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Lab #2 Study Guide for Midterm

by: valerie zaid

Lab #2 Study Guide for Midterm Bio 203

Marketplace > Purdue University > Bio 203 > Lab 2 Study Guide for Midterm
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A full detailed study guide on lab #2 for the upcoming BIO 203 midterm
Anatomy & Physiology
Study Guide
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This 2 page Study Guide was uploaded by valerie zaid on Monday October 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Bio 203 at Purdue University taught by Bridges in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views.


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Date Created: 10/10/16
BIO 2O3-Midterm Study Guide LAB #2- Cell biology and the cell cycle • Cell: smallest functional unit of the body, consists of a nucleus surrounded by a jelly-like cytoplasm containing a variety of organelles all enveloped in the plasma membrane. • Organelles: ORGANELLE STRUCTURE FUNCTION endoplasmic reticulum (smooth network of membranes forming transports materials within the and rough) sacs and canals cell, attachment for ribosomes, and synthesizes lipids ribosomes particles composed of protein synthesize proteins and ribosomal RNA golgi apparatus group of flattened, membranous packages and processes sacs proteins and other macromolecules for secretion or for transport to other parts of the cell (“post office”) mitochondria derived from bacteria ATP, power house of cell lysosomes membraneous vesicles garbage disposal, contain enzymes that are able to digest substances that enter the cell peroxisomes membranous vesicles contain enzymes centrosomes non-membraneous structures distribute chromosomes to composed of two rod-like daughter cells during cell centrioles reproduction and formation of cilia cilia, flagella hair-like projections from cell motile; movility surface containing microtubules that move back and forth microvilli fingerlike protrusions of plasma increase surface area membrane vesicles membraneous sacs contain substances that just entered the cell and store newly synthesized molecules microfilaments and microtubules structures that sometimes form a support cytoplasm, help move meshwork in cytoplasm substances/organelles within the cytoplasm inclusions ex. lips droplets, glycogen and store triglycerides, melanin granules carbohydrates: melanin granules which cause skin pigmentation • Nucleus: surrounded by nuclear envelope, containing nuclear pores that allow passage of large molecules between nucleus and cytoplasm • nucleolus: produces ribosomes that travel from nucleus to cytoplasm • chromatin: molecules of DNA that contain info needed for protein synthesis • nuclear matrix: molecules that play a role in gene expression; generic material • Physiological processes: require energy (active transport, endocytosis, exocytosis) • physical processes: do not require energy (diffusion, facilitated diffusion, osmosis). Substances move from an area of high concentration to a low concentration area. • Osmosis: diffusion of water through the cell membrane; water passes through special channels formed by proteins called aquapornis • High solute concentration —> low water potential • Low solute concentration —> high water potential • Water flows from high water potential to low water potential: Cell is in hypertonic solution lower water potential than cell water flows out of cell interior Cell is in hypotonic solution higher water potential than cell water flows into cell interior Cell is in isotonic solution same water potential as cel no flow of water into or out of cell interior • Life cycle of cell: • Interphase: • G1: chromosomes decondense S-Phase: DNA replication • • G2: cell prepares for onset of a new M phase and another round of division • M-Phase: PMAT • Prophase: chromatin in nucleus condenses and form visible chromosomes, nuclear envelope disappears Metaphase: no recognizable nucleus, mitotic spindle appears, centromere of each • chromosome attached to a spindle fiber and they lie across the metaphase plate/ equatorial plate • Anaphase: centromeres divide, sister chromatids pulled apart from each other, contractile ring, identical clusters of chromosomes at opposite ends of the cell Telophase: nuclear membrane reforms, nucleus reforms, chromosomes unwind and • disperse, nucleolus reappears. A new cell cycle begins for the two daughter cells • Cytokinesis: starts in the middle of anaphase and represents cytoplasmic division. This phase signals the end of M-phase. Apoptosis: cell suicide, programmed cell death • • Necrosis: opposite of apoptosis, something happens to the cell resulting in cell death; cell disintegrates and releases contents forming inflammation.


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