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MDIA 1010 Midterm Exam Study Guide

by: Sarah Allis

MDIA 1010 Midterm Exam Study Guide MDIA 1010

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The Evolution of Media
Brandon Sweitzer
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Date Created: 10/10/16
MDIA 1010 Exam 1 Study Guide Introduction to Communication and Media Concepts Communication  Communication: an exchange of information and messages  The world became more complex, so did communication o Grunts and gestures  spoken language writing Communication Models  Shannon: SMCR model (source  message  channel  receiver)  Berlos: SMCR model, but adds context, knowledge, attitudes, the 5 senses, as well as feedback Types of Communication  Intrapersonal: communication with yourself  Interpersonal: communication with another person  Small group: about 10 people  Public: one speaker to large group  Mass: one speaker to many  CMC: communication with aid of computers Communication vs. Communications  Communications: devices meant to store and retrieve information o Started out as simple memory, recollection of the brain, became more complex o Stone tablets  written books  computers, flash drives, storage clouds, etc. Media  All communication systems are media o Gestures, speaking, art, writing, printing, etc.  Medium: the channel we use to convey o Messages, thoughts, beliefs, etc. o Medium is NOT only associated with technology McLuhan: “The Medium is the Message”  The medium itself, NOT the message it conveys, “does something” to us o The medium is separated from the message Media Studies  Media is studied through the development and application of theories (building upon the work of previous scholars)  1920s: Walter Lipmann, critic of journalism, applied psychology to journalism  1930s: Radio was the first broadcast medium o Created 4 original types of research: public opinion, propaganda, marketing, and social science  1940s: Paul Lazarsfeld’s study “The People’s Choice” o 95% of voters used media to strengthen their existing beliefs o Only 5% were “converted” by media  1950s: Psychoanalysis and desensitization in TV, film, and comics  1960s: Media affects passivity (Albert Bandura experiment)  1970s: Agency Media Theory and Theoretical Paradigms  Media theory: an explanation of how something works  Theoretical paradigm: a way of viewing media through an ideological “lens” 4 Paradigms of media Theory  Media economics: mass production, mass distribution (profitability & efficiency)  Societal functions: surveillance, interpretation, socialization, entertainment  Behavioral theories: why we use media the way we do (uses and gratifications, social learning theory, structure and agency)  Critical and cultural studies: concerned with power dynamics, as well as the relationship between media, its content, audiences, and culture Assertions of Critical Cultural Scholars  Political economy: the ruling class using media to preserve their place in society (hegemony)  Agenda setting: not what to think, but what to think about  Gatekeeping: controlling what is/is not seen and heard  Framing: putting a “spin” on media content  Media criticism: genres preserving ideals and conveying meaning (semiotics)  Active/passive audience: propaganda, selective audience, trends, etc. Humanity in the Time of Speech Pt. 1 Why Speech? Why Humans?  Speech is an advantage of our species that was passed on o Enabled us to make better tools, share information, and made us more appealing to possible mates  Evolution o Change over time: environmental influences lead to a need for change o Survival of the fittest: the best traits get passed down to permeate a species  Cooperation (Jean-Louis Dessalles): I scratch your back if you scratch mine o Concept of getting cheated may lead to a lack of cooperation o Chimps example: multi-male coalitions vs. mother-child pairs  Multi-male coalitions: power and dominance, stronger and larger chimps were most desirable  Humans: biggest and strongest was challenged by relevance o Relevance: communicating something that is beneficial to the listener o More relevance  more allies more dominance  more mating  your genes get passed on  Costly signaling: the idea that “fit” individuals relay superiority by tempting fate o Speaking is risky: exposes speaker to judgment, you could lose status  Humans are exceptional at recognizing anomalies o We have a view of how the world should be, and notice when things “don’t fit” (a red car in the road), and we are compelled to speak about them  Listeners are “programmed” to evaluate stories for relevance: we protect ourselves from getting cheated in larger groups o People mentally investigate other people’s stories for consistency  Communication helped us truly “become human” Becoming Human  Humans have inherited biological evolution and cultural change  Language started around 200k years ago with Homo Sapiens o Moran: language allowed modern humans to live on The Art and