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Social Psychology Exam 2 Study Guide

by: Bailey Anderson

Social Psychology Exam 2 Study Guide PSY 270-001

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Bailey Anderson

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This study guide covers everything on exam 2. This includes the questions in the handouts plus more examples and descriptions that we went over in class.
psy orientation soc psy
Dr. Sheets
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Bailey Anderson on Monday October 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 270-001 at Indiana State University taught by Dr. Sheets in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 113 views. For similar materials see psy orientation soc psy in Psychology at Indiana State University.

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Date Created: 10/10/16
Social Psychology Exam 2 Study Guide  Zimbardo’s Prison Experiment  o Background:  Class project: social psychology of institutions  Prison group brought guest o Set up mock prison with help: 3, 6x9 cells in basement(cot, mattress, sheet,  pillow) o 24 Ss recruited from campus paid for 2 week study of prison life, none were  friends, all were tested for psychological health o Random assignment: half prisoners and half guards (12 and 12)­ Independent  variable o Set up:  Guards worked 8 hour shifts, do counts/roll call at beginning, maintain  order (4 guards for 12 people)  Write diary at end of shift  No physical aggression  Prisoners= picked up from home via PA police, fingerprinted, blindfolded  and brought to psych  Given uniform(smock, sandals, chain around 1 ankle, a number)  Remained in custody continuously  2 hrs for reading, 2 visiting periods per week, 3 toilet visits, 3  bland meals per day o Outcomes:  Started smoothly, rebellion in 24 hours­ leader excused in 36hrs and others punished  Prisoners: became passive and non­conforming, did less and less on own,  referred to selves by number, day 6 a mock parole hearing (asked to give  up pay to be let out­ they said yes) went back to cell  Guards: became demeaning and degrading, after rebellion they took sheets off of bed, locked one up for refusing to eat and made others tease him  about it o What does this study teach us?­   The important of social rolls  Conformity­ conforming to the guard roll or the prisoner roll(refer by  number)  Power is corrupting? People can be cruel?  There is evidence that social power gives entitlement  Most important lesson: the power of the situation­ situations often come  with rules (expectations for how to act) that serve as powerful and even  overwhelming guides to behavior  Role determines behavior (& perspective/attributions)  Taking over independently of pacifistic identity  Social perspective­ (social) behavior determined by culture o What are norms?­   Standards for accepted and expected behaviors (“social rules” for how to  act)  “normal” behavior­ so “normal” unaware till violation  Subway study by Milgram: sent students to subway and told them to ask  people for their seats.  People gave up seats (56%) or made room (12%)  Theatre study by Milgram: had students cut in line at a theatre.  Compliance (give­in, if not accept): 57%  Acceptance/internalize  Some norms are for specific status/social position: role  Role= set (cluster) of norms to define how someone in a particular social  situate or position should act  Concept developed by Goffman; theater as metaphor; roles, like  scripts, define behavior to maintain social life  Examples of social roles?­ parents, doctors, professors  Gender roles: examples­ clothing ect   Gender roles o Why are gender roles important? o One of the foundational/organizational schemes for our culture o How do we come to know roles and norms?  Observation of others (modeling)  Explicit teaching (reinforcement) o Where do sex roles come from?  F. Boaz, R. Benedict, M. Mead= culture  Mead’s work: sex and temperament in 3 primitive societies. Arapesh­ nonviolent, Mundugumore­ men and women violent, Tchamuli­  women dominant and men primped  Conclusions dubious (overstated and perhaps misinterpreted)  Sociocultural theories  Norms thought to derive from sexual division of labor  Masculinity ( inclined agg and independent =work outside of home)  Femininity ( inclined to be caring and empathetic= work inside home)  Evolutionary Perspective o Doesn’t dispute norms may be learned (empirical question) o Argues ultimate cause (of culture and/or individual)=evolution o Essence:  Behavior is “adapted” to match the survival needs of ancestors; that is we  behave in ways that helped our ancestors survive (reproduce)  Why is sex fun? Why is sugar sweet?  