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UO / Physics / PHYS 353 / What is the ability of the nervous system to change and adapt througho

What is the ability of the nervous system to change and adapt througho

What is the ability of the nervous system to change and adapt througho


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What is the ability of the nervous system to change and adapt throughout life?

Somatotopy Built in via merging of Spinal nerves →

The lowest reaching nerves enter the spinal

S cervical

in chord first (sacral). As more nerves merge

on top, from farther up the body, the low. reaching nerves are pushed medial

What is the meaning of saltatory conduction?

→ As more + more nerves pile on the top of the Thoracic Spinal colormn is layered with the lowest reaching

nevues on the inside (medial) + the highest nerves on If you want to learn more check out What are the main proteins of muscle contraction?

the outside Clateral)

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e (44414515 Sasha dich liebe der

What is the meaning of synaptic signaling?


nerve layers

in spine @ the top

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Nick's office Hours: 360 onyx Thurs 1-2pm. Notes 10.3.16 Plasticity → The ability of the nervous system to change

and adapt throughout life, not just in early developement

Saltitory conduction Describes how the action potential seems to "jump" (rejuvinated by opening Nat Channels) from one Ranvier node to the next → Passive Propagation of depolarization over the space covered If you want to learn more check out What is the content of neutrality acts?

by the insulating myelin sheath must stay above

depolarization threshold (Vrh) sogar

(-x/a) Follows equation &x= Vooen s X must be short enough so that Vex) = Vth

o Synaptic Signaling The Action potential is traustered

between neurons at the synaptic terminal via molecularsiguals

A: The (t) electric wave of the action potential arrives at the foi a pre-synaptic part of the neuron, depolarizing the membrane

L → Voltage - Gated cat channels open, cart lous flow If you want to learn more check out What is the definition of humanistic?

e into the cell love IB: Neurotransmitters (chemical messaugers) held in o n

Por of the pre-synaptic cell are released N NA I SUP → The vesicles move to the outer membrane & fuse withit,

reforming exocytosis and dumping the neurotransmitters o into the synaptic terminal Space (extracellular space) c: The Neurotrausmitters are recognized and bound by lon channels

in the post-synaptic cell membrane (dendrites or soma) in → Depending on the channel activated Cnot the neurotransmitter). If you want to learn more check out Consumer surplus mean what?

Nat is let in to depolarize/ exccite the cell or cl- is let into hyperpolarize / inhibit it.

* Any Neurotransmitter can be excitatory or inhibitory depending on

the channel that binds it and what lon is allowed into the cell.

Neural crest

cells migrating

to suround the

neural tube



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Dura Mater The Neural Tube If you want to learn more check out What is the fear of victimization?

Arachnoid it made up of epithelial cells Pia Mater

Basat Lamua The Neural Tube -> Filled with cerebral spinal Fluid CCSE)

sal Lamina

Somites Cells originating from the resoderm

will continue to differentiate

• Myotomes Medial, become muscles.

Dermatomes to some mal, become deep skin tissues +enerated by a single spiral nerve Don't forget about the age old question of What does kyphosis mean?

D: The Three-vesicle Stage


- The proencephalon

becomes the forebrane



- The Mesen cephalon

becomes the und brain



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- The Rhombencephalon



becomes the Hand brain



Caudal Neural tube

becomes the spinal chord

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1 * Rotated view, 180°


() Studysou


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Notes 10.5.16

• Excitatory Post-Synaptic Potential (EPSP). When the h-G Nat Channels open at the post-synaptic cell membrane, causing

gNa to 1, and Vm approaches Vna as the cell depolarizes

→ (+) current flows into the celle → Change in Vm is a gradient not all-or-nothing like AP

Depolarization must reach the threshold level to w initial an Action Potential allontot

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oluhibitory Post-Synaptic potential (IPSP) when the L-G ci

channels open at the post synaptic cell membrane, causing

gel- to 7 and the cell ñ hyperpolarizes at

→ (t) current flows out of the cell → Vm is already close to Ver-, so there isn't that much

hyperpolarization, However, a concurrent i of gNa. has less effect

→ when qer-a, ant in gna is less able to shift.

