Large Lecture Exam 1 Study Guide
Large Lecture Exam 1 Study Guide CMST 100
Minnesota State University, Mankato
Popular in FUNDAMENTALS OF COMMUNICATION
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Anne Miller on Monday October 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CMST 100 at Minnesota State University - Mankato taught by Dr. Laura Jacobi in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 60 views. For similar materials see FUNDAMENTALS OF COMMUNICATION in Communication at Minnesota State University - Mankato.
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Date Created: 10/10/16
Large Lecture Exam 1 Identity • Theory of Reflected Appraisal o Cooley 1902 o Looking glass self Feedback that reinforces the identity Getting an A grade means you’re smart • Self-Expansion Theory o Aron & Aron 1986, 1996 o Our identities in relationships expand as we grow from new experiences The more you get to know someone the more the “circles” overlap due to having more common interests • Self-Discrepancy Theory o Higgins 1987 o There is the self that contains who you believe you are (own) with others perspectives and the self that contains how you and others actually see you (actual), who you and others want you to be (ideal), and who you should be according to yourself and others selves (ought) o Your self-perceptions and others don’t always match If the actual and ideal don’t match you have dejection symptoms If the actual and ought don’t match you have anxiety symptoms • Johari Window o Luft & Ingham 1955 o Open Known to yourself and others What everyone knows o Hidden Known to yourself but not others Deepest vulnerabilities o Blind Known to others but not yourself Others perceive you different from what you perceive yourself o Unknown Known to everyone Example: Being a parent • Avowed vs Ascribed Identity o Avowed is who you are and want others to see you that way o Ascribed is what others say you are (gender, race) o Communication is most successful when the other person confirms the identity we find as most important in the moment (Collier & Thomas 1988) o Example: Being an Asian born in the USA, but being asked how long you have been in the USA Intercultural Communication • 4 components of culture o Symbolic resources– referring to objects, expressing emotion, group creation and maintenance, and making the world meaningful o Worldviews – assumptions or views about how the world is o Values – beliefs about what the world should be o Norms – acting of cultural ways • 8 Worldviews (Hofstede 1970-80, Hall 2005) o Individualistic vs Collectivistic o Ascription vs Achievement Ascription you are granted a position (China) Achievement you work for your position (US) o Egalitarian vs Hierarchical/Power Distance Egalitarian everyone is equal; low power o Mastery vs Adaptive Mastery is being the master over the environment o High Context vs Low Context High Context gives clues in words to create meaning Low Context tells it like it is o Information vs Social Lubricant/Uncertainty Avoidance o Masculinity vs Femininity o Polychronic vs Monochronic Monochronic shows up on time Polychronic shows up whenever as time is fluid • Enculturation vs Acculturation Definitions o Enculturation is learning your own dominant culture system o Acculturation is learning another cultural system (Studying abroad) • 6 ways culture is shared o Peers Appropriate and inappropriate behaviors o Family o Media How to use the subway system o Societal members o Rituals o Narratives Telling a story about another person when they were younger • Cultural Schema Theory o Nishida 2005 o Cultural schemas are developed through repetition by interacting with members that are a part of the same culture and are stored in our brain o Ethnocentrism can occur when we lack knowledge of the host schema Learning how to drive a car for the first time o To have a successful acculturation one must develop a host schema Impression Formation and Attraction • Impression Formation Theory o Asch 1946 o We organize first impressions into either a positive or negative working model o First impressions are usually formed with in the first 1-2 minutes of meeting • Beautiful is good stereotype/ “Halo effect” o People that are more attractive are rated as more successful, popular, happy, sociable, intelligent, sexual, persuasive, and have a better personality o We put people into good and bad categories o Berscheid & Walster 1974, Langlois et al 2000, Jakson, Hunter & Hodge 1995 • Information Processing Biases o Self-serving bias Successes are caused by internal things Failures are caused by external things o Fundamental Attribution Error Own positive behavior - self (internal) Own negative behavior - situation (external) Other positive behavior - situation Other negative behavior - other (internal) o Negativity bias If a stranger has negative behavior - internal o Positivity bias If friends or family have negative behavior - external o Distress-maintaining bias Unhappy relationship • Other positive behavior - external • Other negative behavior - internal • Partner gives you flowers = what did he do wrong o Relationship-enhancing bias Happy relationship • Other positive behavior - internal • Other negative behavior - external • Partner gives you flowers = he loves you • Sources of Attraction o Physical We respond better to people we find physically attractive • Langlois et all 1987, Krantz 1987 Koinophilia – symmetrically