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Lab #1 Study Guide for Midterm

by: valerie zaid

Lab #1 Study Guide for Midterm Bio 203

Marketplace > Purdue University > Bio 203 > Lab 1 Study Guide for Midterm
valerie zaid

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A full detailed study guide on lab #1 for the upcoming BIO 203 midterm
Anatomy & Physiology
Study Guide
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by valerie zaid on Monday October 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Bio 203 at Purdue University taught by Bridges in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 48 views.


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Date Created: 10/10/16
BIO 2O3-Midterm Study Guide LAB #1- Intro to Anatomy and Physiology • Atoms are composed of: protons, neutrons and electrons • pH: a measure of acidity or alkalinity • Composition of cells: inorganic and organic substances • Organic: Contain carbon and hydrogen • Carbohydrates: always contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen; a few may have nitrogen. These are sugars burned by the cells of the body to produce energy. (monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides) • Lipids: • Triglycerides(fats): glycerol + 3 fatty acids • Steroids: ex. testosterone, estradiol, cortisol cholesterol • Phospholipids: Plasma membrane of the cell is built up around a framework consisting of a phospholipid bilayer. Have hydrophilic heads and hydrophobic tails. Two molecules of fatty acids. • Proteins: Important in cell’s structure, its metabolism, etc. These are chains of amino acids joined by covalent bods between amino acids and carboxyl groups; called peptide bonds. (proteins ex. albumin, hemoglobin, collagen, amylase etc). The amino acid sequence of a protein is unique; it determines the properties of the protein and how it folds to achieve its final shape, and also determines the occurrence of various structural domains within the protein. • Nucleic Acids: DNA and RNA; made up of chains of nucleotides joined by covalent bonds. It consists of: A nitrogen-containing base (AGCTU), A 5- carbon sugar (pentose), one or more phosphate groups. Nucleotides are building blocks for DNA and RNA; a really important nucleotide is ATP which consists of 3 phosphate groups. • Human body composed of atoms of oxygen, hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen etc. are organized into: • Molecules and macromolecules 1 • Cells: containing cell organelles • Tissues: made up of cells • Organs: groups of tissues • Systems: organs with a specific job • atoms, molecules, and macromolecules most basic level or organization in human body (chemical level) • Cavities of the human body: • Appendicular portion • Axial portion • dorsal cavity: cranial (brain) and vertebral (spinal cord) • ventral cavity: thoracic (trachea, lungs, heart, esophagus, thymus) and abdominopelvic cavity (abdominal: stomach, liver, spleen, gall bladder, intestines) and (pelvic: large intestine, reproductive organs, urinary bladder) • small head cavities: oral (teeth and tongue), orbital (eyes), nasal, and middle ear • Membranes of the human body: • thoracic cavity: pleural (lines thoracic cavity and covers lungs) and pericardial (surrounds heart and covers its surface) • abdominopelvic cavity: peritoneal (lines abdominopelvic cavity and covers organs inside) • Inflammation of membranes: pleuritis, pericarditis and peritonitis • parietal part: part of membrane that lines the walls of the cavity • visceral part: part of membrane that covers the surface of an organ • Spaces between the parietal and visceral portions of these membranes are called pleural, pericardial, and peritoneal. • Organ systems: ORGAN SYSTEM FUNCTION Integumentary system body covering Skeletal and muscular system support, protection, and movement 2 Nervous and endocrine system integration and coordination Digestive, Respiratory, Circulatory, Lymphatic, and processing and transporting Urinary system Reproductive system reproduction • New Language superior: toward head inferior: away from head anterior: toward front posterior: toward back medial: toward midline lateral: toward side ipsilateral: same side contralateral: opposite side proximal: toward main mass of body distal: away from main mass of body superficial: toward the surface of body deep: away from the surface of body central: at the center peripheral: around the outside • Sections cut through the body or an organ • Sagittal: dives body into left and right portions, (mid-sagittal dives body into equal right and left halves) Transverse: divides body into superior and inferior segments (mid-transverse) • • Coronal: divides the body into anterior and posterior portions (mid-coronal) • Regions of the body Abdomen (Abdominal pain) Acromial point of shoulder brachial upper arm antebrachial forearm antecubital space in front of elbow axillary armpit buccal cheek 3 carpal wrist cephalic head cervical neck costal ribs cubital elbow digital finger frontal forehead genital reproductive organs lumbar lower back mammary breast nasal nose oral mouth pelvic region above genitalia pectoral chest pedal foot plantar sole of foot umbilical navel vertebral vertebra or spinal column • Subdivisions of abdominal area: right hypochondriac epigastric left hypochondriac right lumbar umbilical left lumbar right iliac hypogastric left iliac • Microscope: • primary optical parts of a microscope: objective and ocular lens • Magnification occurs in two stages: 1. objective lens first forms a real, inverted, and magnified image of the object, 2. the ocular lens further magnifies this image. 4 • Resolving power: minimal distance between two points that cans till be seen as two separate points; the greater the resolving power of a microscope, more details can be seen. MAGNIFICATION= Magnification of Ocular X Magnification of Objective • Don’t forget!: Never use the coarse adjustment knob to move the stage upwards • while looking through the eyepieces, and also never use it with the high power objective for fear of breaking the microscope slide and/or the objective lens. 5


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