Symbols of Ice Age Man  Marshack: felt that artifacts were evidence of symbolic communication  Neanderthal Plaque and Vogelherd horse: show a cultural revolution  Art and symbols of ice age man had a specific meaning, use, and application o They were defined by the culture they were created in o Communication allowed us to have evolutionary success REVIEW  Why speech? Why humans? o Cooperation led to communication (we overcame fear of being cheated) o “Big and strong” was replaced by “relevant”  Becoming human o Communication added “cultural evolution” to “biological evolution”  The art and symbols of ice age man o Marshack: they were not “art for art’s sake” o They had specific meaning and application o They were a reflection of human culture Humanity in the Time of Speech Pt. 2 Culture  Culture (among other definitions) is the shared views, beliefs, behaviors and ideals of a group of people  Culture is impacted by environment o How densely populated o Climate o Danger  As hunters, much of early humans’ culture revolved around animals, weather and celestial occurrences  Interaction with animals was a major part of early human culture o Numerous sites from numerous countries have animal art  The sculptures and symbols could have served as a surrogate sacrifice o The Paglicci horse was “symbolically killed” 27 times o Each carving or painting of a horse is “symbolically sacrificed”  The interaction with the art was passed down from the original artist o The multiple engravings Marshack saw with a microscope were from different engraving tools The seasons were also represented symbolically  Seal, salmon and plants on one side  Snakes on the other  Represent animal activity and plant growth in the spring  Antler tool from Lamarche, France  Image of the horse represents nature  Darts show symbolic killing of the horse o Also, mare is pregnant which may symbolize fertility  Notations over most of the upper part of the antler  Each of these aspects speaks to the culture it was made in Why are these carvings, paintings and early attempts at language so important?  Art and symbols provided a way to communicate and perpetuate culture  They allowed humans to express complicated concepts  They serves as communications for early humans, allowing them to store and retrieve information o Without writing, how else could we pass on information accurately?  They brought us self-awareness What is meant by self-awareness?  The knowledge/feeling that one exists as an individual being  Many psychologists feel this is unique to humans  Allows for introspection and innovation o Improves our chances of survival  Being self-aware means we use language not only to communicate, but to better understand ourselves and others  Art and symbols allowed us to turn “I vs the cosmos” into “we vs the cosmos” o It also allowed us to try to find our place in the cosmos So what does it all come down to?  According to many scholars, communication is the reason why we survived  It allowed us to become self-aware o It helped us cooperate o It helped us establish culture o It was the key to overcoming the “evolution game”  Just as important, it helped pave the way for writing and greater levels of communication, knowledge and expansion as a species REVIEW  Cooperation opened the door for communication  Communication meant “biggest/strongest” could be replaced by “most relevant”  Art (sculptures, carvings, paintings, etc.) provided the ice age humans with an avenue for symbolic representation  Communication and symbolic representations allowed us to overcome the “evolution hurdle” Humanity in the Time of Manuscripts Pt. 1 Orality vs Literacy  Speaking-hearing o Biologically inherited o Often learned without specific instruction o Has been a part of humanity for hundreds of thousands of years o Communications capacity is limited o Is limited in medium scope (body gestures and voice)  Reading/writing o Culturally inherited o May be difficult to learn, even with instruction o Has been a part of humanity for a few thousand years o Communications capacity is virtually limitless o Has a broad medium scope (manuscripts, books, digital text, etc.) Marshall Poe’s “Pull Theory”  Poe suggests that media only came about because they are “pulled” into existence  “Inventors and tinkerers” experiment, but new media are not accepted until “organized interests” get involved  Once pulled into society, new media are pushed onto the society & impact in different ways How can we test this theory?  First, we must show the ability to write existed o Could people have written, but chose not to?  Second, we must show that some large shift in history made existing media (speech and gestures) insufficient o Did new cultural occurrences demand a more efficient medium?  Last, we must determine that the new media held some impact on society Could people have written but chose not to?  