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Midterm Study Guide

by: Hannah Millirons

Midterm Study Guide AMST 203

Hannah Millirons

GPA 3.25

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About this Document

This study guide includes definitions of terms he provided and things he mentioned in lectures that we should pay attention to for the midterm. This is comprehensive.
Medicine in America
Robert J. Scholnick
Study Guide
50 ?




Popular in Medicine in America

Popular in American Studies

This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Hannah Millirons on Monday October 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to AMST 203 at College of William and Mary taught by Robert J. Scholnick in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 135 views. For similar materials see Medicine in America in American Studies at College of William and Mary.


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Date Created: 10/10/16
Hannah Millirons Medicine in America October 3, 2016 Midterm Study Guide Exam will be picked up at 12:30, take it wherever you want, work on it for two hours, and turn it  in to his office in Tucker 134 by 4:30 (or whatever time/agreement y’all have come to)  Martha Ballard o Diary kept from 1785­1812  Midwife and then takes care of the children that she delivers  She is also a nurse for them, so she treats them when they get sick  She lost her children to an epidemic  Self­taught and not certified  o She didn’t lose any mothers and very few babies o Laura Ulrich interpreted her diary, which is why we know so much about her life   Mary Corinna Putnam Jacobi (1842­1906) o Did a study to find out what actually happened during women’s menstrual cycles o Suffragist and feminist who fought for women’s rights  o Elizabeth Blackwell was her mentor   Elizabeth Blackwell (1821­1910) o Started an infirmary for women with her sister o First woman to attend medical school­ Geneva Medical School o First woman to become a physician  William Osler (1849­1919) o Canadian who taught at Penn and one of four who founded Hopkins o Integrated teaching of medicine with actually seeing patients o Medicine was learned in the classroom and not by the bedside  He changed the curriculum from just reading books to actually practicing  medicine with real patients o Set the model for medical education and what it meant to be a physician who  combined science and concern for patient o Hero of American medical education and medicine in general   Stephen Smith (1823­1922) o Active supporter of Metropolitan Health Bill o Led NY Board of Health in 1866 o Founded American Public Health Association   Benjamin Rush (1746­1813) o Constructed the most influential American system of medicine o Said political and social views, physical environment, and health were all linked  to each other  o Physician and professor of chemistry and medicine o Studied in Scotland and Paris o Thought there was only one true illness and that was over excitement of the  nervous system and thought that the only way to treat that was to purge or bleed  them   Flexner report 1910 (Starr) o AMA was disturbed by inferior medical schools and wanted to improve American medical education o Hired Abraham Flexner to go to medical schools in US under the pretense that he  was interested in giving them money for research o Medical schools showed him around and he reported about their quality of lab  rooms, dissection rooms, and education o Divided schools   C: schools serving African Americans; schools that were terrible and  irredeemable; underfunded and could not compete with the other schools  and did not have a chance  B: within the means of transforming into a good school  A: Johns Hopkins, Penn, Harvard, Michigan; important med schools that  were on the way to exemplifying a wonderful medical education  o Emphasized science in the first two years and then focused on practice after that  o Since medical schools had to upgrade, it cost them a lot of money and the students had to pay for it  Tuition was raised and med school became something available to only  middle or upper class  o AMA wanted to reduce the number of physicians so they could control the supply  Secularization o American medicine went from being in God’s hands or God’s punishment to  being treated and understood as science  Christian Science  Started by Mary Baker Eddy o Believe that illness stems from the mind and traditional  medicine could not cure it o Believed that a Christian scientist was the only person who  could help the sick person overcome their illness  Religion was used to justify the start of cholera and then society realized it was scientific and a health problem  When physicians couldn’t figure out an explanation for cholera,  God’s Will was the easiest thing to use as an explanation  Society was able to take control of curing and treating cholera once they shifted away from the idea that cholera was a form of divine  intervention  These principals were used for all illness, not just cholera   Standardization o Principle of Specificity: Treatment was determined and administered based on the individual’s characteristics (age, gender, ethnicity, social class, morals) and not so much the symptoms/diagnosis o Medicine went from using the principle of specificity to being universal and  standard  Physicians stopped treating the individual based on their history and  started treating them based on their symptoms in comparison with normal  physiological characteristics  Licensing  o AMA (1847) rose educational standards, kept charlatans out of medical field, and  pushed for licensing of physicians by the state  Driving force behind the Flexner Report o Created examining boards that were responsible for licensing/examining  physicians o Made exams required o Excluded substandard med school o Demanded a code of ethics o Alabama: examining board o Missouri: passed registration laws in 1883 o AMA pushed for state licensing laws   Used lobbying in 1870s­80s to require states to set up licensing laws   Pushed for higher educational standards through Flexner Report  Know why licensing was so important to the development of medicine as  a profession  Raises status of profession  Helps physicians make money  Midwifery o People (mostly women) who helped women give birth  o Martha Ballard’s life helps us see how difficult practicing medicine used to be   Transportation o Physicians had to walk to patients’ homes and it was much harder on them  They made less money  Some patients were only able to give a few shillings or would pay  with crops such as potatoes   They often had to travel for days at a time   People usually lived miles and miles away from each other   It was dangerous  They could get robbed or hurt  o Once cars were invented, physicians had more opportunities to make money by  practicing medicine   Patients who could afford cars could afford to pay the doctor more  Patients could get to the doctor faster and vice versa, so the doctor was  able to see more patients and they made more money  It was safer because they were not out in the open and unprotected  Urbanization o Physicians were able to make a career out of practicing medicine o Medical technology got more up­to­date  This increased patients’ chance of survival drastically  Rise of Hospitals  o In 1873, there were 200 hospitals o In 1912, there were 4000 hospitals   Place of women in medicine o Results of arguments  o Johns Hopkins was founded by wealthy women who wanted to help other women  gain access to med school  o  Intellectual and social revolutions during 1800s  Look at falloff of techniques beyond civil war  When natural changes to normal, what therapeutic ideals will be employed? o What does normal mean  What is a normal temperature, blood pressure, pressure on the eye? o Think about normal and how it affected people everywhere  Field of physiology o Claude Bernard (1813­1878)  Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine   Important in developing American ethics   First to suggest autopsies and dissection of animals: vivisection   Tips for format of exam o Refer to readings in the essay  Don’t need direct quotes  Address big ideas and themes about how medicine has evolved o Don’t need dates for identification questions  Put dates if you remember them, but you won’t get points off if you don’t  include the dates 


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