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World Religion Unit 2 Study Guide: Jainism, Buddhism, Daoism, and Confucianism

by: Artur Notetaker

World Religion Unit 2 Study Guide: Jainism, Buddhism, Daoism, and Confucianism REL2300 World Religions

Marketplace > St Petersburg College > World Religions > REL2300 World Religions > World Religion Unit 2 Study Guide Jainism Buddhism Daoism and Confucianism
Artur Notetaker
GPA 3.6

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About this Document

Includes the definitions of all key terms for these chapters. Additionally, added general facts for Jainism (I then realized that the information was to vague to include for the test).
World Religion
Elizabeth Wharton
Study Guide
worldreligion, religion, Buddhism, Daoism, Confucianism, Mid-term, world, worldreligionmidterm, worldreligionchapter4, worldreligionchapter5, worldreligionchapter7
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Artur Notetaker on Monday October 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to REL2300 World Religions at St Petersburg College taught by Elizabeth Wharton in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see World Religion in World Religions at St Petersburg College.


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Date Created: 10/10/16
Key Terms: Chapter 4 Jainism Jina: “Conqueror,” a person who has achieved jain enlightenment. Jains: “Followers of the Conquerors,” all who follow Jain religion. Mahavira: “Great Hero,” whose given name was Vardhamana, the twenty-fourth and last Tirthankara of this age and the founder of Jainism. Asceticism: Physical denial and mental self-discipline, a necessary party of liberation in Jainism Reincarnation: Unhappy passage of the soul at death from one body to another Parshvanatha: Religious reformer who lived in the 600s B.C.E. regarded by Jains as the twenty-third Tirthankara. Tirthankaras: “Ford finder” who lead the way across fords in the rivers of constant reincarnation. Shvetambar: Jain Group with “White-clothed” monks and nuns. Digambar: “Sky-clothed” Jain group with naked monks. Gacchas: Sects that arose in the shvetambar movement from 800 to 1300 C.E., some of which still exist today. Sthanakvasi: “Meeting house dweller” sect that does not accept the newer Jain practices of image veneration and worship in temples. Saman Suttam: Common scripture recognized by all Jain groups, compiled in 1974 Holy Death: Deliberately and voluntarily starving oneself to death as an act of devotion. Kalpa: Sanskrit for “eon,” one whole rotation of the wheel of time. Jiva: Soul, a living substance Ajiva: Not a soul, and inanimate substance. Karma: Deeds and the negative result of deeds; small matter that attaches to the soul and causes it to be reborn after death. Moksha: Release from reincarnation. Nirvana: In Jainism, the self realization, happiness, and freedom of the soul. Kevalin: “Possessor of omniscience,” a person who has attained liberation from reincarnation Ahimsa: “Doing no harm” to any other living being in this world. Namokar Mantra: Main prayer of Jainism, repeated in its original language of Sanskrit. Paryusana: Most important festival for Jains, and eight day period of repentance and fasting. Diwali: Indian festival of lights; for Jains, marks the anniversary of Mahavir’s death. Jaina: Federation of Jain Associations in North America, founded in 1981, the leading Jain organization in North America. Chapter 5 Buddhism: Buddhism: Religion of enlightenment. Buddha: “Enlightened One”; although Gautama is the Buddha, the term applies to all individuals who attain this state. Dharmachakra: “Wheel of the teaching,” a symbol of Buddhism Middle Path: Style of life between extreme self-denial and ordinary life, which can lead to enlightenment. Shakyamuni: “The sage of Shakyas,” the clan to which Gautama belonged; another name for the Buddha. Four Passing Sights: Gautama’s encounter with old age, sickness, death, and an ascetic-the first step in his enlightenment. Bodhi Tree: Tree in Bodh Gaya under which Gautama Buddha gained enlightenment, now a holy site. Tathagata: “One who has gone to enlightenment; honorific term for the Buddha Sangha: “Community” of Buddhist monastics Three Refuges: Basic Buddhist statement: “I take refuge in the Buddha; I take refuge in the dharma; I take refuge in the sangh.” Parinirvana: The Buddha’s passing into full nirvana at his death. Hinayana: “Small vehicle” of southern Buddhism, an insult used by Mahayanists for Theravada. Theravada: Usually translated as “Tradition of the elders,” but accurately means “Original/abiding teaching” Sutra: Canonical scripture text Tipitaka: “Three Baskets,” the main internal divisions of the canon. Mahayana: “Large Vehicle” branch of Buddhism in northern and eastern Asia. Trikaya: “Three bodies,” of the Buddha: the historical Gautama Buddha, many heavenly buddhas, and the Buddhist teaching. Bodhisattva: “Buddha-to-be,” someone who comes very close to achieving full buddha nature but postpones it to help others reach it. Zen: Buddhist group that aims for the immediate acquiring of a “buddha mind”; its chinese name is Ch’an Koan: Zen riddle meant to induce non rational enlightenment. Zazen: Seated meditation, often for long periods, in Zen Buddhism. Dalai Lama: “Ocean of Wisdom,” head of the Gelug School of Tibetan Buddhism and ruler of Tibet. Vajrayana: “Diamond Vehicle,” formal name for Tibetan Buddhism. Lama: Guru, teacher, leader of Tibetan Buddhism. Dharma: “law, teaching” of Buddhism. Karma: Law of the cause and effect of actions done by sentient beings. Nirvana: “Blowing out, extinction” of desire, attachment, and suffering. Four Noble Truths: Basic teaching of Buddhism that- 1) All life is