Geology Exploring the Planets Study guide and test questions
Geology Exploring the Planets Study guide and test questions 104
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This 19 page Study Guide was uploaded by spizzitola2 on Monday October 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 104 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Devon Marjorie Burr (P) in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Exploring the Planets in GEOLOGY (GEL) at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.
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Date Created: 10/10/16
Geology 104 exam 1 study guide Powerpoint 1 topics: Law of uniformitarianism – the present is the key to the past – processes that are occurring today are the same processes that have occurred throughout all of history The universe – the totality of existence Celestial spheres – part of the geocentric model of the universe, celestial spheres were glass spheres that the Sun, Moon, planets, and stars were attached to and moved around the Earth on Epicycles – part of the geocentric model of the universe, way to explain apparent (not real) retrograde motion, basically imposing small orbits over larger orbits for the Sun, Moon, and planets Retrograde motion – the apparent (not real) backwards motion of planets, the Sun, and Moon due to the Earth’s orbit Ptolemy – Greek astronomer, wrote the first textbook of astronomy (Almagest), promoted geocentric model of the universe Geocentric model – model of the universe with Earth at the center and everything revolving around the Earth Nicolaus Copernicus – proposed the heliocentric model of the universe (Sun at the center and everything revolving around the Sun), had some other ideas that were not accurate, but BIG improvement over geocentric model Tycho Brahe – observational astronomer, made very accurate and detailed observations of the positions of stars and planets Johannes Kepler – Brahe’s assistant, applied math to Brahe’s observations to explain the motions of planets Kepler’s Laws – 3 laws governing planetary motion: 1) planets have elliptical orbits (NOT circular as previously thought), 2) planets sweep out an equal area in an equal time, 3) P^2 = A^3, which means that the orbital period (time it takes to go around the sun) squared is equal to the distance from the sun cubed Isaac Newton – determined laws of motion and “discovered” gravity 61 Cygni – first star used to successfully use a technique called “parallax” to determine the distance from the Earth to a distant object, the distance turned out to be greater than anyone had imagined Light year – the distance light travels in one year (5.9 trillion miles approximately) Stellar magnitude – a scale of the brightness of stars Cepheid variable stars – stars that have a luminosity (brightness/light output) that varies over time Henrietta Leavitt – one of the first female astronomers, hired to check pictures of the night sky for variable stars, found about 20 Cepheid variable stars, she determined that there is a relationship between the luminosity and the period of time the luminosity varies for these stars, which allowed other astronomers to determine the distance to any Cepheid variable star Edwin Hubble – determined the distance to two spiral nebulae, discovered redshift (see more in later notes), proved that the two “spiral nebulae” (we call them galaxies today) were separate from our galaxy and very far away (important because no one knew how big “space” was at that time) Powerpoint 2 topics Hans Lippershey – inventor of the telescope Galileo Galilei – improved the telescope and used it to look at the sky for the first time, discovered craters and mountains on the Moon, moons orbiting Jupiter, sunspots, phases of Venus, and many more stars in the Milky Way than previously thought. The church accused him of heresy for supporting a heliocentric view of the universe and put him under house arrest. Refractors – the type of telescope used by Kepler, Galileo, and Huygens – bulky, big, and can cause blurry images Newtonian telescope – invented by Newton, uses mirrors to reflect light instead of a lens to focus light, smaller and more accurate. All modern telescopes are Newtonian telescopes of some kind. William & Caroline Herschel – brother-sister team who observed comets and moons of outer solar system planets. William discovered Uranus. Adaptive optics – changing the surface of a telescope mirror using a computer to adapt for the weather conditions Hubble Space Telescope – first telescope in space, puts the telescope outside the atmosphere, making better