction to a relationship that is being threatened a. The threat is a matter of interpretation b. In short term relationships, sexual infidelity is more threatening to men and women c. In long term relationships, emotional infidelity is more threatening d. Shows lack of trust 2. Compulsiveness a. Some people move from relationship to relationship trying to recreate that feeling b. Love addiction soul mates 3. Possessiveness a. For intimacy to grow, partners must nurture each other b. Indicates a problem of self-esteem and personal boundaries that can lead to stalking Section 4: Adult Sexual Relationships: Chapter 9 (P. 204-209, 215-217) Attitudes, behaviors regarding sex, dating, marriage and divorce and have changing rapidly over the last 50-70 years, especially since 1970s Reiss: 4 standards of permissiveness towards sex without marriage 1. Abstinence: sex without marriage is always wrong 2. Permissiveness with affection: sex without marriage is okay as long as there’s a committed relationship 3. Permissiveness without affection: sex without marriage is okay regardless of commitment 4. Double Standard: sex without marriage is okay for men but not women a. Orthodox double standard: always okay for men, never for women b. Transitional double standard: always okay for men, okay for women if engaged/in-love Attitudes toward sex outside of marriage o In past, US adults supported abstinence or double standard Today, most US adults support permissiveness with affection o Sex without marriage is the norm 95% of Americans have sex without being married by age of 44 At least since mid 1950’s, majority of Americans had sex outside of marriage o Perception of this as moral/immoral has changed though Effective contraception Greater acceptance of female sexuality Postponement of marriage Single Adults Majority of US adults plan to marry o But ~50% of US adults were single in 2013 (not married) Later age of marriage = more years as single adult o Women = 27, men = 29 Common relationship pattern – serial monogamy o Person moves from one committed, sexual relationship to another over time Sex lives of single adults varied o Some have frequent sex, some have none o In general, have sex less frequently than cohabitating or married peers Hooking up Hooking up: brief uncommitted sexual encounters among individuals who are not romantic partners or dating each other o People have different definitions of hooking up This can make research difficult o 60-80% college students have hooked up But this depends on definition used When defined as PIV sex with someone known less than 1 week, 11% of students had hooked up Is hooking up replacing committed relationships? o No! Most college students prefer committed relationships over hookups 63% of college men, 83% of college women prefer relationships 65% of women, 45% of men hoped hookup would turn into a relationship Less than 10% expected that it will Most do it for pleasure, but ~50% do it to fulfill emotional needs or start relationship Hooking up and Alcohol o Drinking positively correlated with hooking-up Also decreased likelihood of using condoms, increased likelihood of penetrative sex act Alcohol= consent issues too 60-80% of people hooking up were drinking Hooking up: the morning after o Mix of reaction, but more positive than negative feelings after 82% of men, 57% women, glad they'd done it o Effects of hooking up mediated by motivation Hooking up for the “right” reasons not associated with problems Hooking up for “wrong” reasons associated with lower self-esteem, depression/anxiety o Regret does happen sometimes – equally for men and women More likely to regret penetrative hookup with partner if known less than 24 hours or if hookup was unsatisfactory o Gender differences in reactions Why are women less positive? Double standard Less likely to have orgasm o Orgasm rate higher with Higher levels of commitment More times having sex with that partner A variety of sexual behaviors occur More likely to happen in relationship sex Men more likely to care when woman is satisfied in a relationship than in a hookup Cohabitation Living with someone without marrying them Also increased in US o 70% of couples is US cohabitate before marriage Prelude to marriage for some o 40% eventually marry o Majority breakup or marry within 3 years About half breakup within 1 year 40% have children Does cohabitation increase divorce risk? o Older research: yes Selection effects Attitudes toward marriage become less favorable o Newer research: if engaged first, no If not engaged first, cohabitation correlated with lower marital satisfaction, increased divorce risk “Serial cohabitation” = increased divorce chance don’t slide, decide Consensual non-monogamy Relationship in which there is an explicit agreement between people that outside sexual and or romantic relationships are acceptable Examples o Open relationships Typically one primary relationships, but allow sex outside of that relationships Primary relationship is considered most important one, place for emotional intimacy Goal is sexual pleasure/variety o Swinging: couples (often married) agree to exchange partners Polyamorists o Focus is on intimate relationships with multiple partners o Usually about more than just sex – about emotional intimacy with more than 1 person o Lots of diversity in arrangements, number of partners, “rules” etc. o Debate on whether this is a type of relationship or relationship orientation Polygamy: married to more than 1 person o Polygyny: one man, multiple wives more common o