Public Health Concepts, Midterm Review Guide
Public Health Concepts, Midterm Review Guide PHC4101
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Samantha Notetaker on Monday October 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PHC4101 at University of Florida taught by Deepthi Varma in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 53 views. For similar materials see Public Health Concepts in Epidemiology at University of Florida.
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Date Created: 10/10/16
PublicHealthConcepts Introduction to Public Health Clinical Medicine vs. Public Health Medical care focuses on helping people who are already sick or injured Public health focuses on preventative care and the health of the community Core Functions of Public Health Prevention – main task is to develop intervention to prevent specific problems Listens to public health agencies and community concern 3 tiers of prevention: prevents an seeks to seeks to illness and minimize the minimize Prexposure severity of an Teraffects of and Secondary illness illness Five core topics of public health: epidemiology, statistics, biomedical sciences, environmental health sciences, and social and behavioral sciences History and Achievements Filtration of drinking water Recognizing tobacco as a health hazard Better health for mothers and babies Family Planning Vaccines John Snow – discovered spread of cholera, “shoe leather epidemiology” Epidemic, endemic, pandemic Objectives of epidemiology Identify cause Determine extent Study history and prognosis Evaluate Developing regulatory decisions Epidemic – illness of a similar nature occurring in the same group or community Endemic – habitual presence of a disease in a specific geographical area Pandemic – worldwide epidemic Epidemiology Types: infectious disease, descriptive, analytic, chronic disease Big questions: WHO? WHEN? WHERE? Prevalence – number of affect people in population divided by the total population (probability) Incidence – new cases of disease in a population divided by the period of time More incidence = more prevalence Crude mortality rate vs. adjusted mortality rate – deaths are adjusted according to population to make it more comparable Statistics Probability – how to compute uncertainties P-value – the probability a result occurred by chance alone Confidence Interval – gives a range Study Designs Intervention studies: One exposed group and one control group Generally has a placebo (inactive substance similar to the substance given to the exposed group) Randomized double blind – nobody know who get what, including the people doing the experiment Cohort studies Links exposures by observations (prospective study) Large group of people Observed over a period of time Relative risk – strength of association between exposure and occurrence of disease Case Control studies Backwards investigating Looks at people who are already ill and tries to determine exposure (retrospective study) Smaller group of people More efficient than a cohort study Odds ratio: exposed/non-exposed in case study divided by exposed/non-exposed control Ecological Observational study that focuses on populations or groups rather than individuals Generally measures prevalence and incidence Cross Sectional Analyzes data for a population at a certain point in time Randomized Clinical Trials A study where people are chosen at random to receive one of multiple clinical interventions (similar to intervention study) Community trial Usually done by doctors or clinics rather than an academic researcher Administered through primary care and health centers Herd immunity – when people in a community are protected from a disease because other people in the community are immune Incubation period – interval from time of infection to time of illness Confounding Variables – deals with exposure and how it effects the development of a disease Bias -selection bias How people are chosen for a study can be affected by bias Statistics. Types of bad samples: convenience, voluntary response, not random People drop out or become lost or unable to contact during studies that last a long time People Lie Exposure – variable thought to be related to the outcome Outcome – disease, condition, or variable examined as an end-point Example: Exposure = smoking. Outcome = lung cancer Advantages and Disadvantages of Experimental Studies ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES GREATER CONTROL Expensive and time consuming REDUCED BIAS Strict exclusion criteria STRONGER EVIDENCE Ethical concerns DETAILED INFORMATION Compliance and loss to follow up Infectious Disease Types of infectious pathogens: Bacteria, Viruses, Prions, Helminths, Parasites Modes of Transmission Diseases can be transmitted through the air, fecal matter, bodily fluids, sexual intercourse, poor hygiene, and contaminated water Chain of Infection - How a disease is spread from person to person List of spreading links: Pathogen – bacteria, virus, or parasite Reservoir – where a pathogen makes a home and replicates Method transmission – how a pathogen travels Susceptible host – even if a pathogen gets in, some people are immune Control the spread of disease by breaking the c-h-a-i-n! Disease reservoir – host of a pathogen or disease. Example: a person or a bug (vector) Infectivity – the ability a pathogen has at creating an infection Pathogenicity – the ability of an organism to cause a disease Virulence – degree of damage something causes its host Antigenicity – the binding ability of a chemical structure to something Epidemiologic Triangle Types of immunity Passive immunity: immunity resulting from antibodies from another person or an animal Active immunity: immunity resulting from the creation of antibodies by the immune system when an antigen is present Infectious period – the period of time a person is contagious and can infect other people Symptomatic period – the period of time a person shows symptoms of an illness Chronic Diseases - Long lasting condition that is not curable but can be managed Three main types of chronic diseases: Cardiovascular disease Cancer Diabetes Cardiovascular Disease Leading cause of death in the US Risks include: o Older age o high cholesterol o Being a woman o high blood pressure o Being an African American o Diet is a big contributor Arteriosclerosis – hardening of the arteries Cancer 2 leading cause of death in the US Cancer is developed through DNA mutations resulting from: o Chemicals o Viruses o Radiation Risk factors include: o Smoking o Reproductive factors (breast o Unhealthy diet cancer) o Lack of exercise o Alcohol o Occupational exposure Diabetes Two types of diabetes: Type I and Type II Type I: usually starts in childhood, known as insulin-dependent Type II: more common (especially with increasing age), more complex, risk is obesity and age Screening - A test or procedure that determines the likelihood of someone getting a certain disease Goal: to reduce morbidity or mortality by detecting diseases as early as possible Sensitivity – a test’s ability to diagnose a patient with the disease Specificity – a test’s ability to designate that a patient does not have the disease Predictive value – the probability of having a disease GoodLuck!
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