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FSU / Environmental Science / HSC 4711 / What is the development of secondary malignant growths at a distance f

What is the development of secondary malignant growths at a distance f

What is the development of secondary malignant growths at a distance f


School: Florida State University
Department: Environmental Science
Course: Wellness/Health Risk Reduction
Professor: Mark kasper
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: wellness
Cost: 25
Name: Week 6 Notes HSC
Description: These notes cover the material from week 6.
Uploaded: 10/10/2016
8 Pages 58 Views 1 Unlocks


What is the development of secondary malignant growths at a distance from a primary site of cancer?

∙ Cancer is a neoplasm or tumor

∙ Uncontrolled growth of aberrant cells­ with local tissue invasion Malignant­ tumor = cancerous

Metastasis­ the development of secondary malignant growths at a distance from a  primary site of cancer

Physiology and Pathophysiology 

∙ Believed that tumors arise from carcinogenic­causing events within stem cells o Carcinogenic­ having the potential to cause cancer

∙ Stem Cells­ can (1) divide and make copies of themselves or (2) differentiate  into a wide range of mature cell types

Five categories of Carcinogenic Events: 

∙ 1. Environmental Factors If you want to learn more check out What are some forces behind the policy change, and how do they affect policy?

o Implicated in 60% to 90% of cancers

What are the five categories of carcinogenic events?

o Lung Cancer

 Miners being exposed to cigarette smoke

 Workers being exposed Asbestos, chromate, or uranium  Don't forget about the age old question of What is the type of theories focused on the aetiology of crime?

o Skin Cancer

 Excessive exposure to sunlight 

 Radiation

o Leukemia

 Exposure to certain solvents 

 Cleaners, painters

∙ 2. Hereditary Factors

o Support comes primarily from animal studies 

o Maybe 5­1­% of all cancers are genetic

o Family members might have similar behavioral risk factors  Smoking, diet, air they breath We also discuss several other topics like What is mechanical weathering?

o Large genetic role might be at play if:

 Rare cancer types 

 Kidney Cancer

 Young Age 

What describes severity of cancer?

 Multiple Cancers in a single person

 Both organs

o “Genes load the gun. Behavior pulls the trigger.” 

∙ 3. Oncogenes­ Gene that has potential to cause cancer

o Mutation in DNA of gene

o Genes that act at the cellular level causing uncontrolled proliferation of previously normal cells

o Produce defect in normal stem cell function

o Evidence to suggest tumor tissue contains stem­like cells  If you want to learn more check out What do police do?

∙ 4. Hormonal Factors

o Believed to posses carcinogenic potential 

o Estrogen may play a role in female organ cancers

o Sufficient or Convincing: 

 Oestrogen­Progestogen contraceptives

 Oestrogen­Progestogen menopause therapy

o Probably or likely: 

 Oestrogen menopausal therapy 

o Levels of endogenous sex hormones are strongly associates with breast cancer risk in postmenopausal woman 

∙ 5. Microbes (About 20% of all cancers)  We also discuss several other topics like Who is bartolome de las casas?

o Viruses, bacteria, parasites

o Human Papillomavirus (HPV)

o Hepatitis B and C 

o Prevention: 

 HPV vaccination

 Anti­biotic

 Anti­Oxidants

 Physical Activity 

Immune System: 

∙ Tumors are recognized by the immune system

∙ Tumors can be stopped or controlled long term—Immunosurveillance ∙ Currently

o Infuse antibodies that enhance the immune system to recognize cancer  cells

Cancer Detection: 

∙ Self Monitoring Warning signs

o 1.  Changes in bowel or bladder habits

o 2. A sore that does not heal

o 3. Unusual bleeding or discharge

o 4. Thickening or a lump in your breast or elsewhere in you body o 5. Indigestion or difficulty in swallowing

o 6. Changes in a warm or mole

o 7. Nagging cough or hoarseness 

∙ “ABCDE” of Skin Cancer:

o Asymmetry

o Border

o Color

o Diameter

o Evolving 

∙ Self Exams: 

o Testicular

o Breast

o Oral

o Skin 

∙ Screenings

o Mammogram

 Breast 

 Age 40/50

o Pap Test 

 Cervical  Don't forget about the age old question of What is used for categorical variables?

 Age 21

o Colo­Rectal 

 Colon

 Fecal occult blood testing

 Age 40

 Colonoscopy

 Age 50

o Low does CT

 Lung

 Age 55

o Ovarian

 Exams, ultrasound, blood test

o PSA (Prostate specific antigen) 

 Digital rectal exam

o Skin Cancer

Diagnostic and Lab Evaluations: 

∙ Biopsy

o Process of obtaining a sample of tissue

o Requires to establish diagnosis

∙ High tech

o MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) 

o CT (Computer technology)

o Ultrasound

Cancer Staging: 

∙ What 

o Describes severity of cancer

o Based on size and or/extent (reach) of the original (primary) tumor o Has it spread to other parts of the body 

∙ Why 

o Plan appropriate treatment

o Estimate Prognosis

o Clinical Trials 

∙ Stage 0

o Situ (In place) 

o Remove Surgery 

∙ Stage 1

o Small size, spread to lymph or nearby tissue

∙ Stage 2 and 3

o Large size, grown deeply or other organs/ body parts ∙ Stage 4

o Metastatic Cancer 

o Advanced / Terminal


∙ Carcinoma

o Organs and internal passages

 Skin cancer

∙ Sarcoma

o Bones, muscle, fat, tendons

∙ Myeloma

o Immune system

∙ Leukemia

o Blood

 Blood cancer

∙ Lymphoma

o Lymph System 

Surgery, Chemotherapy, Radiation, Biotherapy 

∙ Surgery

o Oldest and most definitive treatment

∙ Curative Surgery 

o Primary treatment for one­third of cancers

o If tumor is removed with small amount of surrounding normal tissue,  chance of survival is good

∙ Palliative Surgery 

o Large tumor mass is removed for patient

o Chance of Survival is not as good

∙ Chemotherapy 

o Uses chemical agents that kill rapidly growing cells

o Frequently can result in a cure

∙ Radiation

o Believed to stop growth of malignant cells by damaging DNA within  cells

o Radiation can be applies internally or externally with machine o Can be used alone or with surgery or chemotherapy 

∙ Biotherapy 

o Targets specific mutations

o Eliminate, regulate, or suppress conditions that allow uncontrollable  cell growth

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