Implication: some “norms,” especially gender, may be evolutionary­ we may  see them because they helped our ancestors survive o Parental investment theory  Women=reproduction is biologically­costly  Men= reproduction is biologically­cheap  Thus, evolutionary psychology predict sex differences  Example: sexual interest; mate preference; aggressiveness; empathy etc  o What are “established” sex differences?  Sexual behavior  Men are more willing to engage in uncommitted sex (C&H), see sexual  interest in partners (A). Study where people were randomly asked to  have sex: more than half of males said yes, none of the females said  yes.   Men everywhere seek youthful partners (seeks reprod fitness), while  women seek financial security (B).   Women skeptical of commitment (B).   Aggression  Men are more physically aggressive than women everywhere, despite  Mead (D&W)  Emotions  Men seem more focused on independence and women display more  empathy/concern for others  Zoosk dating site (2014) reports men using emojis get fewer dates but  women get more  PI theory is consistent with these observed patterns. o Note: overlapping distributions  Not all men/women same  Some men show empathy and some women show aggression   How can we distinguish whether norms are reflection of culture or evolutionary history? o If you see the same behavior in all cultures you can say it isn’t from culture o Cross­cultural (you might think)­ important and often neglected   If behavior is everywhere same, hard to say “culture”  If behavior is different, is it “culture”?  Example: Maslow/Indians (motive evolved; expression learned)­ they would  give things away. They gained status by giving away things, not keeping things or having things like us. We all have same motive­ to gain status o Point is: false dichotomy  Behavior may be biology (evolution) & culture  Humans are innately social­born prematurely (before brains  developed)  Evolution may lead to cultural patters enforced on nonobservers  Thus, evolution= ultimate (most distal­far away), culture (distal),  psych (more proximate­closer), etc o Naturalistic fallacy­ evolution doesn’t always set up something good morally or other  (behaviors or anything else)  But does not make “right” (nature is not “good”, ex: diseases)  Compliance= behavioral change without attitudinal change. But, self­perception and  dissonance say it may result. If so, acceptance  Persuasion= attitudinal change (with ultimate goal of behavioral change, ex: voting,  purchases etc.)  Social influence= we change thing because of other people and social processes  Social psychology proposed 2 routes to persuasion: o Central route­ change via arguments=mindful processing (thoughtful consideration of facts) o Peripheral route­ change via incidental factors= heuristic processing (reacting to cues  that are irrelevant to the argument)  Which is better and why?­ two reasons for central route: o As a scientist/educator­ prefer informed, evidenced, and rational choices o Because mindful­based decision­making should be more potent and  durable=guide behavior  Reciprocation­ there is a perhaps universal rule for return of favors o So powerful, it works even if favor is uninvited o Demonstrated experimentally as follows: 2 “S” in a study of art appreciation Cond 1­ after exp, S2 (confederate) offers raffle ticket (25c) Cond 2­ during break S2 buys S1 coke (5c=1960) What happened? In cond1­ 1 ticket sold, cond2­ 2 tickets sold o That’s not all= “sweetening the deal” Bake sale: Cond 1: 2 cupcakes + 2 cookies, 75c Cond 2: 2 cupcakes 75c, but before deciding +2 cookies free Result: 40% of approaches cond 1; 73% cond 2  Reciprocal Concessions or “Door in the face”  o Outrageous request followed by smaller=salesperson has done a “favor” by  reducing request­ you feel compelled to “return” by complying with smaller request o Blood drive: cond 1­ will you come back next week?, cond 2­ will you come back  every 6 weeks for next 3 years? No? okay how about just next week? Results: 43% cond 1; 0 at first, then 84% cond 2  Commitment and consistency­ basis of “contracting” in therapy and behavior  modification  o Sales tactics: phone company­ “are you the type who likes to save money?” “what  would it take for you to buy the care today?”   o Variations: foot in the door (small request, then bigger)­ calling to ask questions  about household products you use for “The Guide”=small request. 