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Lab #4 Study Guide for Midterm

by: valerie zaid

Lab #4 Study Guide for Midterm Bio 203

Marketplace > Purdue University > Bio 203 > Lab 4 Study Guide for Midterm
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A full detailed study guide on lab #4 for the upcoming BIO 203 midterm
Anatomy & Physiology
Study Guide
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by valerie zaid on Monday October 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Bio 203 at Purdue University taught by Bridges in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views.


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Date Created: 10/10/16
BIO 2O3-Midterm Study Guide LAB #4- Tissues 2: connective tissue and the integumentary system • Functions of connective tissue: • binds structures together • supports and protects serves as framework • • fills up spaces • stores fat • generates blood cells in bone marrow • protects against infections helps repair tissue damage • • Matrix: fibers and ground substances • collagenous fibers: composed of collagen • elastic fibers: composed of elastin and fibrillin • ground substance: gel-like material composed of proteoglycans; important in maintaining hydration of a tissue • Cell types in connective tissue: • Fibroblasts: secrete proteins that become fibers (collagen and elastin) • collagenous fibers: form ligaments, reinforce connective tissue elastic fibers: stretch • • macrophages: important in inflammation, part of the immune system • mast cells: release substances that help prevent blood clotting and promote the inflammatory response • white blood cells: move into connective tissue during the inflammatory response specialized cells (cartilage and bone): synthesis and maintenance of cartilage and bone • • Types of connective tissue: CONNECTIVE TISSUE FUNCTION LOCATION PROPER Loose flexibility and strength, surrounding blood - most abundant type binds tissues together vessels and nerves, of connective tissue muscle fibers and - collagenous and muscle groups, binding elastic fibers skin to muscles - numerous fibroblasts Adipose Story triglycerides which Below the skin, around - numerous adipocytes represent the body’s many organs (heart and - no fibers energy source, fills kidneys), around eyes, spaces, hold organs in at the joints place, shock absorber, insulates, and gives shape to body surfaces Dense regular Give strength in one Tendons, ligaments, and - numerous collagen direction aponeuroses fibers, a few elastin - poor blood supply that makes the healing process very slow Dense irregular Strength in all directionsDermis of skin, sheaths - Numerous collagen covering muscles, fibers, few elastic nerves, adventitia of fibers blood vessels, forming - limited blood supply capsules covering organs and joints, sclera of eye, membrane covering cartilage and bone Elastic Stretch to about one Walls of arteries, trace - numerous elastin and a half time its and lungs, larynx, and fibers, a few collagen original length between adjacent - a small amount of vertebrae fibrillin Reticular Supporting framework Liver, spleen, and lymph - thin collagen fibers for organs nodes • Cartilage: provides support and protection. It heals very slowly since it does not contain any blood vessels. SPECIALIZED FUNCTION LOCATION CONNECTIVE TISSUE Hyaline Cartilage End of bones, int he - most common of 3 nose, larynx, trachea, - collagenous fibers ribs, and respiratory (almost not visible, tubes very thin) - Elastic Cartilage elasticity larynx, and ear flaps - elastic fibers predominate - least abundant cartilage Fibrocartilage tensile strength, weight- areas in the body where - visible collagenous bearing properties, it can act as a shock fibers resistant to stretch and absorber; knee, compression between two pelvic bones • Bone: Compressive strength, attachment to skeleton muscles, body support, and protection of organs. • Osteon: unit compact bone • Haversian canal: contains blood vessels and nerve fibers • lamellae • lacunae • osteocytes • canaliculi (pg. 61 - bone diagram) • Blood (sometimes considered connective tissue) • Skin + hair + nails —> cutaneous membrane • Functions of skin: • regulation of body temperature • protection • sensation • excretion • synthesis of vitamin D • Structure of skin: • EPIDERMIS: outer layer, stratified squamous epithelium, no blood vessels. Melanocytes produce melanin which protects deeper layers from damaging effects of ultraviolet radiation. (Albinos= people who do not synthesize melanin, melanin patches=freckles) stratum corneum: outermost layer, cells are lost • • stratum granulosum • stratum spinosum • stratum basale: innermost layer, new cells produced - Psoriasis: rate of basal cell proliferation is accelerated, the epidermis thickens; cells do not have time to keratinize properly and are shed within a week. - Excessive rubbing of skin can overstimulate cell division in stratum basal, causing overproduction of stratum corneum= callus or corn • DERMIS: thick, dense irregular connective tissue with collagenous and elastic fibers. Allows skin to stretch, contains blood vessels and sometimes smooth muscle fibers. - Dermis projects up into the epidermis in little humps called dermal papillae - hair follicles and glands occur in the dermis SUBCUTANEOUS LAYER: largely of loose connective tissue and adipose tissue, contains • nerve fibers and blood vessels. Adipose tissue acts as heat insulator • Hair follicles: structures from which hair arise • insulator and protective • Arrector pili: smooth muscle from dermis to side of the hair follicle “Goosebumps”: muscle contracts under the stresses of fright, fear, cold, and emotions—> • hair stands • sebaceous or oil gland is connected to the hair follicle • Glands: • Holocrine glans: secretion made up of disintegrated cells and their contents Apocrine glands: cells release small parts of cell than then release their contents • • Merocrine glands: cells produce and release secretion while remaining intact • Gland associated with the skin: • Sebaceous glands: holocene glans associated with hair follicles. They secrete sebum that keeps hair and skin soft, forms a protective film that prevents excessive evaporation of water, inhibits the growth of bacteria - Enlarged sebaceous glands —> blackheads; black because of melanina nd oxidized oil from sebum - Sebum contains nutrients for certain bacteria —> pimples or boils • Sweat (sudoriferous) glands: apocrine and merocrine (skin=eccrine) • Eccrine sweat glands • much more common • secretion is more “watery” • located everywhere except lips, nail beds, glans penis, glans clitoris, labia minora, eardrums. • numerous in skin of the palms and soles • release sweat as a secretory product • Apocrine sweat glands • located in axilla, pubic region, nipple • have an odor • Ceruminous glands: modified sweat glans found in external ear canal, combined verminous and sebaceous glands - earwax: sticky barrier that prevents the entrance of foreign bodies • Nails: produced by epithelial cells that produce and undergo keratinization. Consists of a nail plate that overlies a surface of skin called the nail bed.


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