While speech cultures left very little evidence, manuscript culture provided us with many sources  These sources may have been few at first, but they grew in quality and quantity as time went on  While we will look at evidence from the ancient Near East, classic antiquity and medieval Europe, we must start before there was writing to answer this question What is the core ability needed to achieve writing?  The ability to symbolize  Some examples o 300k years ago – red ochre “crayons” o 100k years ago – “ornaments” made from shells o 45k-30k years ago – the art and symbols of ice age man  It seems early humans could symbolize, but didn’t necessarily need to write. What happened? The ending of the last great ice age  Occurred about 20k years ago  Climate change from cols and try to more temperate and wet  Suited early humans well  More warmth means more plants and animals  Led to the emergence of a new human culture – the Natufian The Natufian  Early Nafutian period: 12,500 – 10,800 BCE  Late natufian period: 10,800 – 9,500 BCE  Were once hunter-gatherers (like all other early humans)  First known people to “settle down” into villages  Where they settled down is important The Fertile Crescent  In between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers  Crescent-shaped landscape where the soil is fertile and deep  The Natufian settled in the Jordan river valley in an area known as “the levant” Natufian Settlements  Consisted of small round huts, fire pits, bone piles (ate a lot of gazelle)  Had complex burial sites, bodies buried with jewelry and other decorations  A sudden shift in temperature (around 10,000 years ago) posed a challenge Should I stay or should I go?  The colder temperatures forced mant Natufian to return to being nomads  Those that stayed made “improvements” to the culture o Became farmers o Domesticated animals (sheep for food and dogs for protection)  Lived in larger settlements o Small round huts became larger and often had smaller dwellings nearby (perhaps for relatives)  The Natufian were succeeded by the Neolithic Farmers Neolithic Farmers (about 10,300 years ago)  Their culture was a hybrid of hunting gathering and farming  They were helped greatly by the “Holocene” (a rewarming of the climate)  They domesticated” wheat, barley, peas, lentils and flax (about 9500 years ago)  Within 1000 years they had pens of goats, sheep, pigs and cattle  The Neolithic farming style spread across the fertile crescent  Permanent villages of 300-500 people became common  Jericho (founded 9600 years ago) is still inhabited today “Settling down” changed social structure significantly  Nomads like hunter-gatherers generally shared all their resources o Everyone chipped in to do work  Growing crops and animals replaced harvesting what nature provided and killing wild animals o Choices were more limited o You could only “reap what you had sown”  It changed group dynamics o Independent and selfish growth-economy led to the formation of the “household”  It changed the structure of the village o Small, round huts became large, rectangular houses with divided rooms o Homes also began to have storage shelters  We see the first evidence of public buildings…this is important Why are these buildings important?  Historians feel this is where the first true system of symbols in human history developed  Public buildings provided services for the entire settlement that individual households could not o Leadership o Security o Spiritual care  Creating public institutions were able to provide these services, and were paid for by the group  This “new order” created two new social consequences o Social ranks and taxes Social rank and taxes  Social rank was held by nobility and priests o These two groups provided the aforementioned leadership, security and spiritual care  Taxes were charged for providing “public services” o This created classes of people: upper class and working class o It also led to the first true system of symbols Why the need for a system of symbols?  To keep accounts  Princes and priests needed to know who contributed to the treasury and how much the treasury contained  As groups got larger and more goods were produced, more resources needed to be contributed to the treasury o Simply remembering who contributed what simply would not do  Typically, the mind reduces things to simple categories (one, two, many, etc.) o A system of symbols allowed for more complex and more accurate records  Above and beyond simply tracking numbers, they needed a system of symbols where one symbol represented some physical item Enter the work of Denise Schmandt-Besserat  Conducted extensive archaeological digs and studies during the 60s and 70s  Felt the origin of writing may have occurred 8000 years ago  Historians before her felt clay trinkets may have been currency and even invoices for transactions Here’s where it all comes together  The clay ball is an envelope that contains the tokens  The ball itself is marked with a depiction of what is inside as well as the official seal  The tokens are sealed inside and are not to be removed until an official