3 days later:  expanding publication 5­6 men for 2hr to record all household products. Must have full freedom to go through cupboard and storage places. Control (no small request): 22% yes Exp (foot in the door): 53% yes o Low­ball: make a low­price offer, then when commitment, take away basis of  commitment. Care sales: promise to sell for X, but manager says no o Bait & switch: make a low­price offer, then when S shows to purchase, subst a  lower­quality product for price  Social proof/conformity­ we are influenced by others, sometimes consciously (go to a  new church) o Sherif: “autokinetic effect” Ss estimated movement of light in inches across  several days. They were watching the light either alone or in a group (saying  inches out loud).  When alone, their answers are all over the place. When in group, they said answers that were similar. o Asch: wanted anthro, not soc psych, but got interested in imp form  Would people conform when task was unambiguous?  Chose task everyone could do: choose like A,B, or C to match other line  99% correct (1% wrong) in solo trials  Group of 4 confederates and one S: 37% of time S would give knowable  wrong answer. No punishment or reward, yet people conformed  Why? – normative social influence: based on need for social approval  Evidence: with one dissenter (gave right answer), conformity dropped to 6% but when dissenter conformed, S did (to 30%).  Conf dropped with private responding (others wouldn’t hear) o Descriptive norms= what people do (situational) o Injective norms= what people should do (trans­situational­ carry with you)  Clean or littered environment: S given paper to litter or not. Conf walks by  (control). Conf drops mcdonalds bag on ground­ focus on descriptive. Conf picks up bag­ focus on injunctive. If conf drops bag, S litter. If conf picks  up bag, S doesn’t litter. If clean ground, S doesn’t litter.   Petrified forest: Either put up no message, descriptive (many people stole  wood and changed forest) sign or injective (do not steal wood to protect  beauty) signs. 3% vs 7% vs 2%  We tend to underestimate social influence. o Energy conservation: survey that asked why should we conserve energy? (protect  env, save money, bc others do it). “because of others” rated low; but best  predictor. Exp: least “motivating” people who got messages that neighbors were  trying to conserve energy, used less energy. o Goes well beyond perception  o Philips: publicizing suicides increases the amount of suicides  Authority  o Milgram­ student of Asch­ decided to study “conformity” without groups,  conformity with expectations of other  3 players: 1 experimenter, 2 subj (one confederate)  Subj recruited from newspaper for money  Procedure: upon arrival, S was paid ($4.50). subj told experiment was  about punishment and memory. Draw for “role” of teacher versus learner  (both said teacher so subj always got teacher). Teacher was to give test,  increase shock with every wrong answer; no response= wrong answer.  Teacher shown shock machine 15­450 volts (ex dangerous) to convince it  was real, they were hooked up and given a little jolt  Confederate was strapped into chair while subj watched. Could not see  while shocking, could only hear. Conf was suppose to say certain things at certain volts (let me out, I refuse to continue, cant stand the pain scream,  and then silence)  63% continued to 450 volts (6 more levels after conf went silent)  Experimenter gave generic statements : the exp requires you to go on  Nobody went to go check on confederate after done or after quitting  Why did people obey?  Authority figure giving commands­ experts know best  If subj watched another teacher do this, 90% compliance­ if other rebelled, 10% compliance  Often authorities do know best, why is it peripheral?­ central involves  thinking and rationally thinking, peripheral avoids thinking and just  reacting to the cue­ not thinking on own (subj followed because  experimenter supposedly knew what they were doing)  Scarcity­ when things are in limited supply (rare), value goes up o Unilever shampoo (in Lindstrom’s Buy­ology)  Put “contains X9 factor” on bottle as a joke  When later removed from label, got complaints  Liking  o No surprise we are persuaded by people we like o What kind of people do we like?  Similarity­ people prefer candidates (Bush vs Kerry) when own faces are  morphed with them (but only moderates). Also, people asked to do favor (read  and critique essay)­ 2x as likely when shared birthday (Yee)   Physical attractiveness­ we are all more persuaded by attractive people  Lower bails, less likely to be found guilty, more likely to win elections  Car with attr woman is rated as “faster and more appealing”  Good feelings  99 German students: how do you know you like someone? “you feel  good when they are around”  Optimism  People who feed us  Psychological Reactance o Karl Pearson at Cambridge (1880s)  Went to dean and said “I can’t abide by this requirement that I attend Chapple  everyday” dean said okay I’m not going to force you. Dean notices Pearson  sitting in Chapple   We have the same reaction to heavy­handed influence attempts like those we’ve discussed o Characteristics of Messenger (s)  Who is persuasive?  “credible” (believable)= expert + trustworthy, also eye contact, lack of  hesitation, not persuading  If arguments run contrary to expectations  “similar/likeable” are also persuasive (especially on values/tastes) but  not always mindful  “multiple sources (communicators)” maybe mindful if decision  independent but maybe social proof  What makes a message persuasive? o a.) Get attention, b.) understandable, c.) convincing, d.) memorable, e.) compelling  (motivate behavior) o What affects these?  Logic (reason) vs Emotional  Reason is more “central”, but not always most persuasive   Humor (a) + (d), but mindful? Recall: good feelings  Fear can be powerful mechanism (a)+(e) –if give “solution” (or generate  helplessness)  Repetition  Repeated information is more believable (c)+(d)  Sleeper effect (even discredited )   Relevant messages (a)  Study: college students read messages about possibility of creating a  graduation exam. Given either weak arguments (other schools have) or  strong arguments (insure future jobs) Also: some people told it wouldn’t  start for 10 years (low relevance), others were told it would start next  year so they would have to take it (high relevance). They measured their  agreement. Strong agreement when relevance is high and low agreement  when relevance is low.  2­ sided  If the audience is well­informed, likely to hear the other side, or against  you, present both sides of the argument.   If two sides are being presented, by you, or someone else (as in a debate), should you present your “target” message first or last?­ first because of  primacy effect (what you see first is more impressionable and given more weight)  1­sided if the audience is with you  Order of presentation (c)+(d)  Present first  However, present last if there’s a long time­lag o Mode (channel) of Persuasion  Person­to­person is typically most persuasive­ but not always mindfully (+not  cost­effective)  Media (TV/radio) also influences  Two step process (media effects “leaders” who affect others)  Step 1 may be mindful, but perhaps not step 2  Don’t discount written words  Written is effective for complex/diff messages o Characteristics of the Audience/Situation: what type of audiences most persuaded?  Younger audiences (mindful or liberal?)  Intelligent and hi in cognition audience persuaded via “thinking” o What is a cult?  Distinctive ritual beliefs directed by good or person  Isolation from surrounding community  Charismatic leader o People’s Temple: largest mass suicide in modern history  Founded by Jim Jones  IN native, neglected, Pentecostal.   Moved to San Francisco where he helped in food kitchens, was a  social activist and was very respected  1974 founded “utopian” community in Guyana  Investigations led him to relocate church to Guyana­nearly 1000  followers went  “concerned relatives” called Congressman Leo Ryan  Ryan went down in 1978  Was initially impressed, but passed notes saying “I’m trapped”  Arranged to take 15 with him; 4 gunned down (including Ryan)  “Revolutionary Act­ suicide” (practiced: White nights): Jones made everyone  drink something with cyanide in it which killed them. 909 followers died  Message o Warmth/acceptance  Good feelings/similarity o Exchange responsibility for security (“I will take care of you”)  Reciprocation­ they are willing to take care of you, all you have to do is  follow o Vision for future (that must be prepared for)  Commitment/consistency  o Limits choices and access to outside sources of info  Social proof o Undesirable thoughts are banished (singing/chanting­keeps them from thinking  about other things or about the outside)  Cohesion/social proof  Audience  o In transitions­ because they are questioning things and not sure what’s next  Young people looking for identity/belonging (or at crossroads)  Middle class (trusting)  Not only uneducated/unthinking, but educated/disgusted   Persuader (Leader) o Appears credible and gains mythic status   Authority   Mode o Members sent immediately to recruit/work  Attitudes follow our actions  How can we “fight” persuasive influence? o Knowledge is power, but not all­powerful o Are there ways to “inoculate” people from persuasion? 1. Challenge beliefs just enough to encourage counterarguments  Try to persuade via central route, but with weak arguments, leading  counterargument development 2. Make people comfortable questioning authorities/others  Role­playing can help reduce effect of social proof  Or give practice analyzing advertising/persuasive claims


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