Midterm Study Guide
Midterm Study Guide HIST1013
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
EC 101 AA
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
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verified elite notetaker
This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kenzie Blakely on Monday October 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HIST1013 at Texas Woman's University taught by Kaitlyn Waynen in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 129 views. For similar materials see in History at Texas Woman's University.
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Date Created: 10/10/16
Midterm Study Guide Important People in History 1. Mansa Musa a. Mali’s most famous ruler, he went on a pilgrimage to Mecca that demonstrated the piety and wealth of Mali’s ruling class. He distributed so much gold on his journey that he reportedly sparked enormous inflation in Cairo 2. Francisco Pizzaro a. Overthrew the Inca Empire in Peru and claimed the world’s richest silver mines 3. Thomas Hariot a. An astronomer who visited Roanoke in 1558; for him the goal of colonization was to bring Native Americans “civility and the embracing of true religion” 4. Samuel de Champlain a. Established a permanent seat of government at Quebec City for France in 1608 5. Cecilius Calvert a. Maryland’s proprietor; he wanted Maryland to be a haven for Catholics 6. Anne Hutchinson a. Considered a threat to colonial authorities, she believed that God had given her the ability to discern the spiritual condition of other people; she was banished to Massachusetts 7. Peter Stuyvesant a. The governor of New Amsterdam (New York); was an autocratic, highhanded ruler who closely monitored life in the colony 8. Malinche a. Sold into slavery by the Aztecs, she served as Cortes’s translator during his conquest of Mexico; she also bore him a son named Martin 9. Bartolome de Las Casas a. Spanish missionary who spoke out against the violence that the Spanish inflicted upon Native peoples in his book Historia de las Indias 10. Jesuits a. Chose to live among Native tribes, learn Native languages, and present Christianity in a way that was intelligible to Native Americans; also required the Native groups to recognize European gender roles 11. Sagamores a. Algonquian leaders who opposed English attempts to dominate them; often responded with force to English oppression 12. Anthony and Mary Johnson a. African American couple living in Virginia who obtained their freedom and acquired a 250 acre plantation with servants and one slave; they lived in a “society with slaves” 13. Edward Randolph a. The royal agent who visited Massachusetts to investigate compliance with the Navigation Acts; he called for the withdrawal of the Massachusetts charter 14. Edmund Andros a. Former military officer; sent by James II to run the Dominion of New England without an elected assembly 15. William and Mary of Orange a. This English couple staged a bloodless coup and removed James II from power; they agreed to rule with the consent of Parliament and signed of Bill of Rights which stipulated the rights of all Englishmen 16. John Locke a. The political philosopher who articulated the concept of a social contract; he argued that societies are formed by people desiring security of law, but if their government becomes corrupt then the people have a natural right to revolution 17. George Whitefield a. Anglican missionary whose trips along the Atlantic coast created a common evangelical culture; he argued that organized religion had lost its vitality and that people needed to have an emotional connection to God 18. John Dickinson a. Published an influential tract entitled, Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania which argued that regardless of the nature of Taxes; whether levied directly or indirectly, and form of taxation without consent was illegal and a violation of English liberties. 19. Paul Revere a. A silversmith, engraver and an active member of the Sons of Liberty; he wrote a highly misleading broadside about the Boston Massacre that popularized a stilted view of the event throughout the colonies 20. Baron von Steuben a. A Prussian military officer; he trained the American army in European tactics during the winter at Valley Forge 21. Quakers a. They faced oppression and persecution from the Patriots due to their pacifist religious beliefs and their strict neutrality throughout the Revolution 22. Thomas Paine a. He authorized a short pamphlet titled Common Sense, in which he denounced King George and made a clear case for independence 23. Sir Thomas Gage a. British Commander in Boston; sent troops to the towns of Lexington and Concord 24. Banastre Tarleton a. The most wellknown British Commander in South Carolina, this cavalry officer responded to American tactics with bloody ruthlessness; at several points his pen bayoneted wounded and/or surrendering soldiers. His actions in South Carolina earned him the nickname “Bloody Tarleton” 25. Camp Followers a. Women who depended on the army for income from washing and cooking 26. Federalists