Study Guide for Exam 1: Midterm for Linguistics 210 - Power of Words
Study Guide for Exam 1: Midterm for Linguistics 210 - Power of Words Linguistics 210
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This 2 page Study Guide was uploaded by Marina Dove on Monday October 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Linguistics 210 at University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee taught by Maria Bonfatti in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 41 views.
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Date Created: 10/10/16
Review for Quiz 1: Linguistics 210 – Power of Words The concept of grammar: Grammar is each individual part and order of a language Used by all languages 2 distinct types of grammar o Prescriptive: Biased rules that are described as grammatical phenomena as we “think” they should be. o Descriptive: Rules followed by its speakers—a natural use of language. Ex) double negatives. Definitions: Syntax – The study of the parts and order of sentences. “There is the dog.” Morphology – The study of the parts and order of words. “lovely” Phonology – The study of the parts and order of sounds. “Vliet” Word Order – Certain parts of a sentence are required and cannot be out of order. “I love the lamp.” First Language Acquisition: Behaviorist Approach: o Children limit what they hear o Gaining pos/neg feedback results in habits o Too simple of an approach Noam Chomsky’s Theory: o Language Acquisition Device o Learning by imitation is false—need of social interaction Nativist Approach: o Chomsky – “We’re hardwired to learn language.” o Born with the ability o Language Learning is creative construction The Stages of Language Learning: 02 months – crying 24 months – cooing 49 months – babbling 918 months – one word 1824 months – two word 24 years – expanded syntax and vocabulary We never stop learning Second Language Acquisition: Second Language Learners o 2 at once from birth: first language bilinguals o Learn through choice or circumstance: elective/circumstantial bilinguals Krashen’s Theories and Hypotheses 1. Acquisition – Learning Hypothesis: a. Acquisition is a subconscious process; we are unaware it is happening. To “pick up” a language. b. Learning a language is conscious and is done by choice. 2. Natural Order Hypothesis: a. There is a natural order of acquisition. Ex) “ing” is acquired earlier than the third person singular “s” b. When teaching, “Drill and Kill” techniques cannot force acquisition. 3. Monitor Hypothesis: a. Language which is produced by acquired competence. (nearly impossible) 4. The Input Hypothesis: a. The message needs to be understood in order for it to be correct. b. We can only expand the “input” once it is comprehensible. 5. Input / Comprehension Hypothesis: a. Talking is not practicing b. The ability to speak is the result of acquisition—it is not a cause.
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