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Geology The Dynamic Earth Test Questions

by: spizzitola2

Geology The Dynamic Earth Test Questions 101

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All the test questions that he gives away in class
The Dynamic Earth
William Deane
Study Guide
50 ?




Popular in The Dynamic Earth

Popular in Geology (GEOL)

This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by spizzitola2 on Monday October 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 101 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by William Deane in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see The Dynamic Earth in Geology (GEOL) at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.


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Date Created: 10/10/16
Geology Test Questions 1.How old is the earth? -4.5 Billion years 2.What are the three major types of plate boundaries? -transform, divergent, convergent 3.The continent of India collided with what continent? -Asia 4.What is most likely the force that drives plate tectonics? -convection currents in the mantle 5.The two most important characteristics of a mineral are? -chemical composition and crystal structure 6.When an atom loses or gains an electron, it becomes a ? -ion 7.What are the most common rock-forming minerals found in the crust of the earth? -Silicates 8.The second most common mineral in the earths crust is -Quartz 9.Second most abundant mineral group in the earths crust is -Carbonates 10.Friedrich Moh’s is famous for creating a? -Hardiness scale for minerals 11.The appearance of a rock is determined by two major factors? -mineralogy and texture 12. 75% of rocks on the surface of the earth are -sedimentary 13.What classify igneous rocks by their appearance? -mineralogy and texture 14.When do rocks melt? -melting starts at ~700C 15.The three major factors affecting melting of rocks? -pressure, water content, composition 16.Magmas erupting along the mid-oceanic ridges? -are magic in composition, Create Balsatic Lavas, Have Low-Viscosity(All of the above) 17.Volcanic rocks which are violently ejected into the atmosphere during an eruption are called? -Pyroclasts 18.Volcanic cinder cones? -Have short-lived eruptions, typically lasting one event 19.What is an Indonesian word that describes fast moving volcanic mud flow? -Lahar 20.What is a poetic-sounding French word introduced in 1904 to describe the terrible pyroclastic flow that destroyed the city of St. Pierre on the Island Martinique in 1902? -Nuée Ardente (glowing incandescence) 21.What are three major surface processes? -weathering, mass wasting, erosion 22.___is the reaction with any substance with water?(pure) -hydrolysis 23.What is three types of weathering? -physical, chemical, biological 24.What is the product of weathering? -soil 25.What is at the top of the profile layer of “topsoil” that is very rich and organic soil called? -O Horizon KNOW ABOUT SLASH AND BURN*** 26.What is Slash and Burn agriculture? -cutting and burning the jungle to clear the land for crops. Geology Test #2 1. What are three major types of sediments found on the ocean floor?—calcareous ooze, siliceous ooze, red clay 2. What are two major methods of lithification? —compaction, cementation 3. What are the most common types of sedimentary rock? —Siltstone, mudstone and shale 4.What is the number 1 economic money maker? —limestone gravel 5.What are the three principle factors that drive metamorphism? —temperature, pressure, and fluids 6. What are two major types of pressure? —confining pressure and differential stress 7. As intensity of metamorphism increases, so does? —crystal size and coarseness of foliation. 8. What is classified by the degree of cleavage shistosity and banding, which corresponds to the intensity of metamorphism? —Foliated rocks 9. What are the three principle factors that drive metamorphism? —temperature(most important), pressure, fluids 10.What is the rate at which temperature increases as you go deeper into the earths crust? —geothermal gradient 11.What is an overturned fold that can also “lie on its side” so that one side of the fold is horizontal? —recumbent fold 12. The geologic structure of the Black Hills is what? —a very large dome (Know the difference between a syncline and ancline) 13.How dow you fold hard rocks? —pressure, temperature and rock composition. 14. What are three types of stress? —compression, tension, shearing 15.What are the types of faults? —Strike and Dip 16. What happened to the Teton Dam Disaster? —jointed rock 17.What are breaks or fractures in rocks? —faults 18.Where do the majority of earthquakes occur? —along tectonic plate boundaries and margins 19.What is believed to occur on old faults that were once parts of ancient plate tectonic boundaries, which remain zones of crustal weakness? —intraplate earthquakes *20. Where is an ancient and buried plate tectonic boundary? —New Madrid fault 21.Where do the strongest, most deadly and deepest earthquakes occur at? —convergent plate boundaries 22.Normal Faults occur where? —in rift valleys and in seafloor spreading 23.Where do earthquakes occur? —along transform fault boundaries where plates slide past each other. 