quality images Sputnik – first artificial satellite launched into space, launched by Soviet Union, 1957 Laika – dog launched into space by Soviet Union, did not survive NASA – National Aeronautics and Space Administration Remote sensing – the science of gathering data about objects from a distance. There are many satellites that orbit the Earth providing information about weather, natural hazards, navigation, etc., using remote sensing technology Electromagnetic spectrum – range of all wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation Electromagnetic radiation - the type of energy emitted and absorbed by charged particles as they travel through space William Herschel (yes, same guy) – discovered invisible infrared radiation (heat) Johann Ritter – discovered invisible ultraviolet radiation James Maxwell – father of electromagnetism, he said light was an electromagnetic wave and that it traveled at the speed of light Categories of radiation: Gamma radiation, X-ray radiation, Ultraviolet radiation, Visible radiation, Infrared radiation, Microwave radiation, Radio waves Light can be treated as a particle or wave C – the speed of light, which is a constant Absorption lines – dark lines on an object’s spectrum of light, showing where atoms are absorbing energy, allows you to determine what the object is made of Blueshift – if absorption lines are shifted to the left side (blue side) of the spectrum, it is called “blueshift” and means the object is moving toward you Redshift – if absorption lines are shifted to the right side (red side) of the spectrum, it is called “redshift” and means the object is moving away from you Powerpoint 3 topics 5 classic elements – air, water, fire, earth, ether; the idea was that all things were made of some combination of some of the elements Atom – fundamental building blocks of the universe Ion – an atom that has a charge because it has lost or gained an electron Cation – positively-charged ion Anion – negatively-charged ion Definition of a mineral – naturally occurring, solid, inorganic, well defined chemical composition, orderly crystalline structure 6 most common classes of minerals: silicates, carbonates, oxides, sulfides, sulfates, native elements Silicate tetrahedron – basic building block of silicate minerals (most common class of mineral) Definition of a rock – naturally occurring, solid, composed of one or more minerals 3 rock types: igneous, sedimentary, metamorphic Igneous rocks – form by solidification of magma (molten rock) Feldspar – common igneous rock mineral, most common mineral on the Earth and Moon Sedimentary rocks - Rocks formed by solidification of sediments Sediments - any particulate or chemical matter that has been transported and redeposited Clastic – physically deposited material from breakdown of rocks Chemical and biochemical – minerals carried dissolved in water (ex. salt) Lithification – converting sediments to rock Compaction - sediments are squeezed together by the weight of overlying sediments into a solid mass Cementation - minerals precipitate around the sediments and bind them into a solid rock Metamorphism – to change from one form to another Metamorphic rocks – change in solid state due to high pressures and temperatures 3 driving forces of metamorphism – temperature, pressure, fluids Big Bang Theory – how modern science explains the creation of the universe, in the beginning, all matter and energy in the universe were squished into an infinitely small point, which is called a singularity Then it exploded Georges Lemaitre – father of the Big Bang Theory, his theory was based on the redshift (moving away) that can be observed when looking at other galaxies Hubble’s Law – supports Big Bang Theory – redshift increases with increasing distance, so farthest things are moving away from us the fastest 13.81 billion years – age of universe Nebular hypothesis – accepted hypothesis for how solar system formed: cloud begins to cool and contract, and spin, and small eddies form, creating chunks of matter that keep growing in size, matter becomes concentrated at the center to form the sun, and leftovers get formed into planets, moons, asteroids, comets, etc. Solar nebula – large rotating cloud of gas and dust that the solar system eventually formed from Thermonuclear fusion – process inside the sun that began after the sun got big enough and hot enough Inner planets became rocky and outer planets became gas giants because the solar radiation blew all the gases into the outer solar system, where they became building materials for the giant planets 4.5 billion years – age of the solar system based