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Exam #1 Study Guide

by: Molly O'Neil

Exam #1 Study Guide RLST 305

Marketplace > Towson University > RLST > RLST 305 > Exam 1 Study Guide
Molly O'Neil

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About this Document

Here is a compilation of all of the relevant notes for Exam #1. I went through and talked about all of the points on the review sheet Dr. Tappan posted.
Faith and Medical Ethics
Robert M Tappan
Study Guide
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Molly O'Neil on Monday October 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to RLST 305 at Towson University taught by Robert M Tappan in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Faith and Medical Ethics in RLST at Towson University.


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Date Created: 10/10/16
RLST 305 Fall 2016 STUDY GUIDE Exam 1 *These are general themes and topics to focus on – the questions on the test may be more specific. *Be sure to review these points as they occur in all of our readings (where applicable): Jonsen, Mackler, Sachedina, Crawford, Bhattacharya, and Hamdy. 1. What are the essential values and themes in each faith with regard to bioethics? How do these values manifest when thinking about health and illness? 4 principles of BE  the four principles of biomedical ethics include autonomy, Nonmaleficence, beneficence and justice. In regards to working in health care with all of the different faiths it is important to have cultural competency. Essential values and themes  reason, tradition, authority, experience. Christianity/Catholicism  Similar in other main religions because it is monotheistic and Abrahamic. Humans are created in God’s image. Life is a blessing and a gift. Our body is God’s temple and we should use it rightly. We should love our neighbor’s as ourselves, and protect and love others. We should imitate God. In Catholicism, scripture is read through the lens of tradition. Tradition, like revelation, is said to come from God. The “double effect” has been brought into questions in Catholicism. It deals with the idea of “can one cause something evil as part of achieving something good?” There is the concept of traditionalism vs. proportionalism, where proportionalism is more common today and looks at the specific case, and evaluates if there is proportionate reason for bringing about the evil. Judaism  In Judaism God is the creator and lord of the universe. Humans are created in God’s image and have inherent value. Human life is sacred and saving one human life is like saving an entire world. Like Christianity, one must love their neighbor as themselves and be imitators of God. Jews are in a special relationship with God. They are in a covenant. We are to act in a particular way according to the scriptures. The Written Torah and Oral Torah help shape the views in Judaism. “Halakha” is the path or way. It is the Jewish religious law, and it is an attempt to understand and carry out God’s will. Islam  In Islam, earthly and afterlife success both are tied to God and religious guidance. The Quran and Hadith is important in Islamic teaching. Public good is really important to Islamic biomedical ethics. Islamic law recognizes the “essentials” all humans share which includes: religion, life, reason, lineage, and property. The concept of “no harm, no harassment” is important. Hinduism  Ayurveda developed within Hinduism around 1000 BCE and uses herbs, yoga, meditation, and astrology as ways to purify the body. It is the third largest religion in the world. Some of the foundational ideas of Hinduism include that there is a god, avatars, and many other beings. There is a cycle of birth, death, and reincarnation. Illness could be seen as a result from a past life. There are many scriptures in Hinduism such as Vedas and Upanishads. Values and health & illness  each religion will view healing and suffering differently. Christianity and Judaism will see pain and suffering as a result as sin. Hinduism may see it as a result of sins from a previous life. 2. Trace the development of modern bioethics and the role religion played (or did not play). What were the benefits gained from such an approach, and what was lost? What role (if any) can religion serve in the future of bioethics? History  Biomedical ethics came to rise rapidly in the 1960-1970’s. It rose due to the development of new technologies in medicine. Ethical questions arose with the creation and advancements of respirators, ventilators, contraception, abortion, dialysis, organ transplants, ect. Some research scandals such as WW2, the Holocaust, Willowbrook, and the Tuskegee airmen as well as social changes such as civil rights movements, feminism, and the anti-war sentiment encouraged biomedical ethics to blossom. Role of religion in biomedical ethics  Religion played a role in the beginning of bioethics because it stemmed from religious ethics of Christians and Jews, and many were Catholics. Healing and religion can go hand in hand, so there is more to healing beyond medicine in some religions. There is healing in Ayurveda, Traditional Chinese medicine, prophetic medicine, and in Judaism and Christianity. Religion is important because there is a lot of diversity, especially in the USA. There is also great diversity within traditions and religions. There are many different schools of thought. Religion not in BE  In class we discussed the idea that “bioethics began in religion, but religion has faded from bioethics.” Jonsen had given a long list of Catholic and Protestant theologians who entered bioethics but opted for secular or essentially secular approaches. Benefits of religion in BE  It is impossible to ignore religion in the clinical setting. Joy, suffering, and death are all involved in medicine and in healing. Loss when fall from religion in BE  more of a well-rounded idea of things. Role of religion in the future of BE  Religion can be taken in to consideration in the future. Cultural competency and empathetic understanding are important in caring for others: Cultural Competency  Cultural competency is the effort to recognize and empathize with diverse religious and cultural beliefs. Being a culturally competent medical practitioner means to be aware of your own beliefs, provide clinically acceptable care, and be open and respectful to differences. Empathetic Understanding  Empathetic Understanding is important and involves bracketing, gathering facts and information, having an imaginative experience, draw parallels from own culture/experience, empathetic and sympathetic understanding, and then removing the brackets. 3. How are reason and scripture related? How will this influence bioethical decisions from a religious perspective? What is reason?  Reason is a large part of Judaism, and there is reason within the bounds of halakha. Reason is used in the scriptures. It is used to understand the scriptures and it is used to determine ethical action. What is scripture?  Scripture is central to religion and religious ethics. It can serve as direct communication from God. Each religion has a sacred scripture that is tied into reason that helps people make decisions. There are many questions with scripture though: is it explicit guidance or general direction? How should we interpret the text? Who can interpret the text? What if scripture is unclear on some matter? How are they related?  Reason and scripture go hand in hand. Reason is used in the scriptures. Reason is used to understand scriptures, and it is used to determine ethical action. BE decisions from a religious perspective  People will look to scripture to make bioethical decisions. People will use reason to try to make the right choice.


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