24. Where do intraplate earthquakes occur? —along old plate boundaries 25.What explains how repeated cycles of stress accumulation and release along a fault line create earthquake of all magnitude? —The Elastic Rebound Theory 26.When movement along fault is smooth or gradual it is called a what? —creep or aseismic slip 27.What is the instrument that is used to detect and record ground motion caused by seismic waves? —A Seismograph 28.Who invented The Richter Magnitude Scale? —Charles Richter Geology 101 notes Three major modes of transportation used by erosion to transport sediments—water, ice, and air Sedimentary rocks can be composed of sediments created from any of the three great rock families—sedimentary, igneous, metamorphic Charles Darwin proposed a single hypothesis for the formation of islands, coral reefs and atolls Metamorphic rock—a rock that has undergone solid state changes in texture, mineralogy, and/or chemical composition Metamorphic changes— -prograde—during an increase in temperature -retrograde—during an decrease in temperature Two types of pressure -confining pressure —pressure from all directions(buried rocks)(does not fold or deform rocks) -differential stress-pressure that comes from a particular direction (collision of two tectonic plates) Metamorphic Grade— High grade-formed in deeper crustal regions, under high temp. and/or high pressure Low grade-formed in shallower crustal regions, under low temp. and/ or low pressure Metamorphic rocks are classified by their texture and composition, which is also related to their grade. Three types of metamorphic rock textures: -foliation—schistosity & Gneissic texture -granoblastic -large-crystal Foliated rocks: -slate(lowest metamorphic grade) -phyllite -schist -gneiss -migmatite Granoblastic Rocks: -quartzite -marble(used as building material)(taj mahal) -hornfels -greenstones -amphibolite Antonio Canova—considered to be the greatest italian sculptor Garnets—only found in metamorphic rock and can be used to judge the grade of the metamorphism. most garnet is not of gem quality The most common use of garnet is as an abrasive, such as in garnet sand paper. Metamorphic environments— contact(or thermal), hydrothermal, burial, regional, shock(impact), fault zone. The sedimentary rocks are turned into metamorphic rock by contact metamorphism. Geologic Time Greenstone is a metamorphic rock that was formed from basalt and is a hard rock that resists weathering. Relative dating—how old a rock is compared to surrounding rocks. -does not give the exact age of the rock -sedimentary rocks are the most important source for relative dating. Nicolaus Steno—a priest who discovered that modern shark teeth were the same as fossil shark teeth. Formed two major principles: -principle of Original Horizontally—that the layers of sediment that are generally formed in a horizontal position -Law of Superposition—states that in an undisturbed sequence of sedimentary rock: each layer is older than the one above. each layer is younger than the one below Paleontology is the study of life in the past based on fossils of plants and animals. -fossils are commonly found in many types of sedimentary rocks NOT igneous or metamorphic rocks. Faunal succession—is the stratigraphic ordering of fossils. Unconformity—is the surface between upper and lower layer that were not laid down in an unbroken sequence. Three types of unconformity: -disconformity -nonconformity -angular unconformity Absolute dating-actual number of years since the rock or fossil was formed. -can give you the exact age of the rock using radioactive data ATOMS Electrons-negative charge, very little mass Protons-positive charge Neutrons-no electric charge # of protons=atomic number # of neutrons + # of protons = atomic mass The oldest minerals found are zircons from Western Australia with an age of over 4.3 Billion years. The Geologic Timetable-allows geologists to determine the age of earth, to unravel complex geologic histories, and to stud the origins and evolutions of life. -Eons are divided into eras -Eras are divided into periods -Periods are divided into epochs Structural Geology is the study of the deformation of rocks and its effects! Strike—compass direction of a rock layer as it intersects with a horizontal surface. Dip—acute angle between the rock layer and the horizontal surface, measured perpendicular to strike. How to fold a hard rock? -type of force applied -pressure -temperatue Earthquakes & Tsunamis The majority of earthquakes occur along tectonic plate boundaries. these boundaries are faults Intraplate earthquakes occur in plate interiors Many earthquakes are NOT proceeded by foreshocks The Richter Magnitude Scale measures the amount of energy received 100km from epicenter. —It is a logarithm scale based upon magnitude. —It was invented by Charles Richter. An Italian geologist, Giuseppe Mercalli, devised an intensity