on radioactive dating of meteorites Early Earth was very different from Earth today 3.5 billion years – first evidence of life on Earth Stromatolites – fossilized mats of algae, oldest ones known on Earth are 3.5 billion years Cyanobacteria – primitive bacteria that stromatolites are made of Great Oxidation Event – buildup of significant levels of oxygen in the atmosphere due to photosynthesis of algae and other primitive life forms Eukaryotes – cells with a nucleus, by 2.2 billion years ago, the first eukaryotes were on Earth – life has diversified a lot since then! Powerpoint 4 topics Milky Way galaxy – our galaxy, barred spiral type Ra – Egyptian sun god Hou Yi – Chinese god of archery, who shot down 9 of the 10 original suns so the Earth would not get too hot Rayleigh scattering – scattering of light by the Earth’s atmosphere, causes the sky to look blue, the sun to look yellow, etc. Green flash – rare atmospheric phenomenon caused by the atmosphere bending the sun’s light at sunrise or sunset Hertzsprung-Russell diagram – plot of luminosity of star versus its temperature 4 main groups of stars – supergiants, giants, main sequence, white dwarfs Our sun is a main sequence star Red dwarf – small stars, most common type in the galaxy Sun contains 99.86% of the mass of the solar system 5,500 degrees Celsius – temperature of the surface of the sun 3 major internal layers of the sun – core, radiative zone, convective zone Core – very hot and dense, 99% of the sun’s energy is produced there by the proton-proton chain reaction Radiative zone – zone where energy is transferred from the core by radiation Convective zone – thermal convection carries heat to the sun’s surface 3 layers of the sun’s atmosphere – photosphere, chromosphere, corona Granule – place where convection currents bring hot material to sun’s surface, gives the surface a grainy appearance Corona – extended atmosphere of the sun, millions of degrees, no one knows why Solar wind – gases that come off of the sun through the corona Sunspots – areas of lower temperature on the sun’s surface that appear dark Solar flares/prominences – hot gases being ejected into the corona by the twisted magnetic field of the sun as it rotates Maunder Minimum – period of low sunspot activity and associated with cool weather in Europe called the “Little Ice Age” Young sun was dimmer than current sun Faint young sun paradox – if the young sun were only 70% as bright as the current sun, there should not have been able to be liquid oceans on Earth, but geologic evidence indicates that there were liquid oceans on Earth at that time – maybe Earth’s position was different, or its atmosphere allowed it to stay warm enough at the surface Sun is always evolving The sun will expand to become a red giant toward the end of its life and eventually will explode, leaving behind a cloud of gases and a white dwarf star White dwarf has a lot of mass but no thermonuclear fusion, so eventually once it radiates all its heat away, it will become dark and stop shining SOHO – Solar and Heliospheric Observatory – satellite that studies the sun Categories of objects in the solar system: sun, Planets, Moons, Kuiper Belt Objects, Asteroids, Comets, Dust 8 planets – Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune Mercury – closest to sun Venus – second-closest to sun Earth – has one moon Mars – has two moons Asteroid belt – region between Mars and Jupiter of many rocky small objects Jupiter – biggest planet, has rings and 67 moons Saturn – amazing rings, 62 moons Uranus – faint rings, 27 moons Neptune – faint rings, 14 moons Pluto – reclassified as dwarf planet Composition of planets – rock, gas, ice Terrestrial planets (Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars) – too hot for gases and ices, only rock and metal could form Gas giants (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune) – cool enough for gases and ices, in addition to rocky material to form Kuiper Belt Objects – small objects made of ice and frozen gases Comets – leftover debris from early outer solar system, form tails when approach the sun Oort cloud – large spherical cloud of comets around the solar system Zodiacal light – glow of dust particles in the inner solar system, best seen at sunrise and sunset Geology Test #2 1. Who used the General Theory of Relativity? -Albert Einstien 2. Mercury orbits the sun once every _____ days. -87.969 days 3. Every ___ days, Mercury orbits the Sun twice and rotates three times. -176 days 4. You use pictures taken through the various filters in the MDIS wide angle camera can provide info about the differences