a. Supporters of the Constitution; included wealthy, eastern, mercantile interests who realized that regulated commerce would directly benefit them 27. Roger Sherman a. He introduced the Great Compromise which split the difference between small and large states 28. Edmund Rutledge a. South Carolina legislator who commented on the weakness of the Articles of Confederation, saying the Confederation Congress was vested “with no more power than is absolutely necessary” 29. George Washington a. He was presiding officer at the Constitutional Convention 30. Vikings a. People group who reached North America around the year 1000 and established a settlement on Newfoundland, which was later Abandoned 31. Ferdinand Magellan a. Explorer who lead the first expedition to sail around the world from 1519 to 1522, although he was killed midjourney in the Philippines 32. Roger Williams a. Minister who shortly after arriving in Massachusetts, insisted that congregations withdraw from the Church of England and that church and state be separated; he was banished in 1636 and established the colony of Rhode Island 33. John Smith a. One of the early leaders of Jamestown, he imposed military discipline including a regime of forced labor on company lands; He was also “saved” by Pocahontas during a ceremony demonstrating Powhatan’s authority 34. Indentured Servants a. The nearly 2/3 of English settlers who voluntarily exchanged their freedom for a specified time (typically 57) years in exchange for passage to America 35. Squanto a. An Indian who had been taken to Spain in 1614 by an English explorer and since returned to Massachusetts; he served as an interpreter for the pilgrims and taught them to fish and plant corn 36. Mary Rowlandson a. English woman who was seized along with a group of others and held for three months in Indian captivity; she described her experiences in her book The Sovereignty and Goodness of God 37. Martin Luther a. German priest who in 1517 posted his 95 Thesis accusing the Catholic Church of corruption and starting the Protestant Reformation 38. Witches a. Individuals, usually women, who were accused of having entered into a pact with the devil to obtain supernatural powers they used to harm others or interfere with natural processes 39. Neolin a. A Delaware Indian prophet who taught his people to reject European technology and free themselves from commercial ties with whites; He also promoted a new kind of panIndian identity 40. Jonathan Edwards a. Congregationalist minister whose most famous sermon Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God portrayed sinful man as an insect suspended by a thread over a bottomless pit of eternal fire 41. Oliver Cromwell a. The head of the victorious Parliamentary army during the English Civil War; Ruled England for a decade after the execution of the King Important Historical Places 1. Beringia a. This served as a land bridge or connection between Asia and the Americas 2. Hispaniola a. In 1492 Columbus’ three ships landed here; an island in the Bahamas 3. St. Augustine a. Spain’s first permanent settlement in what would become the United States, located in Florida 4. Georgia a. Founded in 1732 as a haven for English convicts, debtors, and other undesirables 5. South Carolina a. The most active colony in importing slaves; they have a black majority throughout the colonial period 6. Trenton and Princeton a. Washington’s only victories came in surprise attacks on these two towns in the winter of 1777 7. Bunker Hill a. Technically occurring at Breed’s Hill overlooking Boston, this British victory came at a high costs, more than 1,000 British soldiers were killed or wounded 8. Tenochtitlan a. The capital of the Aztec empire; had a population close to 250,000 people 9. Northwest Passage a. A sea route connecting the Atlantic to the Pacific sought by the French (never discovered) 10. South Carolina a. The first mainland, North American colony to achieve a black majority Significant Things (Terms, or Periods of Time, etc…) 1. Agricultural Revolution a. The transformation of nomadic, hunter gatherer societies into settled agricultural communities 2. Animistic a. Describes religions that find God in nature 3. Renaissance Humanism a. A school of thought that valued the individual and stressed the beauty of being human 4. 95 Theses a. Luther nailed this to the church door in Wittenburg Germany, protesting the corruption of the Catholic Church 5. Starving Time a. Occurring between 16091610; this was the result of the Powhatan Indian’s refusal to provide English settlers with corn 6. Royal Colony a. A colony whose leaders is a royally appointed governor and responsible to the political establishment in London 7. Gentry a. The stable ruling class in Chesapeake colonies; these men possessed capital which gave them instant access to land and labor 8. Mayflower Compact a. Officially established a civil body politic; an important constitutional precedent for the future development of American governments 9. Practical Divinity a. Intense spiritual life practiced by the Puritans in which they sought to examine themselves for