is present  The tokens are in different shapes and sized which are symbolic representations of goods  So the “trinkets” were not just jewelry, after all, they were an early form of a transaction receipt More on the token system  It was very durable, it lasted over 5000 years  To keep up with the demands of larger cities, there were some adjustments o Officials carried common tokens strung together to make adjustments to transactions quicker o To avoid having to break the “envelopes,” the tokens themselves were pressed into the outside surface before it hardened, and were verified with an official seal  Eventually, they did away with the tokens themselves o The invention of the stylus allowed people to draw the tokens, rather than actually making them Humanity in the Time of Manuscripts Pt. 2 Clay trinkets and “envelopes”  The shape of the trinkets represented what they “stood” for  The amount of trinkets represented how many of that particular item/service was present  The tokens were sealed inside the signed/sealed “envelope” to be opened by officials  All this was essentially an ancient receipt Issues with this system  Time consuming to make all of the trinkets and the envelope  You have to break the envelope to see what’s inside it o This was later solved by pressing the trinkets into the face of the envelope before it was hardened  If there is a large transaction there are a ton of trinkets in the envelope, or pressed into its face (once that change happened) o The envelope was later replaced by a tablet  The last issue led to a huge breakthrough How cuneiform and new symbolic interaction were born  Consider 2 issues o The first is having to make all those clay trinkets o They needed to find a way to streamline the process o If you could just make one piece of clay it would save a lot of time o This led to the invention of cuneiform around 3500 BCE Cuneiform  Clay enveloped with coins pressed into them were replaced by tablets with the shape of coins “drawn” onto them  Officials used a stylus (usually made of a reed) to draw the shape of the coins  Original cuneiform was pictographic o The pictures represented an existing shape (sun, bird, wheat, etc.)  Coins became obsolete; you just needed a stylus and knowledge of what the tokens were shaped like The second issue  How can you account for large transactions?  It is a pain to have to make a mark for every item  It also takes up a lot of room on the tablet  Major cities in Mesopotamia needed to figure this out  Enter the birth of new symbolic interaction New Symbolic Interaction  If you invented symbols for sets of impressions you could eliminate the problem  Scribes began to make signs such as “X” (10); “Y” (20); and “Z” (30) rather than making 10, 20, or 30 symbols  10 measures of grain now became “X” next to the shape for grain  This allowed them to provide a non-pictographic symbol for an abstract concept such as a number  This meant that any symbol could stand for any idea or thing!! o This realization opened the door for true writing A brief history of writing  The roots of writing come from prehistoric images and markings o Art and symbols of ice age man  Markings led to mnemonic proto-writing o Cuneiform  Proto-writing led to 8 fully formed writing systems  Each of these systems started out as pictographic writing. Some died off and some were adapted The 8 fully formed writing systems in 1 convenient location  Sumerian (Mesopotamia)  Heiroglyphs (Egypt)  Proto-Elamite (Elam)  Proto-Indic (Indis Valley)  Cretan (Crete and Greece)  Chinese (China)  Hittite (Antolia and Syria)  Meso-American (Central America)  Those marked in yellow are the only places where writing developed independently. All the others are thought to be off-shoots of other systems  Sumerian is thought to be the oldest writing style (around 3300 BCE)  Evolved from cuneiform  Consisted of about 700 signs o Used mostly for commerce and trade  It was carved into stone, etched into ivory, bone, glass, metal and wax to be used as a stamp for the seals of royals, nobles, officials and members of the church  It was “scribal controlled” (like all early writing systems) o Only certain people (scribes) knew how to write it, what all the symbols meant, and had the tools to write it Heiroglyphs (Egypt)  Came about around the same time as Sumerian (about 3100 BCE)  Egypt sprang up in the Nile river valley o This is a theme in history: major civilizations began near rivers (Mesopotamia – Tigris and Euphrates; Egypt – Nile; and China – Yellow river)  Historians feel that Egyptians borrowed the idea but not the form of Sumerian  Translation was made possible by the Rosetta stone o Stone discovered by Napoleon’s soldiers in 1799 that was the key for deciphering Heiroglyphs, Demotic and Greek alphabets Proto-Elamite  Around 2500 BCE  Adapted from Sumerian  Remains largely un-deciphered, but similarity to Sumerian gives historians clues Proto-Indic  About 2200 BCE  Remains largely un-deciphered  Heavy reliance on