New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Biology II

by: Kaelin Kneen

Biology II Bio 1450

Kaelin Kneen

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

These notes cover our second exam in Biology II (Ch 29-39)
Biology II
Timothy Dickson
Study Guide
50 ?




Popular in Biology II

Popular in Biology

This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kaelin Kneen on Monday October 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Bio 1450 at University of Nebraska at Omaha taught by Timothy Dickson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Biology II in Biology at University of Nebraska at Omaha.


Reviews for Biology II


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 10/10/16
BIOL 1750 Lecture Exam 2 study guide Chapter 31: How fungi are related to Nucleariids and animals, and how early fungi are similar to Nucleariids (look at Evolutionary History slides for Chapter 31 lecture) . Nucleariids were unicellular. Fungi could be unicellular or multicellular. Animals are multicellular. Multicellularity evolved independently in fungi and animals. Flagellated protists. How fungi feed. Fungi feed by letting out hormones and absorbing the nutrients from the environment around them. 3 kinds- decomposer fungi (breakdown and absorb energy from nonliving things), parasitic fungi (absorbs nutrients from living host), and mutualistic fungi (both sides have benefits) Learn generalized life cycle of fungi, and be able to describe what occurs in plasm gamy, heterokaryotic stage, and karyogamy. Plasmogamy is the union of cytoplasms, this transitions into the heterokaryotic stage (n+n with varying nuclei), then comes the karyogamy stage where the nucl ei fuse together. This creates a zygote (2n) which will soon go through MEIOSIS and create spores (n) which will later be germinated. This is all SEXUAL REPRODUCTION. ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION just includes the mycelium, spores, and germation. What are 1-2 characteristics of each of the 5 fungal phyla. Chytrids- mostly unicellular , have flagellum, large effect on amphibians, Zygomycetes- unicellular, have sporangia, ex. Bread mold, asexual and sexual Glomeromycetes- unicellular, invade plant roots, Ascomycetes- produce sexual spores in asci (sac), mostly haploid, ascocarps, asexual and sexual Basidiomycetes- produces basidiocarps, creates mushrooms, How do fungal life cycles differ from each other in different phyla (e.g. Zygomycetes produces essentially identical fruiting bodies—sporangium—in asexual and sexual reproduction whereas Ascomycetes produce conidiophores in asexual reproduction but ascocarps in sexual reproduction). Note that life cycles are only shown for three different phyla (Zygomycetes, Ascomycetes, and Basidiomycetes), so these are the only three phyla for which you need to examine differences between life cycles. Zygomycetes- only diploid during the sexual sta ge as a zygospore Ascomycetes- diploid nucleus gives rise to haploid nucei during meiosis. Ascocarps Basiciomycetes- nuclei of two different mating strains fuse (karyogamy) giving rise to a diploid zygote that undergoes meiosis. Basidiospores. Chapter 29 and 30: What are closest relatives of land plants (Charophytes), and what are derived characteristics in land plants not shared with Charophytes. There were photosynthesizing bacteria and protists in the ocean. Chara are closely related to charophytes (group of green algae). There are 5 differentiating traits that land plants have but not charophytes. 1. Alteration of generations - both haploid and diploid generations are multicellular. 2. Diploid generations grows out of haploid generation. The sporophyt e grows from the gametophyte. 3. Walled spores produced in sporangia. This helps resist desiccation 4. Multicellular gametangia (egg and sperm producing organs-gametangia). Archegonia produce eggs, and antheridia produce sperm. 5. Spical meristems (cell division only at the tips). How do life cycles change as you move from non -vascular plants (e.g. mosses) to seedless vascular plants (e.g. ferns) to Gymnosperms to Angiosperms (Sporangia can be seen in each the life cycles of each of these four groups, but they become heterosporous—Microsporangia and Megasporangia in Gymnosperms and Angiosperms) (Spores are produced in each of these four groups, but microspores develop into pollen and megaspores develop into female gametophyte in Gymnosperms and Angiosperms). Non-vascular plants- (moss) mostly haploid, gametophytes and sporophytes that produce spores. Seedless vascular plants- (ferns) much larger sporophyte than gametophyte. Heterospory leads to eggs (megaspores) and pollen (microspores) Almost all non-seed plants have HOMOSPORY, while seed plants evolved different sized spores - HETEROSPORY. Angiosperm life cycle- involves ovary and ovules, which become pollenated and cause a seed to grow inside the flower Gymnosperms- use cones- pollen and ovulate The pollen comes from the pollen cone and fertilizes the megaspore creating a seed. What is role of land plants in global photosynthetic rates (percentage of global photosynthesis completed by land plants) and how did forests of seedless vascu lar plants alter atmospheric CO leve2s. What are adaptations of plants to life on land ( know the phylogeny you created in lab / ch. 29-30 lectures, and the traits you wrote onto the phylogeny). What characteristics separate gymnosperms and angiosperms. Angiosperms have flowers. Angiosperms also conceal their seeds while gymnosperms seeds are visible. What are characteristics of flowers and fruits. The flower is a specialized structure for sexual reproduction. Contains sepals, petals, stamens, and carpels. The fruits goal is to aid in dispersal and some protect the seed. Chapter 35: What function do roots, shoots, and leaves serve for the plant. Roots- obtain water and minerals. Anchor plants in place. Provide some storage of energy. Shoots- (stems and leaves) photosynthesis. Rhizoids are stems that form for lateral growth of the plant. Leaves- location for most of photosynthesis and contain two parts - blade and petiole. What are functions of different cell types. Parnechyma- most abundant cell in plants, metabolism, site of most photosynthesis Sclerenchyma—generally