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MINNESOTA STATE UNIVERSITY, MANKATO / Biology / BIOL 106 / What did people think about evolution before darwin?

What did people think about evolution before darwin?

What did people think about evolution before darwin?

Description

School: Minnesota State University - Mankato
Department: Biology
Course: General Biology II
Professor: Matthew kaproth
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Biology
Cost: 50
Name: Exam 2 Study Guide
Description: This is my own version of a study guide I made for exam 2 (ch 18-20, 22) which is Friday, October 14. I've incorporated mostly what was covered in lecture/lecture outline into my study guide. Some terminology and concepts are from the textbook as well. I hope this will help you while you're studying.
Uploaded: 10/10/2016
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Exam 2 Study Guide


What did people think about evolution before darwin?



Ch. 18 Evolution and the Origin of Species

Darwin’s “Theory of Evolution”

− Evolution itself is not the theory

− Evolution was already accepted by many scientists before Darwin − How evolution occurred was not understood before Darwin’s time − The mechanism for evolution, Natural Selection, is the theory

Evolution—A heritable change in one or more characteristics of a  population or species over many generations

Population—group of individuals of one species that live in the same  geographic area at the same time

Inheritance of acquired characteristics

− Darwin’s theory—natural selection or genetically-based variation  leads to evolutionary change


How do two species evolve from a common ancestor?



− Lamarck’s theory—acquired variation is passed on to  descendents

Charles Darwin

− 5 yr. voyage on the Beagle

− 2 important observations

Natural Selection—Reproduction of individuals with favorable traits that survive environmental change because of those traits

− 3 principles:

1. Individuals in a pop. vary in traits

2. Traits can be heritable

3. Species w/certain traits can survive and reproduce at  higher rates than those w/o those traits

Divergent Evolution—When two species evolve in diverse directions  from a common point

Convergent Evolution—Where similar traits evolve independently in  species that do not share a common ancestor


Which types of reproductive isolation prevent the formation of a zygote?



If you want to learn more check out What is the main idea of black boy?

Evidence of Evolution

1. Fossils

2. Anatomy

a. homologous structures (homology)—similar structures in  diverse organisms that have a common ancestor

b. analogous structures (analogy)—structures of different  species having similar function but not from same origin

Species—group of organisms consisting of similar individuals capable  of exchanging genes or interbreeding

Speciation—Formation of two species from one original species − Allopatric Speciation

− Sympatric Speciation

Species Concepts:

1. Morphological

2. Biological

3. Ecological

4. Phylogentic

Reproductive Isolation Mechanisms:

− Prezygotic isolating mechanism—prevent formation of zygotes o Factors:

 geographic isolation

 ecological isolation

 behavioral isolation

 temporal isolation

 mechanical isolation

 prevention of gamete fusion

− Postzygotic isolating mechanism—allow zygotes to form but  prevent or inhibit their normal development into reproducing  adults

Ch. 19 Evolution of Populations

Gene—physical and functional unit of heredity We also discuss several other topics like What is the frequency of an electromagnetic wave having a wavelength of 300,000 kilometers called?

Chromosome—made up of nucleotides; humans have 23 sets of  homologous chromosomes

Genotype—combination of alleles

Phenotype—physical expression of genes

Gene Pool—possible alleles that can be donated

− Allele frequency

− Genotype frequency

Hardy-Weinberg Principle—allows prediction of genotype frequencies − 5 assumptions:

1. No mutations

2. No migration

3. Random mating

4. Large Population Size

5. No selection

− Allele equation:

p+q=1

− Genotype equation:

p2+2pq+q2=1

5 Agents of Evolutionary Change:

1. Mutation

2. Gene Flow

3. Nonrandom Mating

i. assortive mating, disassortative mating, inbreeding 4. Genetic Drift

i. founder’s effect, bottleneck effect

5. Selection

Maintenance of Variation:

− Negative frequency-dependent selection

− Positive frequency-dependent selection

− Heterozygote advantage We also discuss several other topics like The cell membranes are compost of what?