suffering 2) Suffering is caused by desire 3) To end desire is to end suffering 4) To end desire one must follow the Noble Eightfold Path. Noble Eightfold Path: Right understanding Intention Speech Conduct Livelihood Effort Mindfulness Contemplation Mindfulness: The Practice of meditative awareness, especially of one’s own emotional and spiritual state Three Characteristics of Existence: Impermanence, suffering, and no soul Anicca: Impermanence, the first characteristic of existence, which leads to suffering Mandala Symbolic Buddhist picture Dukkha: Suffering, the Second Characteristic of Existence, caused by desire Anatta: No soul, the Third Characteristic of Existence Precept: Buddhist moral command for monastics and laypeople Mudra: Position in which the hands, and often arms, are held during meditation Trance Meditation: Comprehensive form of meditation that goes all the way to nirvana Insight Meditation: Meditation leading to awareness or mindfulness, from which nirvana can be achieved Paritta: Protective ritual carried out for an individual or community Dharani: Brief statement of Buddhist teaching thought to share its power frequently used for protection. Mantra: Short formula or single word that focuses the mind and expresses great religious meaning Stupa: Burial mound or monument, often with relics of the Buddha or famous Buddhists. Chapter 7 Daoism and Confucianism: Daoism: Religion of the natural Way Confucianism: Religion based on reforms by Confucius; originated as a Western alternative to the common chinese term “the Scholarly Tradition” Yin-yang: Cosmic forces such as passivity and activity, darkness and light, and other opposing pairs. Taiji: The “Great Ultimate,” another name for the yin-yang symbol Oracle bones: Bones of animals inscribed with writing and used to foretell the future. Feng Shui: “Wind-water”; positioning of objects to maximize the good effects of the flow of energy. Jing: Classics, religious books that have scriptural standing Yi Jing: Classic of Changes also spelled I Ching; a diviner’s manual, earliest of the Chinese Classical books. Heaven Impersonal Cosmic force working or the continuation and enrichment of life Daozang: Daoist Canon Neo-Daoism: Rebirth and reform of Daoism after the Han dynasty, with strong cultural influence on calligraphy, painting, music, and poetry. Mandate of Heaven: Right to rule as king or emperor, given by Heaven by means of order and prosperity in the land. Neo-Confucianism: Revival of Confucian thought in the twelfth century, incorporating Daoist and Buddhist ideas. Dao: “Way” of life De: “power” or “Working” that enable a person to follow the Dao. Qi: Cosmic energy that enables beings to live and links them to the universe. Tian: Heaven, impersonal cosmic force that guides events on earth and distinguishes right from wrong. Jade Emperor: The supreme deity in Daoism. Earth God: Daoist deity who protects property; also known as Land Elder Mazu: Mother Ancestor, the Goddess of the Sea and the Queen of Heaven. City Gods: Local Chinese gods, often with a protective role. Wu wei: Not asserting; going along with the true nature of the world Xiao: Filial piety; honor and obedience to one’s parents and deceased ancestors. Ren: Humaneness, reciprocity, virtue; also spelled “jen” Zhong: Loyalty, an extension of one’s filial duties to friends and family Junzi: Literally, a prince’s or lord’s child; in the teaching of Confucius, a superior man made so by the study and practice of virtue. Confucius Centers: Educational and public relations institutes set up by the government of China in Western cities, usually connected with universities. General Facts: Chapter 4 -Jains believe that their religion has no founder and no early history. For them, Jainism has always existed and will always exist in the future. -Jainism arose during the sixth century B.C.E. in the Ganges River valley of northeastern India. -Vardhamana, also known as Mahavira, was the twenty-fourth and the last Tirthankara of this age. -Mahavira was born in northeast India into the Kshatriya class of rulers and warriors. When he was around thirty years old, he renounced his privileged status and took up an ascetic life. -Years (600-1600), the early part of this next period saw the flourishing of Digambar Jainism. -The Shvetambars in the north were not as involved in politics as the Digambaras to the south, but they deld their own there. -Years (1600-Present), These unhappy divisions provoked a variety of reform movements among the Shvetambar and Digambar laity. This reform stressed the traditional mystical, austere steps on the Jain path. -Holy Death: Literally starving oneself to death. -Strictly speacking, Jainism has no gods, and some have called it an atheistic religion. -Jains see the universe as having four parts. Hell is the lowest part, it has seven vertical levels, with the worst level at the bottom. -Each soul in itself is pure. However, the soul is made impure through time by its contact with matter, or ajiva. -Theories of Knowledge 1) Subjective Knowledge 2) Scripture Knowledge 3) Unmediated Knowledge 4) Direct, immediate knowledge -Fundamental Moral Command in Jainism 1) Do no harm, speak the Truth 2) Do not steal, do not be possessive 3) Be Chaste -Puja, which is ritual worship, involves several different activities: 1) Ritual washing of the ido/image 2) A series of prayers over three days in a temple to help remove karma 3) Paying respect to the images of the Tirthankaras. 4) A ritual of prayer focused on a lotus-shaped image. -It wasn’t until the 1800’s that Jainism became a more world-wide faith. -In the United States, Jains number approximately 30,000, and in Canada about 10,000.


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