Biology 243 Exam 1 Study Guide
Biology 243 Exam 1 Study Guide 243
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Erin Mitchell on Monday October 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 243 at University of South Carolina - Columbia taught by Dr. Sharon DeWitte in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Anatomy and Physiology I in Biology at University of South Carolina - Columbia.
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Date Created: 10/10/16
Biol 243 Exam 1 Study Guide Chapter 1: anatomical planes: their names and what sections they divide the body into 1 1. Transversedivides the body into top (superior) and bottom (inferior) sections 2 2. Coronal/Frontaldivides the body into a front (ventral) and back (dorsal) sections 3 3. Sagittaldivides the body in half down a midline. Midsagittal plane is exactly in the middle; a parasagittal plane is an uneven division body cavities – names and what they contain Dorsal Cavity: 1. Cranial cavitycontains brain 2. Vertebral cavitycontains spinal cord Ventral Cavity (2,3,and 4 are part of Abdominopelvic cavity): 1. Thoracic cavitycontains heart and lungs 2. Abdominal cavitycontains digestive viscera 3. Pelvic cavitycontains urinary bladder, reproductive organs, and rectum 4. Retroperitoneal cavitycontains kidneys characteristics of life what distinguishes living things from nonliving things All living things: 1. Maintain boundaries 2. Move 3. Respond 4. Digest 5. Have metabolism 6. Excrete 7. Reproduce 8. Grow definitions of anatomy (including gross anatomy and microscopic anatomy) and physiology Anatomystudy of body structures and relationships Grossstudy of larger structures Microscopicstudy of tiny structures (e.g. cell organelles) Physiologyhow body parts function (FORM DETERMINES FUNCTION!) directional terms – e.g. superior/inferior, proximal/distal, etc.; know their definitions and be able to use them to describe the relative positions of body parts 1 Superior (above), Inferior (below) 2 Anterior (at or close to front), Posterior (at or close to back) 3 Medial (close to midline), Lateral (away from midline) 4 Proximal (closer to an attachment site), Distal (farther from an attachment site) 5 Superficial (close to surface), Deep (far from surface) homeostasis; define this term; name and describe the components of homeostatic regulatory mechanisms (e.g. receptors, control center, effectors, pathways) Homeostasis is the maintenance of stable internal conditions despite changing external conditions. This is accomplished through dynamic equilibrium, or variation within a narrow range that always seeks to return to the homeostatic set point. Components of homeostatic regulatory mechanisms: 1. Stimulusproduces changes 2. Receptordetects changes 3. Control centerinformation destination between afferent pathway (from input) and efferent pathway (toward muscle or gland that responds) 4. Pathways: Afferentfrom input to control center Efferentfrom control center to muscle or gland positive and negative feedback mechanisms – characteristics and examples Negative feedback mechanismresponse reduces or shuts off stimulus E.g. shivering to increase body heat when cold Positive feedback mechanismresponse enhances original stimulus E.g. blood clotting human organ systems (just know their names for now) 1. Integumentary system 2. Skeletal system 3. Muscular system 4. Nervous system 5. Endocrine system 6. Cardiovascular system 7. Lymphatic system 8. Respiratory System 9. Digestive System 10.Urinary system 11.Reproductive system regions of the abdominopelvic cavity and what is located within them Abdominal cavitycontains stomach, intestines, spleen, liver Pelvic cavitycontains bladder, reproductive organs, rectum serous membranes: know their general organization and where they are located Serous membranes have an outer layer (parietal) and an inner layer attached to the organ (visceral). There is fluid between them (serous cavity). Some important serous membranes are (all have parietal and visceral layers): Pericardium Peritoneum Pleurae standard anatomical position Body laying down with arms and legs away from the body, palms turned slightly upward and feet flexed Chapter 2: amino acids know the general structure of all amino acids Amino acids have an amine group, an rgroup, an acid group, and a carboxyl group. They form proteins when connected by polypeptide bonds. carbohydrates: distinguish between monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides 1. Monosaccharidesone molecule simple sugars 2. Disaccharides2 monosaccharides bonded together 3. Polysaccharideslong chains of monosaccharides joined together by synthesis reactions chemical bonds: o covalent, ionic, hydrogen – know their definitions and examples of each covalentsharing