in composition of the rocks on the surface of what? -Mercury 5. Two distinctive types of plains (flat terrain) are found on Mercury are called? —Inter-crater plains & smooth plains 6. The atoms that escape from the _______, like sodium, are blown away by solar winds and create a tail of gas that streams away from the planet? -exosphere *7. This combination can be explained if Mercury has a large core that is rich in what? -iron *8. Mercury is small in size but has very high what? -density ***combine question 9. Because of the similar sizes, Venus has been called what? -Earths Twin 10. Venus rotates ______ which is called retrograde rotation and the Sun rider in the west. -clockwise 11. Venera 9 took the very first images of the surface of Venus when? -October 22, 1975 12. The advantage of using ____ to map Venus is that you can see right thru the thick atmosphere and reveal the hidden surface. -radar 13. The ______ ______ of Venus is primarily composed of 96.5% carbon dioxide, 3.5% nitrogen and trace amounts of other gases. -gaseous atmosphere 14. The most common topographic landform on Venus are the what? -plains 15. How many million years old are the oldest oceans? -180 years 16. There are __ large and several micro tectonic plates. -20 17. What are the three types of plate boundaries? -transform(slide by), divergent (pull apart), convergent (smash together) 18. The ____ Mountains form along the Pacific side of South America that stretches over 5500 miles long. -Andes 19. What is most likely the force that drives plate tectonics? -convection currents in the mantle 20. The Himalayas are __ million years old and are still actively being created. -45 21. It is believed that the young Appalacian Mountains were? -Every bit as spectacular as the himalayas are today, with peaks reaching 5000 to 8000 meters (17,000 to 26,000 feet) in elevation and perhaps higher 22. What can also produce uplift and the formation of mountains? -Tensional forces 23. What are volcanic ejecta violently blown out of the volcano into the atmosphere during an eruption? -Pyroclasts 24. Volcanic Cinder cones? -Have short lived eruptions, typically lasting one event 25. The majority of earthquakes occur along what? -tectonic plate boundaries 26. The point of the earths surface directly above the focus is called what? -the epicenter 27. What theory explains how repeated cycles of stress accumulation and release along a fault line create earthquake of all magnitudes? - Geology Test #3 ▯ Test Questions 1. Oceanographers studying the topography of the ocean floor refer to what three major provinces of the ocean floor? -continental margins, deep-ocean basins, Mid-oceanic ridges (Oceanic Ridges) 2. What are underwater landslides composed of mud, sand and water? -turbidity currents 3. Between the continental margins and the mid-oceanic ridges lies? -deep-ocean basins. 4. What covers almost 30% of the Earth’s surface, an area comparable to the percentage of dry, continental land? -Deep-Ocean Basins 5. What is the deepest ocean trench? -Mariana Trench 11,033 meters (36,198 feet) 6. More than ____% of all magma that erupts onto the surface of the earth, occurs along the mid-oceanic ridges? -60% ▯ 7. These outcrops of oceanic crust exposed on land are called what? -ophiolites 8. What causes continental rifting? -trench retreat 9.As the oceanic plate is ______, it erodes and wears away the rock under the base of the plate? -subducted 10.As the trench ______, it drags the continental plate back with it, with the result that tensional forces are applied inland to the continent -retreats 11. Mountains are built where? -convergent plate tectonic boundaries 12. The ascending magma interacts with the what? -overlying felsic - rich continental crust 13. When two continents collide head on, its can form a ? -major mountain range 14. The final mountain building orogeny that created theAppalacian Mountains occurred 200-250 million years ago when theAtlantic Ocean closed and? -Africa rammed into NorthAmerica 15. One of the most extensive regions of fault-block mountains on Earth is found in the.? -Basin and Range in Nevada 16. What term do geologists use to describe any small piece of crust that has a geologic history distinct from that of the adjoining crust? -Terrane 17. Land mountains such as Himalayas, are built along? -convergent plate tectonic boundaries 18.Avolcanic island arc can develop when? -An oceanic plate is sub ducted beneath another oceanic plate 19. The rock composition of volcanoes created by continent volcanic arcs is? -Andesitic or rhyolltic (intermediate or felsic) in chemical composition. 