Vm towards depolarization - IPSP Dampeus EPSP

O Developement of CNS

X ectoderma.is skin:


becomes CNS + Skin:


b becomes muscles


Into the CNS begins when the Zygote is a holo Sphere




w becomes organs


rest some of these

a cells break Coff before

the tube seals


There will become


dy Ectoderm cross section:

neural groove

nacent epithelial

cells CH "Basal lamina

(cellular secretion)

connective tissue


Perifereal neurons

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po cell

a 24


.... Na

::.. No



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* See previous page for Description o The post - synaptic cell responds to the overall effect of

excitatory and inhibitory signals recieved over time space

The orientation & position of lon channels opened in e responce to to neurotransmitters is important in signal i reception and resulting nerve firing or not you

Many pre-synaptic cells can release neurotransmitters into

the synaptic terminal of a single post synaptic cell at once

Multiple excitatory signals can either sum or multiples

to bootst the overall effect alleen → An intrebitory signal and an excitatory signal felt at

the same time can cancel eachother out ex: 1. Excitation by Nat channels : 2. luhubition by ct 3. Combined effect is


channels opening & (t) current flows in and

some of the excitatory -

(t) current flows. Current is pulled Je away from signal site out and towards

out by the inhibitory Synapse




t- overall I Depolarized




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only a

little Depolarization


24tvom BORUM





Neural crest cells Differentiate into sensoryt motor nerves

They migrate to surround the neural tube and then extend axous out in two, opposite directions

axous go outward and travel all accross the body

other axous extend in ward and connect into the spinal colluun. The soma (cell bodles) cluster together forming a ganglion

just out side of the spinal column → The owtward axous of sensory nerves Cattached @ Dosal side)

come together with the outward axons of motor nerves Cattached on the ventral side) and travel throughout the body in parallel - Together they constitute the spinal nerves


Dorsal Root

ALAR PLATE Dorsal side Ganglion



outward axon

Sulcus.. Limitaus





motor nerves->



Root Ventral Roots




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* overtime, the spinal column & Sulcus lamitaus change shape

Dossal becomes laterally


IN Ventral becomes medial

Five- Vesicle stage

Fove brain

Telencephalon The largest part of the bram including all cerebral hemispheres

a cerebral cortex, white matter, basal h ganglia, amygdala, and hipocampus

perception, cognition, motion memory temotion

Mid brain

-Lateral ventrical → CSF Fluid pouches T cushion the bram

Third ventrical CSF fluid pouch between

the two halves of the brain TS

Neural Retina thens Fooust recieve

light & send signals to optic nerve,

Cerebral Aquaduct


laudecadelasund connects 3rdt

4th veutrides to

I Hind brain

Dlencephalon contains thalmus (sorts trelays peripheral info to neo cortex) and the hypothalmus Chormone regulation)

Fourth Ventricle

Mesencephalon → The midbrain, organzes Information resuting involuntary movement

Central cannal + pressurized CSF houses + Supports Spinal cord & nerve bundles

Astructure wlin the vertebral


Metencephalon contains the pous (relay info on movement + sensation + taste thearing) and cerebelluni (coordination thallance learnin

fine motor skills & language)

"Myelencephalon The Medula, regulates

blood pressure + respiration

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Spinal cord recievessensory info

from all over the body

contains motor neurous for both voluntary & reflex movement

Notes 10.7.17

The Sulcus Limitaus A groove that forms within the Spinal cord that separates the Dorsal (Back) and o Ventrical (chest) hemispheres

→ physical Division of the types of nerve axous embedded in the spine

• Dorsal axons of sensory nerves found here in alar plate

• Ventral acous of motor nerves found here in Basalplate

@ Studyss

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