average • We find people that are symmetrically average to be more attractive o Proximity When you are in close proximity with others you have more contact, shared experiences, and exchanges of personal information o Environment Atmosphere • Cozy, soft colors, low lights increase attraction • Anderson 2008, Burgoon et al 2010 Excitation • Excitation transfer is where people think they find someone attractive due to emotional arousal o Zillman 1978 o Example: cuddling during a scary movie at the scary parts o Similarity Physical Attraction • Matching-hypothesis o Walster, Walster, and Berscheid 1978 Attitude Personality Demographics Communication Styles o Social Network We like people that other people find attractive We like people that have lots of friends • Can have too many friends Decision-Making and Leadership • 3 leadership styles (Lewin 1940) o Authoritarian/Autocratic Has to be in control o Laissez-faire Hands off o Democratic Wants to make decisions together and invites participation • Forms of Power (French and Raven 1960) o Reward Authority becomes due to theability to grant or deny rewards such as a promotion or days off Authoritarian uses this o Coercive Authority is from the power to threaten punishment such as no allowance Authoritarian uses this o Legitimate Authority has recognition due to their role such as a police officer or parent over a child Authoritarian uses this o Referent The charisma and popularity of a person makes others want to be like them such as Martin Luther King Jr o Expert The knowledge and expertise awards authority • Communication Climate Theory (Gibb 1961) o Evaluation vs Description Evaluation– places blame, is judgmental, and uses “you” language • Authoritarian Description – requests for information, uses “I” language, and is focused on thoughts/feelings • Democratic o Control vs Problem-orientation Control – withoutthinking about others needs or interests a solution is made Problem-orientation – solution satisfies all needs, and “we” language is used • Democratic o Strategy vs Spontaneity Strategy – dishonest, manipulative, and attempts to hide motives Spontaneity – honest and straightforward o Neutrality vs Empathy Neutrality – no concern for others • Laissez-faire Empathy – you are able to put yourself into someone else’s place and accept their feelings • Engen 2002 o Superiority vs Equality Superiority – everyone else is inferior, patronizing messages and attitude Equality – others are valued, willingness to enter into planning with trust and respect o Certainty vs Provisionalism Certainty – know all the answers, insist on being right, focus on winning Provisionalism – willing to experiment, investigate issues, and focus on solving the problem by wanting feedback and communication Small Group Communication • Task Cohesion vs Social/Attraction Cohesion o Task Cohesion – everyone is on the same page o Social/Attraction Cohesion – everyone has a positive regard for the other members which causes less production and group think Group think – members don’t question or disagree with other members for fear of upsetting them • Group Process (Tuckman 1965) o Forming – who will be the leader and what will the goals be o Storming – conflicts with who gets what role Normal interaction o Norming – what is the expected behavior of members and group roles are solidified o Performing– skills and knowledge are used towards goals, motivation, and task clarity o Adjourning – disbandment of group, what were failures and accomplishments Doesn’t always happen; reforming occurs and everything starts back at the beginning • Potential Small Group Challenges o Can’t choose the group o Social loafers – slackers o Blocker – criticizes all ideas but their own o Avoider – always changing the subject o Recognition seeker– always boasting about their qualifications o Distractor – distracts the group o Status Differences o Cultural Differences o Social ostracism – members being excluded from the group Men do less work and women do more work when this happens o Conflicts Substantive – conflict over the task Features of Organizational Approaches • Traditional Approach (Weber & Taylor 1900s) o Tall organizational structure or hierarchy o Decision making is centralized o Employees usually have specialized skills o Chain of command Written message are preferred for a papertrail o Rewards and punishments are relied upon • Systems Approach (Von Bertalanffy 1968) o Butterfly effect – small changes make large effects o Nonsummativity – the whole is greater than the sum of the parts o Adaptation Open system – adapts well; example: airlines Closed system – operates within themselves o Systemic nature of causes– one person cannot be blamed for all problems • Relational Approach ( McGregor 1960) o Transactional leadership o Employee satisfaction o Decentralized decision-making – everyone gets to participate o Informal communication encouraged o Intrinsic motivation • Cultural Approach ( Peters and Waterman 1982) o Transformational leadership Basically the transactional leader but with vision and charisma o Rites and rituals are valued o Symbolism and storytelling are valued o Norms, values, and identification with the organization is emphasized • Network Approach o Globalization – interconnectedness of the world due to technology and transportation advances o Able to communicate easier with others in the world
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