Geography Study Guide 2
Geography Study Guide 2 His 1030
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Annah Shrader on Monday October 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to His 1030 at University of Tennessee - Chattanooga taught by Amy huesman in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see World civilizations III in History at University of Tennessee - Chattanooga.
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Date Created: 10/10/16
Geography Study Guide Exam 2 Be able to identify 20 countries in Middle and South America (including the Caribbean Islands). 3 Essays: 1. The Latin American city structure has unique attributes compared to any other city. It looks like a circle. The center of the circle is a small square where the CBD (central business district) is located. This is where people are employed, businesses are located and the plaza is. In colonial times the Spanish plaza was where the government buildings and church were located, and it has remained a part of the CBD in Latin cities. The square of the CBD has a tail known as the commercial spine that travels downwards to the end of the entire circle. It is an extension of the CBD where offices and retail services are located. The purpose of the spine is to lead to a sea port to connect to the CBD. On both sides of the CBD spine are the elite residential sectors where there is housing for upper class, and some restaurants and entertainment. Outside of the central CBD zone there is a small circle called the zone of maturity. This is where the middle class live. The area is generally nice where the people care about their homes looking good. A bigger circle circles the zone of maturity and it is known as the zone of in situ accretion. This is a transition area from well to do people to the impoverished periphery. The housing is modest, but there are many unkempt areas within. Outside of the zone of in situ accretion is the zone of peripheral squatter settlements. This is where the lower class lives. Very poor people, and typically recent migrants live here, trying to find jobs that usually don't involve documentation. The final structure in Latin cities strikes through the three circles and is known as the zone of disamenity. It is where people live along highways, railroads, and riverbanks. 2. In Middle America and some of South America, the climates vary in forms of 5 zones of continuing altitude. The first zone begins at the lowest point. It is called the tierra caliente and it begins at sea level and goes up to 2500 feet. It is known as the hot land where those who work get it done early in the day so that they do not have to work in the sun. Tropical agriculture such as bananas, sugarcane, and rice are grown. Above this zone is the tierra templada where most people live. It is where cities are located. The land is from 2500ft to 6000ft. Agriculture consists of coffee, corn, vegetables and wheat. The weather is cooler and more pleasing. Above this is the tierra fria from 6000 to 12,000 feet high. It is cold here and agriculture consists root foods like potatoes. The tree line stops in this zone. Above it is the tierra helada where livestock grazing is the only form of agriculture that can be supported. It goes from 12,000 to 15,000 feet above sea level. Above this is the tierra nevada where there is permanent snow and ice on the peaks of the Andes mountains. 3. Plantations and haciendas are both areas of land where food and crops are grown, or livestock can graze. Haciendas arose from the Spaniards while the idea of plantations arose from northwest Europeans. Haciendas are much more relaxed and less productive than plantations. The fact of owning the land was enough for hacienda landowners. They did not want to push the land to its limits, and most of the time native people lived on the land working on their personal plots. Plantations, however, are extremely productive and profitable. They are typically foreign owned and the land will yield only one crop. It is much more efficient and there are factories on the land to yield maximum productivity. The workers are in for hard work, but the growth time is seasonal. Middle America: Mestizos are people in Middle and South America who have both European (Spanish) origin and Amerindian origin. They are influenced by both the native culture and the culture brought from Spanish Europe. Mainland Middle America is from the country of Mexico down to the country of Panama. This region is dominated by Spanish Europeans, Amerindians, and Mestizos. The Mainland was full of haciendas, and less exposed to the mixing of cultures trading from across the ocean. Rimland Middle America is the eastern coast of the mainland and all the islands in the Caribbean Sea. This area was dominated by plantations. The cultural heritage here is mainly European and African. The Rimland's tropical location supports the production of bananas and sugarcane. The location allows for cultural mixture and trade exposure. Sugar is the main crop that is associated with plantations in the Caribbean Rimlands. The Greater Antilles are the four large islands with 5 countries in the Caribbean Sea. It makes up 90% of the Caribbean population. There is Cuba, Haiti, the Dominican Republic, Jamaica and Puerto Rico. Haiti and the Dominican Republic are on the same island called Hispaniola. The Lesser Antilles are thousands of islands that surround the Greater Antilles. They loop around the eastern side of the Greater Antilles until they reach northern Venezuela. The Bahamas are at the top and the island chain ends at Trinidad and Tobago. The Spaniards introduced cattle, horses and sheep to the Amerindian people of Middle America. The Spaniards introduced disease, new animals, new types of food, and new ways to grow the food, but the most important change Spaniards introduced to Amerindian society was the Spanish towns. Amerindians were moved off of their land to into these Spanish made towns. They were laid out with the plaza in the center which contained the government buildings and the church, and the residential sector surrounding it. The towns were located next to land so that the people could be near where they were working. The entire town was set up in a grid pattern so that the Spaniards could easily contain any issues that arose. The Amerindians were taught Spanish and the Roman Catholic Faith here. Tourism is often times the main source of income for the Caribbean Rimlands. This is called an irritant industry to the impoverished locals because their land is invaded by rich tourists which causes resentment. Resorts and shops arise that the locals are employed at, and prices rise because of the rich tourists coming onto the islands. North America: Rain Shadow Effect: This is due to the Pacific mountains and Rockies shifting the humid air masses from the Pacific Ocean upwards and causing it to rain over the mountainous areas. There is no water left going further inland which causes drought and drier climates. This rain shadow effect occurs in Hawaii, too. The temperature generally decreases the farther north you go. It is humid in the east, and much drier and arid in the west. As far as climates go, North America contains all types except for humid tropical. There are artic areas, dry areas, temperate areas, etc. Between the Rocky Mountains in the west and the Appalachian Mountains in the east, there is a vast plain and lowlands that is open to the air masses from the cold north