electrons (e.g.CO2) ionicelectron donation, common among metallic compunds (e.g. NaCl) hydrogen bondshydrogen bonds with other hydrogens on molecules where the hydrogen bonds to O,N,F and there is a lone pair. Very strong (e.g. H2O) chemical reactions – types (e.g. synthesis, decomposition, oxidationreduction, etc.) and examples of each Synthesisrequires energy, combination reaction, A+B yields AB Decompositionreleases energy, breakdown, AB yields A+B Exchange (displacement)can be synthesis or decomposition, parts switch places, e.g. AB+CD yields AC+BD Oxidation/Reductionelectrons exchanged, often involves gain/loss of hydrogen ions exergonic vs. endergonic distinguish between these concepts Exergonicreleases energy, difficult to reverse Endergonicabsorbs energy, easier to reverse factors that affect the rate of chemical reactions: o temperature (greater temp speeds up reaction), concentration (greater concentration speeds up reaction), particle size, catalysts (adding catalysts speeds up reaction) hydrophilic (water loving) and hydrophobic (water fearing) know the difference lipids: general structure and functions of triglycerides, phospholipids, eicosanoids, steroids Triglyceridesglycerol+3 fatty acidsreleased by hormones for energy between meals (energy storage for the body) Phospholipiddiglyceride, polar head and nonpolar tail (phosphorus+glycerol+2 fatty acids)form membranes surrounding cells and organelles; control what enters and exits cell Steroidsflat with four interlocking rings. Control metabolism, immunity, fluid balance, sexual development Eicosanoids20carbon unsaturated fatty acid. Have specific hormonal effects on target cells. ions, anions, cations know the definitions iona charged atom aniona negatively charged ion cationa positively charged ion molecules and compounds – know their definitions and examples of each molecule2 or more atoms joined together compoundmolecule that contains at least 2 different elements monomer and polymer – definitions and examples monomerssmall (usually organic) molecules that join to form polymers (e.g. monosaccharide) polymerslarge molecules made of monomers (e.g. polysaccharide) nucleotides and nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) structure and functions; rules of complementarity (base pairing rules) Nucleotidemonomer made of a nitrogenous base, phosphate and sugar A nucleic acid is a polymer of a nucleotide DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) double stranded nucleic acid, contains cell genetic material RNA (ribonucleic acid) single stranded, critical to protein synthesis Base pairing: Adenine to Thymine (or Uracil in RNA) and Cytosine to Guanine protein structure (including primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structure) and functions 1. Primaryamino acid 2. Secondary Amino acid chains folded by hydrogen bonds 3. Tertiaryinfluenced by further folding secondary structure based on R group interaction 4. QuaternaryMultiple polypeptide chains connected, with each having its own primary, secondary, and tertiary structures o distinguish between fibrous proteins and globular proteins 1. Fibrous proteinsbuilding blocks of the body, usually only has a secondary structure because they are flatter (e.g. keratin) 2. Globular proteinsmore compact but more likely to denature (i.e. hydrogen bonds are broken to the point that the protein is no longer functional) radioisotope and halflife know the definitions isotopes that spontaneously decay by releasing subatomic particles (usually electrons), halflife is how long it takes for half of a radioisotope to decay water: structure and properties (e.g. high heat capacity and high heat of vaporization and how those are important for homeostasis) Water is held together by strong hydrogen bonds. These strong bonds require a high boiling point (high heat) to break the bonds. This is important for homeostasis because the human body is mostly water and resistance to vaporization (except at high temperatures) allows the human body to stay in equilibrium and maintain homeostasis Chapter 3: cell cycle: define and describe what happens during interphase, cell division, mitosis Interphasecell grows and carries out normal activities G1cell is actively synthesizing proteins and growing S phaseDNA replicates G2Final preparation for division o what happens during prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, and cytokinesis Prophasegenetic material condenses, centromeres move to ends of cell Metaphasechromosomes line up in the center of the cell Anaphasesister chromatids begin to pull apart and move to opposite poles Telophasecell membrane begins to constrict, nuclei form around each of the new cell areas cytokinesiscell pinches off into two new “daughter” cells