scale that described what the shaking felt like to a human observer and the damage was done. The Richter Scale and Moment Magnitude measure force~1-12 Geology Test #4 1. Most ________ are created by the pattern of the Earth’s air circulation and the topography of the land. -desert regions 2. Many deserts in the middle latitudes, such as in the western US are what? -rain shadow deserts 3. The ______ Desert in SouthAmerica is in the rain shadow of the Andes Mountains. -Atacama 4. Aplaya from which there is no outflow of water (either on the surface as rivers, or underground) is referred to as an -endoric basin 5.If the playa has no natural drainage to the sea, it is referred as -interior drainage 6. What is a classic example of an iselburg? -Australia’s Mount Uluru 7. What are rocks that have been abraded, grooved, or polished by wind driven sand? -Ventifacts 8. Wind abrasion can create a large feature called a ____, which is a streamlined, wind sculpted ridge that is oriented parallel to the prevailing wind. -yardang 9.Adeposit of windblown dust is called -loess ▯ 10. What are the two primary sources for loess deposits -deserts and glacial outwash deposits 11. The ________ is that portion regularly washed by the waves as tides rise and fall. -beach face 12. The _____ is the flatter part of the beach that is usually above the high tide line (but not above storm surges) -berm 13. Vegetation covered ____ are found beyond the berm. -dunes 14.An ______ is a body of water along a coastline, open to the sea, in which the tides ride and fall and in which fresh and salt water mix? -estuary 15. What are waves created in the open ocean by the transfer of the energy of motion from air to water? -Swells 16. What are the three factors that determine the wave size? -Wind velocity, Wind duration, Fetch(distance over which the wind blows) 17. What do jetties, groins, seawalls, and breakwaters all have in common? -they all increase erosion DIAMONDS~ 18. In the formation of diamonds these three conditions are only met under the Earths surface at a depth of _______(120-200 kilometers) in a layer called the upper mantle. -70-120 miles 19. We can divide a Kimberlite pipe into three major sections, called facies. -Crater, Diatreme, Root 20. There are four factors universally recognized in the gem trade that determine the value of a particular diamond. -Carat, Clarity, Color, Cut 21. Internal flaws are called _______ and external flaws are called ______. -inclusions, blemishes 22. For every 10,000 diamonds that are mined only ____ is a colored diamond. -one 23. Most important by ___ billion years ago, there was life on Earth. -3.5 24. It is estimated that over _ billion species that have lived on Earth. -2 25. There are five major layers in EarthsAtmosphere. -Troposphere, Stratosphere, Mesosphere, Thermosphere, Exosphere ▯ 26.In fact, by definition, space begins at an altitude of ___ kilometers (62 miles), which is near the bottom of the thermosphere. -100 27. The ____ ____ is where the Earth’s magnetic field is generated. -outer core ▯ 28. Differences in temperature, pressure and local variations in composition within the outer core causes _____ _____ in the molten metallic fluid. -convection currents 29. The entire surface of Earth would be exposed to the High-energy radiation of the solar wind and cosmic rays, which would what? -quickly kill all life on Earth 30. When the solar winds interact with atoms trapped over the Polar Regions by the Earth’s magnetic field, they create a spectacular light display called? -An aurora 31. Tides are the periodic, regional ride and fall of water level caused by? -The combined gravitational pull of the Moon and Sun 32. The moon has a mean diameter of? -2,160 miles 33. It is hypothesized that the Moon was created when? -AMars-size object smashed into Earth 34. Who was the first human to set foot on the Moon? -NeilArmstrong 35. The maria (dark colored areas) on the surface of the Moon are? -Flat plains created by extensive lava flows 36. The lunar highlands (light colored areas) on the surface of the Moon are? -Heavily cratered mountains ▯ 37. The most common silicate MINERAL found in the crust of the both the Earth and the Moon is ? -Feldspar 38. What are the most common topographic and geologic feature on the Moon? -Impact craters 39. The most common type of ROCK found on the Moon is? -Breccia 40. What impact crater on the Moon is the largest known impact crater in our Solar System? -South Pole-Aiken Basin 41. It was hypothesized the Moon was created when? -AMars-size object smashed into Earth 42. Because the Moon has a crust, upper mantle, lower mantle, outer core and inner core, each of which has a distinct geochemical composition, it is referred to as a? -Differentiated Body ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Notes*** Types of Sand Dunes: Barachan, Transverse, Barchanoid, Longitudinal, Parabolic, Star ▯ Highest sand dunes in the US~ Colorado 805ft high ▯ Depth of the water equals half of the wave length..


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