and the air masses coming in from the warm south. This vulnerability causes places like Atlanta and Memphis to get very cold in the winters, but also to be very hot in the summers. When the cold and hot air masses mix, it causes thunderstorms, lightening, tornados and hurricanes. Those two mountain ranges cause a rain shadow effect over so that the interior land is only vulnerable to the north and south air masses. Religion in North America is extremely common and it is related to region. South eastern North America is predominantly Baptist. Roman Catholics predominate most of Canada and New England Northeast and the southwest. Utah and surrounding areas are Mormon. The upper Midwest is mostly Lutheran. There is a belt of Methodists across the lower Midwest. Jews are predominantly in urban areas. French Canada: Predominantly French speaking. Quebec tried to secede from Canada back in the 1990s. It was unsuccessful due to the non-French population in the region, but it definitely causes centrifugal forces. The geographic form of the American city resembles a peperoni pizza. When cities first arose, the CBD was in the center and that was it. But as transportation improved and people could live farther away from their jobs, commercial industry and more businesses sprung up outside of the CBD. Think of the CBD spilling over into the outer regions. For more information you can read the extra notes below: o At first, cities were densely populated and means of transportation were limited. It was in the person’s best interest to live close to the city so that they could walk to wherever they needed to be. Think of a dot that represents all the people in one general place. o As time went on and inventions improved the electric car was invented around the 1900s that allowed people to live near the stop of the electric car route outside of the city, which allowed for easy transportation to their homes and to the city. Imagine an X where the center is the city and the people lived along the lines. o Automobiles rose around the 1920s, but it was not until the 1950s that cars were truly reliable and quick enough to cut travel time. People could live at much greater distances away from the city and still be able to get back easily. Now imagine giant rings circling the cities where people can conveniently spread out. o Then in the 1980s interstates were created which even further allowed people to spread out and still be close to civilization where their needs could be met. More suburbs emerged from this, which caused deindustrialization and commercial businesses to move away from the cities and closer to the people. Deindustrialization has devastated some cities such as Detroit. Similarities in the Canada and USA: o Have high standards of living for the most part. (Not without limited poverty such as Indian Reservations or inner cities). o Both are founded and filled with European roots and descent. o Both, especially the United States, are highly urbanized and advanced. o Both are pluralistic societies. Differences in the Countries: o The United States is smaller than Canada, both ranking second and third largest land masses in the world. o The United States has environments that are much more diverse than Canada’s. For example, USA contains every climate there is except equatorial. o The United States was settled from the east to the west. Canada was settled from the south to the north mostly. o The population of Canada is 36 million while the USA has a population around 324 million. o Canada is one land mass while the USA is fragmented into 48 joined states, but two that are completely separated: Alaska and Hawaii. The USA also owns a number of islands and Puerto Rico. o Canada has two official languages, French and English. The USA has no official language but speaks predominantly English. The most changed region in North America is the Southeast, where we live. South America: The Incas were the Amerindians located primarily in modern day Peru. They developed advanced transportation systems, built stone structures, were expert farmers, had a good military, accumulated gold and silver, and even studied the heavens. The Incans lasted until the Spanish invaded around 1530 and made the Incans there labor force. Colonial South America was full of Spanish forces and Portuguese forces. The Spaniards took the bulk of the continent on the western side. The Portuguese got a small triangle of land in modern day east Brazil. The native people became the minority due to diseases brought over by the Europeans. Africans were brought into Brazil to work as the labor force. The French set claim to the small French Guyana, the Dutch set claim to Suriname, and the British set claim to Guyana. South America’s population is 422 million. The populations changed drastically once Europeans invaded in the sixteenth century, which wiped out around 90% of the Amerindians. The major cities in South America are located on the North West and east coasts. The surviving Incans still live inland South America, but the vast inland seems uninhabited when looking at the population map. There was great urbanization in South America where people living in rural areas moved towards the cities to find greater opportunity. The Falklands War: The Falkland Islands are located right off of the east coast in Argentina. They originally belonged to the Spanish when they had control of the territory of Argentina, but after their independence the British took advantage of their weak position and conquered those islands to be used as potential naval bases. Argentina wanted those islands back, and in 1982 they tried to seize them. Lives were lost and Argentina lost not only many of their people and ships, but also the war. They are still bitter and want the islands back. The Treaty of Tordesillas was created to settle the boundary dispute between the Spanishthnd the Portuguese in 1494. This treaty divided South America on the 50 meridian. Spain had the territory to the west, Portugal had the smaller territory to the east. Portugal had a good chunk of Brazil. Brasilia: For over 200 years the capital of Brazil was in Rio de Janeiro. But in order to prove their commitment to the interior development of Brazil, they moved the capitol to Brasilia in 1960. It is known as a forward capital. Chile is an extremely narrow (only 90 miles wide) and long (2500 miles north to south) country. This is known as elongation when the length is over 6 times the average width. It is situated in between the Andes Mountains and the Pacific Coast. It goes through three major environmental zones: the Atacama Desert is the north section, then comes middle Chile where 90% of the population lives, and the lowest section is full of islands and fjords where there is little permanent settlement. Also know the 4 Economic Sectors: He will give an occupation and then ask which category it belongs to. o Primary Occupations: People who take raw materials away from their natural environments. These are farmers, miners, foresters, and fisherman. o Secondary Occupations: People who take the raw materials from the primary group and make them into usable items for the society. These are manufacturing jobs. o Tertiary Occupations: Sales, business, real estate, banking services. Most jobs are found here. o Quaternary Occupations: Technical information such as IT. This is a newer category added recently for technological advancement.
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