pictographic symbols Cretan  Around 1800 BCE  Remains un-deciphered  Hybrid between Egyptian Heiroglyphs and ancient Greek Chinese  Around 1300 BCE (though some accounts have it at about 3000 BCE)  Pictographic language  Only character-based writing system that has not “died out”  While the phonetics have changed over time, the composition and meaning of characters is quite similar Hittite (Anatolia)  Another derivative of Sumerian cuneiform  Writing was a blending of Sumerian, Akkadian, Assyrian and Babylonian  Used mainly for royal archives Meso-American  Could be as old as 1000 BCE  Pictographic writing complimented by syllabic glyphs (similar concept to Japanese)  Most developed system belonged to the Mayans Each of these systems (except Chinese) died off or were replaced by an alphabet The evolution of the alphabet  Began in the Middle East and Egypt  The Sumerians and Egyptians started mixing in phonetic principles o Perhaps to differentiate between symbols that had multiple meanings (like the English there their and they’re)  This concept was adopted by West Semmites (Canaanites) that created a new writing system based on cuneiform o They traded with multiple groups in the Middle East which meant they needed to adapt and create a more universal writing system  Historians suggest the Canaanites developed the concept of consonants  The idea was built upon by the Phoenicians The Phoenicians  Major traders in the Mediterranean Sea  Traded quite often with the ancient Greeks o The root “phonic” (meaning “sound” is a Greek root based on the Phoenicians  Their alphabet contained 22 consonants and no vowels o This may be because there were not a lot of vowel sounds in ancient Semitic languages  The concept was picked up by the ancient Greeks The Greeks  Adopted the Phoenician alphabet some time around 1000 BCE  The signs were adapted by the Greeks to act as both vowels and consonants in a 23-sign system  The Greek alphabet was the first “true” alphabet because it met these conditions: o It had a character for every sound in the language o There were no letters that doubled o It contained a limited number of characters  The Greeks were the first to use writing for more than just commerce, they used it to create poetry and epic songs  The Greek alphabet was picked up by the Romans The Romans  Adopted the Greek alphabet around 700 BCE  They adapted the system to a 21-character system of consonants and vowels  The original alphabet did not include g, j, u, w, or y  Eventually the letters were added in and the 26-character system still used today was established REVIEW  Cuneiform and “new symbolic interaction” were born from the clay coin and envelope system  What separated the “new symbolic interaction” from the “old symbolic interaction?”  There were 3 independent writing systems o Sumerian, Chinese, and Meso-American  All early writing systems were logographic (1 character = 1 word) and contained many characters (as many as 2000+)  The alphabet introduced the concept of characters representing sounds (phoneme) and contained less characters (20-30)  Canaanites (consonants)  Phoenicians  Greeks  Romans  Writing widened the gap between the classes Humanity in the Time of Manuscripts Pt. 3 The early days of writing  Unlike modern technologies and media, the spreading of writing was quite slow  Writing systems were localized, which meant they were in many different forms and there was no “standard” o Remember all the different writing systems that were similar, but all “died off” and we still cannot translate them thousands of years later?  Also, writing systems were used primarily for accounting purposes and official statements  The Greeks changed all that The Greek legacy  The Greeks standardized an alphabet, which allowed for a more universal writing system  The Greeks approached writing differently than other societies o It used it for more than accounting (odes, epic poems, etc.) o It opened it up to everyone (everyone from school children to respected elders could learn to read and write)  The Greek system merged the ability to speak a language with the ability to write the language o The superior analysis of syllabic sounds and symbolic representation (consonants and vowels) allowed this to happen  Democratizing literacy meant the role of the scribe was greatly diminished Writing changed how things were remembered  In non-literate cultures (including places like Sumerian who used writing for accounting only), mnemonics were how things were preserved  What are the issues with this system?  