dead at maturity, thick tough cell walls for structure, high cellulose and lignin Collenchyma- strength and support in young growing parts Xylem- conducts water and minerals, from root to sho ot Phloem- conducts sugars, from leaf to root Where and how does primary growth occur on plants. Roots and shoots. Shoot apical meristems are dome shaped clusters of embryonic cells. Leaves are generated from developmental leaf structures call leaf primordia. Where and how does secondary growth occur on plants. Tree rings. Pith and cortex are parts of the ground tissue system Basics of cell growth and differentiation. In cellular differentiation, cells of a developing organism synthesize different pr oteins and diverge in structure and function. Chapter 36: Know diffusion and osmosis. Diffusion- net movement of a substance from a region where it is more concentrated to a region where it is less concentrated. Osmosis- diffusion of water across a membrane that some solutes cannot cross th Know figure 36.7 (36.6 10 ed.) Mechanisms of short -distance water / solution transport (especially in root cells). Short distance- apoplastic (through dead cells or entirely within the cell wall), symplastic (movem ent from cytoplasm to cytoplasm through protein channels that connect these cytoplasms), and transmembrane (normal process of transport across a cell membrane) Bulk flow is the movement of water driven by pressure. How stomata and xylem work together to p ull water from the roots to the leaves . The outside air is typically drier than inside the leaf which makes it have a lower water potential causing transpiration. This is regulated by the stomata. At night there is almost no transpiration, but roots continue to pump minerals into xylem. Increase root pressure and may cause guttation. XYLEM liquid movement is UNIDIRECTIONAL (from roots to leaves) is pulled up. How sap is transported long distances in plants (phloem) . Sugar is loaded into the phloem by the p roton pump. Coupling the movement of sugar with H+. ATP is used to actively transport. The solute concentration increases in the phloem which causes water to diffuse from the xylem to the phloem. Chapter 37: Soil texture and composition. Layers called soil horizon. Topsoil consists of mineral particles, living organisms and humus (the decaying organic material). Mostly rocks and minerals. Inorganic matter (cations and anions). Problems of soil management and methods of soil conservation. Depletes the mineral/organic content of the soil, taxes water reserves, and encourages erosion. Methods of soil conservation - planting trees as windbreaks, terracing, cultivation in a contour pattern, no till agriculture. Macro-and Micronutrients and which are most like ly to be limiting for plant growth. 17 essential elements required for a plant to complete its life cycle. 9 are large amounts (MACRONUTRIENTS) and 8 are smaller amounts (MICRONUTRIENTS). Nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium are most likely to be limiting nutrients. Mutualisms of plants with bacteria and fungi to obtain nutrients for plant. Dead plants provide energy for microorganisms, and secretions from living roots support a wide variety of microbes. Mycorrhizae - mutualistic associations of fungi and r oots. Fungus gets a steady supply of sugar. The hot gets more surface area for water and mineral absorption. Chapter 38: Male and female structures on flowers. Female- embryo sac, ovule and ovary Male- pollen grain How double fertilization occurs (this only occurs in angiosperms). Occurs when the pollen tube discharges two sperm into the female gametophyte within and ovule. One sperm fertilizes the egg, while the other combines with the two nuclei in the center and initiates food - storing endosperms. How seed and fruit develop. Seeds develop from the ovule (an egg and sperm for a zygote that becomes a new plant. and polar nuclei and sperm form the endosperm which is nutrition for the new plant) The fruit forms from the ovary (polar nuclei and sperm form the endosperm) Importance of animal pollinators for angiosperm seed / fruit development, and how animal pollinators affect the food available to humans. Pollination can be wind, water, or animals. 80% are animals. Bees are the most important. More than 85% of earths plant species require some type of pollinator. Sexual vs. asexual reproduction and methods some plants have to avoid asexual reproduction. Asexual- new clones growing from the root system or by pollen fertilizing ovules of the same individual. Can be beneficial to a successful plant in a stable environment. But vulnerable to local extinction. Sexual- generates genetic variation. Only a fraction of seedlings survive. Methods to avoid self feritilizing. Male and female parts are on different pla nts (dioecious). On same plan (monoecious). Self - incompatibility- a plants ability to reject its own pollen. Chapter 39: Why do plants need hormones and what is a hormone. Communicate with hormones. A hormone is a signaling molecule that is produced in t iny amounts in one part of a body and transported into another part. It then binds to a specific receptor and triggers responses in target cells and tissue. General classes of hormones and what they do (focus especially on picture and diagram examples I g ave in lecture). Auxin-stimulates elongation of cells Gibberellins- stem elongation, fruit growth, seed germination Abscisic acid- slows growth. How do plants respond to light and other external stimuli? Plants will grow toward their source of light. They can sense how long the day is. How does phytochrome respond to different parts of the light spectrum (red and far -red light). During red light the structure is in the Pr phase and turns on physiologic activities and initiates germination. Under far red l ight conditions (or shade) the phytochrome switches to the Pfr form which inhibits germination.


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Jennifer McGill UCSF Med School

"Selling my MCAT study guides and notes has been a great source of side revenue while I'm in school. Some months I'm making over $500! Plus, it makes me happy knowing that I'm helping future med students with their MCAT."

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.