spirituality and others for laxity 10. The Laws, Concessions, and Agreements a. A radically democratic form of government which established a unicameral legislature that was empowered to make laws; attempted in West Jersey in 1677 11. Religious Syncretism a. Occurred when Native Americans accepted Catholic teachings, yet kept their earlier traditions; the virgin of Guadalupe is a classic example 12. Sugar a. A Caribbean crop made that made West Indian planters very wealthy; the type of plantation labor used to grow this crop was later exported to the mainland colonies 13. Task System a. A form of labor organization in which slaves were given tasks to complete each day; when these tasks were completed they were given the remaining time for themselves 14. Triangle Trade a. The Atlantic economy based on slavery; involving New England, the Caribbean, the Southern colonies and the African Coast 15. Fictive Kin a. Elaborate systems created by African slaves to provide support and love because slave marriages were not recognized by the law 16. Navigation Acts a. Established four principles for colonial mercantilism; forced American trade to center on England; stimulated the growth of colonial shipping and shipbuilding but were difficult to enforce 17. Newspapers a. Form of communication which served to further unite the colonies in a common culture; reprinted stories from around the empire and carried advertisements for the latest goods from London 18.Proclamation Line of 1763 a. A royal decree prohibiting western settlement beyond the Appalachian Mountains designed to promote peace with Native Americans 19. Molasses Act a. Placed a high tax on imported French molasses in an attempt to encourage colonists to buy English molasses 20. Salutary Neglect a. Climate of imperial laxity during which England allowed her colonies a great deal of freedom to develop their own institutions and laws 21. Vice Admiralty Courts a. Military tribunals without juries where people who avoided the tax on sugar were prosecuted 22. Liberty Mobs a. In opposition of the Stamp Act, they stormed the homes of tax collectors, destroyed the stamps, and occasionally tarred and feathered their victims 23. Daughters of Liberty a. During colonial boycotts, these women spun cloth, found substitutes for coffee and other imported goods, and earned the public praise of men 24. Virtual Representation a. This form of representation assumed that all peoples were supposedly had a voice regardless if they had elected an official or not 25. Committees of Correspondence a. Formed across the colonies to exchange information and ideas about resistance, furthering intercolonial cooperation 26. British East India Company a. In 1773, Parliament allowed this company to have a monopoly on taxed tea sales to the colonies 27. Second Continental Congress a. This body assumed the role of a national government in May 1775; it sent the Olive Branch Petition to King George while also establishing a national army 28. Lord Dunmore’s 1775 Proclamation a. This offered freedom to any slave able to leave his master and fight for the king 29. Notes on the State of Virginia a. This book, written by Thomas Jefferson in 1781, spearheaded a concept of race that held that Africans were less fully human than Caucasians 30. Gradual Emancipation a. A prevalent manumission concept whereby slaves born after a set date were freed at a certain age (usually their midtwenties); the result was that, while new cases of slavery ceased, slavery itself lasted for decades after the legislation was passed 31. Electoral College a. This political body chose, and still chooses, the President; serving as a check against the whims of an unpredictable public, this body would assure that only the most capable achieved the high office 32. Land Ordinance of 1785 a. Legislation which stipulated that all western lands be surveyed in a gridlike pattern; that is that they be broken down into individual townships (counties) consisting of 36 blocks of uniform sections of 640 acres each 33. Northwest Ordinance a. Legislation which provided a path for western lands to become states; it also prohibited slavery in the region 34. Brown Fellowship Society a. A fraternal organization founded by free African Americans that provided members with insurance coverage, financed a school, and supported orphans 35. Matrilineal a. Term that describes societies centered on clans or kinship groups in which children become members of the mother’s family instead of the father’s 36. Edict of Nantes a. This was revoked in 1685 ending the previous religious toleration extended to French protestants thus leading over 100,000 Hugenots to flee 37. Coverture a. English legal doctrine which claimed that when a woman married she surrendered her legal identity, which became “covered” by that of her husband 38. Reconquista a. Completed under the rule of Ferdinand and Isabella in 1492; a “reconquest” of Spain from the Moors 39. Great League of Peace a. Formed by the five Iroquois peoples to bring stability to their region; each year representatives met to coordinated behavior toward outsiders 