cellular extensions: distinguish between cilia, flagella, and microvilli Ciliafingerlike projections on the cell surface that help propel the cell and sweep substances across the cell surface Flagellawhip like projections that extend from a cell surface. Propels the cell Microvillimicroscopic cellular membrane protrusions that increase surface area DNA synthesis – describe the general process and the end result DNA strands separated at particular sites by helicase (enzyme). These are called “replication bubbles” the separated point is a yshape and is called a “replication fork.” Each strand acts as a template for a complementary strand to be synthesized The two strands are called the “leading strand” (synthesized toward the fork) and the “lagging strand” (synthesized away from the fork) The leading strand gets an RNA molecule attached to its end, called a primer. Enzyme DNA polymerase then binds to the leading strand and adds new nucleotide bases as it moves along In the lagging strand, RNA primers work similarly but the strand is synthesized in chunks that need to be filled in When replication is complete, ligase seals the double strands together. DNA replication is semiconservative because it contains one new and one old strand genes – definition DNA segments with instructions for a single polypeptide chain genetic code – know what triplets and codons code for and what the term “redundant” means with respect to the genetic code triplets code for a particular order of 3 nitrogenous bases codons are complementary to a triplet Redundancythere are 64 codons but only 20 amino acids, so some amino acids have several sequences that code for them. This is so that mutation and other damage to DNA will have minimal effect on what it ultimately codes for membrane transport o active and passive processes – define these terms and know the types of each (e.g. simple diffusion, osmosis, facilitated diffusion, exocytosis, etc.) Passive transportmove from higher to lower concentration. Does not require energy (e.g. simple diffusion, osmosis) Active transportmove from lower to higher concentration, requires energy (e.g. sodiumpotassium pump, vesicular transport) Phagocytosistransport of solid materials Pinocytosistransport of liquids o distinguish between primary active transport and secondary active transport Primary active transportcompounds are actively pumped into or out of cell (e.g. SodiumPotassium Pump) Secondary active transportstored energy in concentration gradients after pumping allows active transport membrane proteins o distinguish between integral vs. peripheral proteins Integral proteinsembedded in cell membrane Peripheral proteinsattaches to integral proteins but not embedded in cell membrane o know the general functions of membrane proteins 1. transport 2. enzyme activity 3. signal transduction, and 4. intercellular joining nucleus – structure and function contained in nuclear envelopedouble membrane with 2 phospholipid bilayers. Has nuclear poresareas where the double membrane is fused. These are covered by the nuclear pore complexproteins that regulate movement of things in and out of nucleus. nucleoplasmfluid inside nucleus containing dissolved solutes nucleolismall spheres within nucleus containing ribosomes chromatincoiled fibers inside the nucleus made of: 30% DNA 60% histones (DNA tightly wrapped by these proteins) 10% is RNA being synthesized or transcribed Nucleus controls activities of cell by regulating gene expression organelle structure and function: o centrosome and centrioles centrosomeregion near nucleus where microtubules are anchored centrioleslocated in each centrosome, made of microtubules in a 9x3 formation. Involved in mitosis and makes up cilia and flagella. o Cytoskeleton “scaffolding of cell” not membrane covered, has microtubules (made of tubulin protein) and microfilaments (made of actin) o endoplasmic reticulummade of tubes enclosing cisternae. 2 types: Rough ER: has ribosomes attached. Site of protein and phospholipid synthesis Smooth ERno ribosomes. Made of integral proteins that catalyse many reactions o golgi apparatusmodifies, condenses, and packages proteins. Attaches things to make proteins functional. o Lysosomesdigests inside without damaging the rest of the cell, “cleanup crew” o Mitochondria “power plant” produces most of the ATP (molecules that provide energy). Have their own DNA, mDNA, inherited only from the mother o Peroxisomesdetoxes alcohol, formaldehyde, and free radicals o Ribosomessite of protein synthesis, can be attached to ER or free floating plasma membrane structure and function o including the orientation of phospholipids o Form phospholipid bilayer with nonpolar tails towards each other in center of membrane. Allow resting membrane potential know the