Advanced Parasitology: Modern Parasitology Chapter 1 Summary
Advanced Parasitology: Modern Parasitology Chapter 1 Summary 35645
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Progress Asoluka on Monday October 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 35645 at University of Colorado Denver taught by Dr. Jones in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see Advanced Topics- Parasitology in Biology at University of Colorado Denver.
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Date Created: 10/10/16
Advanced Topics- Parasitology Modern Parasitology 2 Edition: Chapter 1 Summary Chapter 1: Parasitic Protozoa Introduction ● High species richness o 45,000 know species ~10,000 are parasitic in invertebrates and almost every species of vertebrates ● Parasitic protozoa has been known to infect humans causing o Malaria o Sleeping sickness o Chagas disease o Leishmaniosis ● Characteristics o Small o Short lived o High rates of reproduction o Evolved to survive in host and counteract/evade immune systems o Between prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms Structure and Function ● Unicellular eukaryotic cells ● Specialized adaptations used for infection ● Complex life cycles ● Sexual reproduction in some Classification ● Correct classification has been debated ● Animal like members of kingdom Protista ● Four major groups o Flagellates ▪ Moves via flagella o Amoebae ▪ Move via pseudopodia o Ciliates ▪ Move via cilia o Sporozoans ▪ Lack any means of locomotion Kinetoplastid Flagellates: Contains kinetoplast which are unique organelles that part of the mitochondrial system located near the base of flagellum ● Trypanosomes in humans ○ South America ■ Vectors are bugs in family Reduviidae ● Effects 11-12 million people in SA & CA ● Parasite life/reproductive cycle ○ Vector hindgut (epimastigote) ---> Host cell (amastigote)----> trypomastigotes( enter and infect new cells or retaken up by vector)--->epimastigote in vector ● Trypanosoma cruzi ○ Parasite (epimastigote) are excreted in feces and infect humans via bite mixed with feces or via conjunctiva of the eye ■ Enter various cells including macrophages, muscle, and nerve cells ○ Africa ■ Vectors are tsetse flies in family Glossinidae ● Parasite life/reproductive cycle ○ Vector midgut (epimastigote) ---> Host cell (amastigote)----> trypomastigotes( enter and infect new cells or retaken up by vector)--->epimastigote in vector ● Trypanosoma brucei gambiense (chronic sleeping sickness) & trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense ( acute sleeping sickness) ○ Parasite is secreted from the salivary glands ● Trypanosomes in other animals ○ Nagana ■ Fever, anaemia, wasting, and lack of appetite ○ Trypanosoma congolense ■ Usually confined to the vascular system ■ Extremely pathogenic in cattle ○ Trypanosoma vivax ■ Transmitted by flies ○ Trypanosoma brucei brucei ■ Infects horses and camels, along with cattles ■ Gave rise to different species ○ Trypanosoma theileri ■ infects cattles and transmitted by horse flies ○ Trypanosoma melophagium ■ infects sheeps and transmitted by sheep keds ○ Trypanosoma rangeli ■ Infects a variety of mammals including humans, cats, dogs, and other primates ● Leishmania ○ life cycle ■ amastigotes in macrophages of mammalian host, and promastigotes in the gut of vector (sandfly). ○ Causes serious disease in humans ■ Infects cutaneous, subcutaneous, or deeper tissues causing permanent disfigurement ○ Species classification based on isoenzymes and DNA techniques ● Intestinal Flagellates ○ Life cycle ■ simple life cycle ● Contacted via injecting infected food/water with encysted forms of parasite ○ excyst and enters the intestine and multiplies by binary fission ○ In humans ■ Few do harm to humans but some such as ● Giardia duodenalis ○ Live in upper part of small intestine ■ cause malabsorption ● 3 species of T richomonas (do not form cysts) ○ T. hominis ■ Lives in cecum & large intestine ○ T. tenax ■ Lives in mouth ● transmitted by contact ○ T. vaginalis ■ lives in vagina and urethra of women and in urethra, seminal vesicles and prostate of men ● Causes inflammation and discharge ○ transmitted by contact ○ In other animals ■ Histomonas meleagridis ● Found in birds ○ Amoeboid in small intestine and liver, flagellated in caecum ■ Causes blackhead in turkeys (kills 50-100 percent young birds) ● Transmitted by eggs of H eterakis gallinarum ○ Nematode ■ Trichomonas foetus ● Found in cattle ○ Parasite of genital organs ■ Causes 50-100 percent early abortion of calves Parasitic Amoebae: Move via pseudopodia and out of six species only one is an important pathogen. ● Entamoeba histolytica ○ Life cycle ■ Trophozoite ( feeding stage) ---> multiplies in small intestine and colon (binary fission)---> 4-nucleated cysts---> excreted out and ingested in contaminated food or water ○ Occurs in humans, apes, monkeys, dogs, cats, and rats ■ Invades mucosa and submucosa ● Delivered to liver via portal vein ○ Does not occur in most people but… ■ Causes diarrhoea and dysentery in those infected Coccidia: Common parasites of the intestinal tracts of vertebrates and causes coccidiosis in domesticated animals ● Coccidiosis in domesticated animals ○ Effect depends on amount of oocyte ingested ■ Large amount are usually fatal, while small produce mild symptoms ● Self limiting under natural conditions ○ Small oocytes lead to acquisition of immunity to reinfection ○ Have intermediate hosts (including humans) ● often fatal ○ Babasia bovis ■ often infect individuals whose spleen has been removed in Europe ● frequently fatal ● Theileria ○ Life cycle ■ Majority of life cycle occurs in lymphoid tissue of vector, and RBC of host ○ T. parva ■ Causes African theileriosis in cattle ● Hypertrophy of lymphoid tissue, fever, and loss of weight ○ often lethal Microsporidia: Found in nearly all vertebrates and invertebrates, particularly fish and arthropods ● Characteristics ○ Thick walled spore ■ with sporoplasm surrounded by the polar filament ( used to inject sporoplasm into host) ○ Life cycle ■ Sporoplasm ( gut of host)---> binary fission and infection of other tissue---> spores formed and released when host dies Ciliophora: ~ 2500 parasitic species characterized by their ciliates ● Balantidium coli ○ Lives in the lumen of large intestine ■ May invade gut wall ● Causes ulcers ○ Common parasite of pigs ■ also infects rats, dogs, monkeys, apes, and humans
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