Types of selection (also know graphs/figure associated with each type) − Disruptive selection

− Directional selection

− Stabilizing selection

Cline—gradient of environmental condition; directional selection

Ch. 20 Systematics, Phylogenies, and Comparative Biology

Systematics—organizing and classifying organisms based on  evolutionary relationships

− 3 main parts:

1. Taxonomy

2. Phylogeny (family trees)

3. Study of the process of evolution

Classification system: hierarchical

Domain: Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya

(Supergroups)

Kingdom: Plantae, Animalia, Fungi

Phylum

Class

Order

Family

Genus

Species

Branching Diagrams

− Cladistics

o Clade= a grouping of relatives (and common ancestor) Ancestral vs. Derived Characters

Shared derived characters and Shared ancestral characters

Homoplasy—a character shared by a set of species but not present in  their common ancestor

Principle of Parisomy—most likely that an event occurred once and in  the most simplest or economical way

The Origin and Diversity of Life We also discuss several other topics like What is the ability of the nervous system to change and adapt throughout life?

Origin of the Universe

− Big Bang—13.7 BYA

− Solar system—4.6 BYA

− Earth—4.5 BYA

Origins of Life

− organisms share fundamental properties of life

o H, O, N, C

− life arose from small organic molecules

− how did organic molecules “find their way” to Earth?

Life:

− carbon based

− water based

− nucleotides

− replication

4 Stages in Chemical Evolution of Life

1. Formation of small organic molecules

2. Small organic molecules formed polymer

3. Polymers were enclosed in membranes

4. Polymers + membranes developed cellular properties Components of reducing atmosphere

Miller-Urey Experiments (1950s) We also discuss several other topics like What is the smallest functional unit of force development control?

Early Life on Earth

− First cells probably aquatic anaerobic heterotrophs − First organisms to populate Earth were prokaryotes

Atmosphere of Early Earth

− less oxygen

− strong volcanic activity

− strong radiation

Stromatolites—colonies of cyanobacteria layered with calcium  carbonate to form rock-like columns If you want to learn more check out What is the meaning of cash and carry in the spanish war?

Examples of changes in Earth’s environment that affected organisms: − climate/temp.

− land masses

− atmosphere

− natural disasters

Ch. 22 Prokaryotes

3 Domains:

1. Bacteria—no nucleus, auto/heterotrophs

2. Archaea—no nucleus, auto/heterotrophs

3. Eukarya—nucleus, Protista, animalia, fungi, plantae

Domain Archaea

− Similarities and differences from bacteria

− Extremophiles—Archaea that are adapted to grow under extreme conditions

o examples of extremophiles and their environmental  capabilities of growth

− Methanogens—organisms that live off of methane

Domain Bacteria

− examples:

o gram-positive/gram-negative bacteria, etc.

Prokaryotic Cell Structure

− Motility

o flagella and pili

− Size—0.5 to 1.0 micrometer in diameter

− Shapes

o Coccus—capsule-like

o Bacillus—rod-like

o Spirillum—spiral-like

− Cell arrangement

o unicellular

o ex: cyanobacteria show variability

− Cell wall

− Endospore

o hardened membrane that let bacteria become dormant in  harsh environments

o “resting cells”

o non-reproductive

Reproduction of Prokaryotes

− Asexual reproduction (binary fission)

− Conjugation

o recombination of genes

Prokaryotic Metabolism

− autotrophs

o require CO2

o photoautotrophs and chemolitho(auto)trophs (nitrifiers or  oxidizers)

− heterotrophs

o C from organic sources

o photoheterotrophs and chemoheterotrophs (decomposers)

Respiration

− Aerobic respiration—need oxygen

− Anaerobic respiration

Plant Pathogen Examples

Animal Pathogens

− diseases in animals and humans

Beneficial Prokaryotes

− role in biogeochemical cycles (C, N cycling) − symbiotic associations with eukaryotes − industrial applications

o ex: fermentation, pharmaceuticals, etc.

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