difference in charge across the membrane and why it is important Inside the cell is negatively charged. Outside it is positively charged. Allows body cells to respond to stimuli by pumping ions against concentration gradients to send signals to other cells selective permeability know what this means and why it is an important property of cell membranes Only certain things can enter the cellhelps cell maintain homeostasis by ensuring only necessary materials enter and exit specialized membrane junctions: differentiate between the structure and function of tight junctions, desmosomes, and gap junctions Tight junctionsmembrane proteins on adjacent cells have fused together and prevent molecules from moving in between Desmosomesfibrous proteins hold cells together in a network Gap junctionsintegral proteins create a channel that passes between both plasma membranes transcription and translation – know generally what happens during each process, where they occur, and what the end products are 1. Transcriptioncomplementary RNA synthesized from DNA (in nucleus) a. Transcription factors bind to a specific site b. RNA polymerase catalyzes based on rule of complementarity c. First RNA synthesized is primary RNA 2. TranslationRNA is translated into proteins (in cytoplasm) a. mRNA sends codons3 bases complementary to RNA tripletto synthesize amino acids based on the codon o distinguish between the roles of messenger RNA, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA mRNAcarries coded information from DNA to cytoplasm from nucleus, where protein is synthesized rRNAforms ribosomes along with proteins. Ribosomes are the sites of protein synthesis tRNAmolecules that send amino acids to the ribosomes. mRNA’s “messages” are decoded into amino acid sequences (based on codons) Chapter 4: distinct characteristics of epithelial, connective, muscle, and nervous tissue 1. Epithelialcovers and lines body surfaces and forms glands that produce secretions. Composed of closely packed cells that are connected together by desmosomes and tight junctions. Inervated (has nerves) but avascular (no blood supply) 2. Connective tissuebinds tissues and organs together, provides support, protection, and insulation. Inervated and has varied vascularity (some tissues are very vascular, others not). Few cells with lots of nonliving cellular matrix between them. 3. Muscle Tissuetightly packed cells (highly cellular). Well vascularized. Cells contract (shorten) and allow movement. 4. Nervous tissuemain component of nervous system. Mostly neurons and supporting (nonconducting) cells. Neurons generate and conduct electrical impulses to send messages to other cells. glands: endocrine, exocrine 1. Endocrineductless, secrete hormones directly into blood or lymph. 2. Exocrinesecrete onto body surfaceexternal or within a cavity o know the types of exocrine glands Simple tubularintestinal glands Simple branched tubularstomach glands compound tubularduodenal glands simple branched alveolarsebaceous glands compound alveolarmammary glands compound tubuloalveolarsalivary glands modes of secretion: holocrine, apocrine, merocrine Merocrinereleased through exocytosis, cell remains intact Holocrinecell ruptures to release secretions Apocrinesecretions released when part of a cell pinches off regeneration vs. fibrosis – know the difference between the two and describe the general process of regeneration Regenerationreplacement with the same kind of tissue Fibrosisreplacement with scar tissue, a type of fibrous connective tissue Tissue repair: 1. Inflammation increases blood flow and brings white blood cells 2. Organizationnew capillaries grow and form capillary bed which restores blood supply 3. Regeneration/Fibrosisbrings permanent repair types of connective tissue and each of their predominant cells loose connective tissue, areolarpredominant cells are fibroblasts loose connective tissue, adiposeprimary cells are adipose (fat) cells loose connective tissue, reticularprimary cells are white blood cells loose connective tissue, dense regularmajor cell type is fibroblast loose connective tissue, dense irregularprimary cells are fibroblasts dense connective tissue, elasticprimary cells are fibroblasts types of epithelial tissues and their structure o simple, stratified, transitional simplesingle layer of cells stratifiedmultiple cell layers o squamous, cuboid, columnar squamousflattened cuboidcubeshaped columnarlong thin cells types of muscle tissue (skeletal, cardiac, smooth) – including their locations and whether they contract voluntarily or involuntarily 1. Skeletalattaches to skeleton, contracts voluntarily 2. Cardiacinvoluntary, located in heart only 3. Smooth muscleinvoluntary, lines most organ walls
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