20. The chaotic mixture of sediments, washed in from the continent and scrapped off of the sub ducting oceanic plate, that accumulate above the trench and the forarc basin is called? -Accrecenary wedge ▯ 21. What is a term used to describe the movement of geological material (rocks, soils, sediments) under the effects of gravity? -Mass wasting 22. What is the maximum slope angle at which dry, unconsolidated material is stable? -Angle of Repose 23. Where did the largest landslide in recent history that occurred on Feb. 18,1911 occur? -Pamir Mountains, Tajikistan 24. The Vaiont River flows through an old glacial valley in the italian alps, which is primarily formed in what? -Sedimentary rocks 25. What are the two hazards to decrease water content? -Diverting runoff above the hazard & Install subsurface drainage 26. Trunks may be tilted downslope which are curved tree trunks are occurred through what? -the soil is helping it creep down 27. The oceans contains ____ of the earths water supply? -97.2% 28. Only ____ of the total amount of water found on Earth’s water is “fresh”? -2.8% 29.A____ is the boundary separating one drainage basin from an adjacent drainage system? -divide 30. Whether water flow is lament or turbulent depends on… -flow of velocity, depth of water, viscosity 31. What is a measure of a liquid’s resistance to flow? -viscosity 32.Astreams ability to carry solid particles is typically described using what two criteria? -competence and capacity 33. The _______ are the farthest point upstream point or “source” of the river, which is usually up in the hills or mountains. -headwaters 34. The longitudinal profile of a stream is what shape? -concave shape 35. Several old remnants of previous ___oxbow lakes_ may be seen in -oxbow lake 36. The delta of the Mississppi river contains ___% of all coastal wetland in the 48 states. -40% 37. ____% of all wetlands that are lost each year in the US are lost in the Mississippi delta. -80% 38. What are fan-shaped accumulations of sediment that form where streams widen and slow down suddenly at the base of a mountain? -Alluvial fans ▯ 39. The four common types of steam drainage patterns are…? -Dentritic, Trellis, Rectangular, Radial 40. What essentially make the channel deeper, which can confine floods to the channel? -Levees 41. What are the five processes at work in the hydrologic cycle? -Condensation, Evaporation, Infiltration, Precipitation, Runoff 42. What is the process by which water seeps into the ground? -Infiltration ▯ 43. On average about __ times as much water is carried by the atmosphere than is transported by all the rivers. -6 44. There is ___ times more water under the surface of the earth (as groundwater) than in all of the lakes and man-made reservoirs on Earth. -26 times 45.Arock that holds enough water and transmits it rapidly enough to be useful as a source of water is called an… -aquifer 46. Conversely, a rock that holds water, but in which the water flow is slowed or retarded is called an… -aquitard 47.An _________ is rock that cannot hold water and that water cannot pass through. -aquiclude 48. In most aquifers groundwater typically flows at the rate of? -a few centimeters per day ▯ 49.Avast yet shallow underground aquifer located beneath the Great Plains in the US that has had too much water pumped out for irrigation is called the? -Ogallala aquifer 50.An _____ is defined as as a period of long-term reduction in the the temperature of Earth’s climate, resulting in an expansion of the continental ice sheets, polar ice sheets and mountain glaciers. - ice age 51. There have been at least _ major ice ages in the Earth’s past. -4 52. The underwater blue holes and caves, which could only be formed ________ are found throughout the Caribbean. -above sea level 53. Who was the Serbian astrophysicist who proposed that climate oscillations linked to variations in the Earth’s orbit and the Earth’s orientation in space that could cause IceAges? -Milutin Milankovitch ▯ 54. What was blown in from Europe that coats the ice, causing the ice to absorb more heat from the summer sun light, which speeds up melting? -Black soot and dust 55. __% of the freshwater on earth is trapped in glaciers, ice caps and ice sheets. -75% 56. The total volume of ice in the alpine glaciers is ______ cubic kilometers. -210,000 Geology Test #4 1. Most ________ are created by the pattern of the Earth’s air circulation and the topography of the land. -desert regions 2. Many deserts in the middle latitudes, such as in the western US are what? -rain shadow deserts 3. The ______ Desert in SouthAmerica is in the rain shadow