Polyadry: one woman, multiple husbands People in CNM relationships o Sexually and romantically satisfied, not necessarily at greater risk for STI’s o Socially stigmatized in US Adult Sexual Relationships Some marriage statistics # of unmarried women in 2009 outnumbered the # of married women for the first time in US history Mixed Marriages – Race 1/1000 in 1961 1/150 in 1980 1/7 in 2010 Gender differences in marrying a person of another race o Black male 22%, Black female 9% o Asian Male 20%, Asian female 40% Marital Satisfaction Married people are happier, healthier, have longer lives o Health benefits greater for men, though gap is narrowing Majority are satisfied with marriage Satisfaction changes over time o Peaks early, declines through midlife, back up in later years Having children impacts marital satisfaction o Having kids correlated with lower marital satisfaction o Satisfaction decreases as # of kids increases o Why? Children take time away Stress, develop more traditional gender roles after kids Feelings of inequality will decrease marital satisfaction How can married (long term committed) couples stay satisfied? Positive communication Doing new things together Marriages last longer when both partners o Have a positive attitude about marriage o View partner as best friend and person o Long-term commitment o High rewards, low cost Appropriate ways to resolve conflict Having “regular” sex Sex in marriage Passion high in beginning, fades over time o No matter how much sex at start, nearly all have less over time Why the decline? o Mostly because stress/pressure increases over marriage o In later ages, biological changes contribute Majority still have sex frequently o 40% have sex 2+ times per week, 50% few times per month o have more sex and find it more physically and emotionally satisfying than unmarried couples Positive correlation between satisfaction with sex life and how often Same sex marriages Majority of homosexual people develop long term committed relationship o 40-60% of gay men, 45-80% of lesbians Relationships have both similarities and differences to heterosexual relationships o Differences Higher relationship satisfaction, lower levels of conflict More equality in roles Satisfaction highest among lesbians, then gay men, then married hetero couples More likely to break up More connected to ex-partners Gay male couples have sex more often than hetero or lesbian couples Legal in all 50 states as of June 26, 2015 Legal in 23 countries As of November 2015 ~1 million Americans in same sex marriage o 10% of LGBTQ married Extramarital affairs Attitudes about affairs in US extremely negative, 75% find affairs “intolerable” But attitudes do not equal behavior o 13-20% of women, 15-35% of men report having engaged in extramarital sex o Some research suggests that 70% of marriages will experience infidelity 90% of affairs occur because of unmet emotional needs in relationship People more likely to cheat if not married Cheaters tend to o Have stronger sexual interest, drive o Permissive sexual values o Be less satisfied in relationship o Opportunities for affairs The internet (porn, sex chat rooms) has increased the opportunity to partake in internet infidelity and cybersex Gender Differences Women o Less likely to have affair o More disturbed by emotional o More likely to have emotional o Have affairs when older o Experience higher levels of distress when finding out o More likely if they have Positive view of sexuality Masculine traits Assertive/independent Men o More likely to have affairs o Disturbed by sexual infidelity o Sexual affair o Affairs when younger o Lower levels of distress after finding out Book Notes: (P. 204-209, 215-217) Marriage Statistics and Current Trends o Used to be those with a high school degree more likely to marry, now those with a college degree more likely to marry Mixed Marriages o More common in Western states – 1 in 5 Marriages in Later Life o In 2007, men and women over 65 were much more likely to be married than any other time in history Marital Satisfaction o Quality of the friendship and ability to resolve conflict are two of the most important factors in marital satisfaction Divorce o Marriage used to be one single entity, now is seen more of a partnership between two people o No-fault divorce: neither partner is guilty o Covenant Marriages: premarital counseling and discouraging divorce: Arizona, Arkansas and Louisiana Statistics and Current Trends o Between 1970 and 1975, divorce rates for heterosexuals increased sharply and then steadily decreased o By 2005, lowest divorce rates since 1970 Reasons for Divorce o Most common: lack of communication or commitment, infidelity, financial problems, substance abuse and conflict/arguing o Women initiate 2/3 of all divorces Social Factors that affect divorce o Divorce has become cheaper and easier, more common in relationships where woman has a professional degree Predisposing factors for divorce o Peoples who's parents divorced have more accepting attitudes of divorce o Marrying at a younger age, because of an unplanned pregnancy, having children quickly after getting married o Interval between getting married and arrival of children is important o Waiting longer promotes marital stability o Financially secure Adjusting to Divorce o After 10 years, 80% of women and 50% of men thought the divorce was the right decision o Financial problems usually harder for women o 3.5 years is average time between divorce and a second marriage
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