Things get changed over time, things get forgotten, only a limited number of people actually know the old stories  In orality, “history” was remembered through song o Rhythm and repetition led to “remembering”  Writing made the “old ways” obsolete From Mnemonic to visual  The alphabet provided the Greeks with a visualized record which replaced the mnemonics of orality  This helped the civilization in several ways o Rhythm structure and verbal arrangements no longer limited what could be said o No longer needing to memorize songs/stories freed up memory and ‘brain power’ for other things (philosophy, government, improved commerce, etc.) o Knowledge no longer rested in the hands of the few  According to Havelock, “The Greeks did not just invent an alphabet, they invented literacy and the literate basis of modern thought”  Unfortunately, the promise of democracy and literacy were held back by the availability of writing materials  The limitations of writing materials was not an issue unique to the Greeks The importance of the writing surface  Moran suggests the media of literacy does not just include the actual script used, but also the writing surface  The type of writing materials used can impact durability and portability o Stone tablet vs paper pamphlet  Harold Innis suggested the materials used to write on reflected the society that wrote on them Innis: time-biased vs space-biased  Innis felt writing surfaces could be divided into 2 categories:  Time-biased o Last for a long time because of the durability of the media (stone tablets)  Space-biased o Easily transported over long distances because they are light and relatively small (parchment scrolls)  So how is this a reflection of civilizations? What material says about culture  According to Innis:  Time-biased cultures have a centralized power system (power to the few) and are more conservative (slow to change)  Space-biased cultures have democratic power systems (power to the many) and were more progressive (quick to change and forward thinking)  In order for an empire to expand, it had to use space-biased materials for spreading communication throughout (Persian empire and Roman empire)  Innis felt there needed to be a balance of both for a society to survive and thrive Mesopotamian Writing Materials  Around 3100 BCE, temple scribes began using stone and clay tablets  Time-biased medium  Tablets were heavy, brittle and often over-crowded with text  Stone steles were permanent markers that served government notices Egyptian Writing Materials  About 3000 BCE began using papyrus  Space-biased medium  Papyrus is a type of reed that grows by the Nile river  Reeds were cut, flattened, crisscrossed, pressed, hammered and dried  Papyrus sheets were “glued” together to form long scrolls Chinese Writing Materials  Around 1500 BCE they began making bamboo “books”  Space-biased medium  Thin strips of bamboo created a writing surface  Accommodated the writing style of the time which used vertical columns  Bamboo strips could be pieced together to create “books” (similar concept to Egyptian papyrus) Greek Writing Materials  Wax on a wooden surface  Around 500 BCE  Space-biased medium  Wax was written on, and then could be heated up, melted and smoothed out to make it reusable  Helped democratize writing  Also used by the Romans The Pergamum Writing Materials  Around 200 BCE  Space-biased medium  Expensive alternative to papyrus  Were made into 2-sided sheets  The sheets could be bound together to form a codex  This was a huge advantage over papyrus scrolls o All you had to do was turn back the pages rather than unroll the scroll  Parchment was the main source for manuscripts What was a manuscript?  Any document that is hand or typewritten (not mechanically printed)  Can be in book form (codex) or scroll form  Made from stacks of parchment bound together with wooden “covers”  “Illuminated manuscripts” are manuscripts with illustrations How did they come about?  Often written by monks  Translated and copied texts from older sources in a Scriptorium  Much of Greek and Roman history survived due to manuscripts  Subjects included o Religion o Mathematics o Science So what’s the big deal?  The church held a monopoly on knowledge  According to critical theorists, there are numerous potential issues o Unintentional mistakes in translation o Intentional omissions o Replacing existing text with something that may serve their best interests  While manuscripts helped science progress in herbology and other medicinal manners, they could misrepresent other matters o You can grow herbs in your monastery, but you need to take others’ word about animals (particularly ones from distant lands) o Some manuscripts contained animals that were more mythology than reality These issues led to “manuscript culture”  Manuscript culture is associated with medieval times (middle ages) o From the fall of the Western Roman empire (476 CE) to the Renaissance (1500 CE)  Marked by large levels of illiteracy and poverty  The views, beliefs and knowledge of people was confined to and informed by their village (normally from the pulpit)  Took a step back in the orality – literacy game  According to Burke, many (possible 1/3) of the documents that were used for official purposes were forgeries  A literate upper class and an illiterate working class kept the class divide going and served the interests of the elite Why didn’t people want to read?  