40. Columbian Exchange a. The transatlantic flow of goods and people 41. Headright System a. System instituted in Carolina offering 150 acres of land for each member of an arriving family and 100 acres to male servants who completed their term 42. Flushing Remonstrance a. A 1657 petition by a group of English settlers in New Netherland protesting the Dutch governor’s order barring Quakers from living in the town of Flushing, on Long Island 43. House of Burgesses a. When it convened in 1619, this became the first elected assembly in Colonial America 44. Body of Liberties a. Document issues by the General Court in 1641 outlining the rights and responsibilities of Massachusetts colonists; it adopted the traditional understanding of liberties as privileges derived from one’s place in the social order 45. Jeremaids a. The warnings of Puritan ministers, named after the Hebrew prophet Jeremiah, that interpreted crop failures and disease as signs of divine disapproval 46. Asiento a. An agreement in which Spain subcontracted to a foreign power the right to provide slaves to Spanish America; a diplomatic prize gained by the English in 1713 47. Black Legend a. The image of Spain as a uniquely brutal and exploitive colonizer 48. Race a. Modern concept that humanity is divided into welldefined groups associated with skin color 49. Bacons Rebellion a. Virginia uprising in 1676 over Governor Berkley’s corrupt land policies; led by wealthy planter, Nathaniel Bacon 50. Middle Passage a. The slave voyage across the Atlantic; the second leg in the triangular trading routes linking Europe, Africa, and America 51. Gullah a. Spoken in Georgia and the Carolinas, this language mixed various African roots and was unintelligible to most whites 52. Stono Rebellion a. Uprising in 1739, in which slaves in South Carolina seized weapons and began marching towards freedom in Florida; led to a severe tightening of the South Carolina slave code and the temporary imposition of a tax on imported slaves 53. Repartimiento System a. Spanish system of labor whereby residents of Indian villages remained legally free and entitled to wages, but were still required to perform a fixed amount of labor annually. 54. Anglicization a. Process by which colonists became more and more English; they increasingly purchased English fashions, furnishings, and literature 55. Primogeniture a. Legal system of inheritance in which estates must be passed intact to the oldest son 56. Deism a. A belief that God essentially withdrew after creating the world, leaving it to function according to scientific laws without divine intervention 57. Magna Carta a. A 1215 agreement between King John and a group of Barons; listed a series of liberties granted by the king to “freemen” including protection against arbitrary imprisonment and seizure of property without due process 58. European Enlightenment a. Philosophical movement that originated among French thinkers; sought to apply the scientific method of careful investigation based on research and experiment to political and social life Short Answer Questions & Their Answers 1. What items were taxed b the Townshend duties? a. Glass b. Paint c. Oil d. Lead e. Paper f. Tea 2. What restrictions were put in place by the intolerable or coercive acts? a. Boston’s port was closed b. Quartering Act c. Representative government was outlawed d. Trials were allowed outside of Massachusetts (in Vice Admiralty Courts) 3. What were the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation? a. Continuing British presence on frontier (because war debts were not paid, after treaty) b. Government had little to no power c. Severe economic crisis (paper money was not backed by any precious metals) d. Shay’s rebellion (scared the government officials) 4. What was William Penn’s vision for his colony of Pennsylvania? a. He wanted it to be a place of free worship for Quakers because he had been previously jailed for his religion 5. In what ways was slavery in the Caribbean unique? a. Particularly harsh (work environments were VERY brutal) b. Interracial sexual relationships were condoned c. Mixed race children were seen as unique and got special treatment 6. How did the Protestant Reformation begin? a. Martin Luther nailed his 95 Thesis on a church door in Wittenburg, Germany 7. Who was Deborah Sampson and why was she significant? a. She was a woman who posed as a male (Robert Shirtliff) in order to be able to fight in the civil war, she was injured and treated for a head trauma but refused help for a leg injury, which she dug a bullet out of her own thigh, in fear of being found out. By the end of the war her true identity came to light, and she was granted a soldiers pension 8. Explain the Colombian Exchange. List one item new to the New World, and one item new to the Old World. a. The Colombian exchange was the exchange of goods between the New and Old World b. New Old i. Corn ii. Beans iii. Precious metals iv. Potatoes v. Cocoa vi. Tobacco c. Old New World i. Wheat ii. Rice iii. Sugar iv. Livestock v. Coffee beans vi. Diseases
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