of the Andes Mountains. -Atacama 4. Aplaya from which there is no outflow of water (either on the surface as rivers, or underground) is referred to as an -endoric basin 5.If the playa has no natural drainage to the sea, it is referred as -interior drainage 6. What is a classic example of an iselburg? -Australia’s Mount Uluru 7. What are rocks that have been abraded, grooved, or polished by wind driven sand? -Ventifacts 8. Wind abrasion can create a large feature called a ____, which is a streamlined, wind sculpted ridge that is oriented parallel to the prevailing wind. -yardang 9.Adeposit of windblown dust is called -loess ▯ 10. What are the two primary sources for loess deposits -deserts and glacial outwash deposits 11. The ________ is that portion regularly washed by the waves as tides rise and fall. -beach face 12. The _____ is the flatter part of the beach that is usually above the high tide line (but not above storm surges) -berm 13. Vegetation covered ____ are found beyond the berm. -dunes 14.An ______ is a body of water along a coastline, open to the sea, in which the tides ride and fall and in which fresh and salt water mix? -estuary 15. What are waves created in the open ocean by the transfer of the energy of motion from air to water? -Swells 16. What are the three factors that determine the wave size? -Wind velocity, Wind duration, Fetch(distance over which the wind blows) 17. What do jetties, groins, seawalls, and breakwaters all have in common? -they all increase erosion DIAMONDS~ 18. In the formation of diamonds these three conditions are only met under the Earths surface at a depth of _______(120-200 kilometers) in a layer called the upper mantle. -70-120 miles 19. We can divide a Kimberlite pipe into three major sections, called facies. -Crater, Diatreme, Root 20. There are four factors universally recognized in the gem trade that determine the value of a particular diamond. -Carat, Clarity, Color, Cut 21. Internal flaws are called _______ and external flaws are called ______. -inclusions, blemishes 22. For every 10,000 diamonds that are mined only ____ is a colored diamond. -one 23. Most important by ___ billion years ago, there was life on Earth. -3.5 24. It is estimated that over _ billion species that have lived on Earth. -2 25. There are five major layers in EarthsAtmosphere. -Troposphere, Stratosphere, Mesosphere, Thermosphere, Exosphere ▯ 26.In fact, by definition, space begins at an altitude of ___ kilometers (62 miles), which is near the bottom of the thermosphere. -100 27. The ____ ____ is where the Earth’s magnetic field is generated. -outer core ▯ 28. Differences in temperature, pressure and local variations in composition within the outer core causes _____ _____ in the molten metallic fluid. -convection currents 29. The entire surface of Earth would be exposed to the High-energy radiation of the solar wind and cosmic rays, which would what? -quickly kill all life on Earth 30. When the solar winds interact with atoms trapped over the Polar Regions by the Earth’s magnetic field, they create a spectacular light display called? -An aurora 31. Tides are the periodic, regional ride and fall of water level caused by? -The combined gravitational pull of the Moon and Sun 32. The moon has a mean diameter of? -2,160 miles 33. It is hypothesized that the Moon was created when? -AMars-size object smashed into Earth 34. Who was the first human to set foot on the Moon? -NeilArmstrong 35. The maria (dark colored areas) on the surface of the Moon are? -Flat plains created by extensive lava flows 36. The lunar highlands (light colored areas) on the surface of the Moon are? -Heavily cratered mountains ▯ 37. The most common silicate MINERAL found in the crust of the both the Earth and the Moon is ? -Feldspar 38. What are the most common topographic and geologic feature on the Moon? -Impact craters 39. The most common type of ROCK found on the Moon is? -Breccia 40. What impact crater on the Moon is the largest known impact crater in our Solar System? -South Pole-Aiken Basin 41. It was hypothesized the Moon was created when? -AMars-size object smashed into Earth 42. Because the Moon has a crust, upper mantle, lower mantle, outer core and inner core, each of which has a distinct geochemical composition, it is referred to as a? -Differentiated Body ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Notes*** Types of Sand Dunes: Barachan, Transverse, Barchanoid, Longitudinal, Parabolic, Star ▯ Highest sand dunes in the US~ Colorado 805ft high ▯ Depth of the water equals half of the wave length..
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