Moran has a few ideas o People don’t naturally want to read  We are evolved to speak and hear, not read and write o People didn’t need to read  Most of what was available was information that wasn’t of use to the common tradesperson o People couldn’t afford to read  Materials (parchment, writing devices and learning devices) were extremely expensive and rare o People were convinced they shouldn’t read  Many sermons and governmental decrees were designed to keep the masses uneducated and happy with their condition Summing up Poe’s theory: what impact did writing have?  The need for writing created the class system and taxes o Public buildings led to princes and priests  Writing provided a tool for the newly developed upper class to maintain their control in society o Forged documents, recording what they want rather than reality, etc.  Writing provided humans with a way to truly engage in symbolic interaction o Characters could be used to represent sounds which could be combined to form words, which allowed for expression  The permanence of written words replaced the inconsistencies of mnemonic communications  Writing created manuscript culture which controlled most of the civilized world for nearly 1000 years Poe’s Pull Theory  Could people have written but chose not to? o Yes. Humans engaged in symbolic interaction well before they wrote  Was there some type of large shift that made existing media insufficient? o The shift to larger villages led to increased commerce and the necessity to pay taxes, these things needed to be tracked somehow  Did writing have an impact on society? o It created the class system and taxes, it provided new avenues of symbolic interaction, provided an opportunity for democratic communication and changed the way we stored information REVIEW  Writing was a tool of the elite o It had been since it was invented  The elite controlled writing, therefore they controlled knowledge o Manuscripts written by the church were the undisputed “truth”  Learning to write, and writing itself, was a very expensive process  The Greeks set the stage for democratized writing, but it was never truly realized  We took a “step back” regarding literacy in the middle ages  Most people did not want to read (evolution, lack of interest and coercion all contributed to this) Humanity in the Time of Print Pt. 1  Paper was invented in China during the Han dynasty in the year 105 CE  When Muslim forces conquered Samarkand in 751, there were people there that knew how to make paper, after “persuasion” they told the Muslim forces how to make paper  Not only could we have printed long before we did, but we did…kind of  Gutenberg did not “invent” a whole lot when he made his machine, all of the pieces of his printing system had been around for a long time (stamping, movable type, a mechanical press, durable ink, a stable medium)  Printing: a permanent impression or mark on a surface o Stamping o Woodblock printing o Movable type o Mechanical presses o ink  The development of public education and popular culture in China demanded more printing be done Humanity in the Time of Print Pt. 2  Technological imperative: according to Conrad, it is an urge to create new ways to communicate that fill 2 purposes: o Address existing problems o Involve creation for creation’s sake  The essential centralized mythos is: there is only one way to avoid eternal damnation and receive eternal salvation and that is to learn and accept the teachings of Jesus Christ  Public speaking, the written word and the copying of manuscripts would not be sufficient to meet this growing need  Tinkerers tinker, but organized interests pull media in  Not much written history, time of overall illiteracy, brought in manuscript culture Humanity in the Time of Print Pt. 3  For the print revolution, Poe suggests there were 3 main organized interests in northwestern Europe: capitalists, bureaucrats, and pastors o Academics is another added group  Academics sought knowledge for themselves rather than subscribing to the centralized mythos  Wanted to bring knowledge out from the monasteries and into the public  •BUILDER: JOHANNES GUTTENBERG  YEAR BUILT: THERE’S DEBATE HERE, SO WE’LL SAY THE LATE1440s – EARLY 1450s  WHERE WAS IT BUILT: MAINZ, GERMANY  Gutenberg bible aka Gutenberg 42-line bible o Professional scribes added illumination to the text and margins  The Protestant reformation simply would not have happened without the print revolution  WE COULD HAVE PRINTED BEFORE THE PRINTING PRESS WAS INVENTED, BUT WE CHOSE NOT TO  BOTH EXTERNAL AND INTERNAL FACTORS CONTRIBUTED TO THE EXISTING MEDIA (SPEAKING AND WRITING) TO NO LONGER BE SUFFICIENT • o INTERNAL: CAPITALISTS, BUREAUCRATS, PASTORS AND ACADEMICS o EXTERNAL: EXPOSURE TO AN ANCIENT CULTURE THAT LED TO A “REBIRTH”  3. MECHANIZED PRINT IS THE MOST INFLUENTIAL MEDIA THAT HUMANITY HAS “PULLED” INTO EXISTENCE. IT “DID” MORE TO US THAN WE CAN FIT INTO ONE SEMESTER, LET ALONE ONE LECTURE


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