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Exam 2 Studyguide

by: courtney Notetaker

Exam 2 Studyguide 1134

courtney Notetaker
Virginia Tech

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notes for exam 2 on 10/12/16
Ancient Mediterranean World
Christine E. Steer
Study Guide
ancient, Mediterranean, history, world, Greece, Greek, Studyguide, Roman, Rome, Classic, Classics
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This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by courtney Notetaker on Monday October 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 1134 at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University taught by Christine E. Steer in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views.


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Date Created: 10/10/16
 The rise of Persia and the Ionian revolt o Assyria- they were more of an agricultural people.  Along the Tigris river  Ruled by bandits, they raided their neighbors constantly  Took Babylon in 739 BC and burned it in 689  The Assyrians were a very aggressive people with sophisticated siege weapons  Phoenicians colonized to make money so they could buy protection from them o Rise of Persia  Cyrus conquered the Median empire and created Persia in 550 BC  Persian culture was varied and multicultural  Persians invaded Europe in 514 BC  Athens asked Persia for help against Sparta  They effectively submitted to Persia o Ionian revolt: Ionian Greeks vs Persia  Herodotus  Father of history  Main source of events of the Persian wars  Athens responds  They forgot that they submitted on accident  They sent ships to aid in the Ionian rebellion and burned the Persian capital  Rebellion suppression was easy for Persia  Burned Miletus and its temples  The Persian Wars o 492 BC - Persians tried to storm Greece, they didn’t make it all the way there o The invasion of Greece  Persia sent messengers to see if Greece would submit or fight. Athens and Sparta refused to submit  2 signs of submission: Earth and water o The invasion  The Persians headed to Athens, they planned to wipe out everyone in their way  Battle of marathon: Athens v Persia  10 years before the next invasion after marathon  Himera: Sparta led by Hamilcar of Carthage  Syracuse was becoming very powerful in this time o 480 BC - Persians come back  They have a gigantic army of one million men  The Persian invasion – they Marched south towards Athens through Thermopylae o The fall of Athens  The city was evacuated, the Persians arrived and destroyed t o Greek forces centered at Salamis and destroyed the Persians  Imperial Athens o Lots of changes in the 50 years after the civil war  Greece divided into 2 parts  Delian league - led by Athens  Peloponnesian league - led by Sparta o 479-461 BC  Expansion of Syracuse  Gelon lead syracusian Greeks to victory over carthage  Dedicated a tripod at Delphi to commemorate the victory  Government in Syracuse (Gelon’s son Hiero ruled)  very firm ruler, Depopulated cities and put mercenaries in them  He beat the Etruscans and wanted to be seen as glorious so he had Pindar write poems exaggerating his accomplishments  His people rebelled against him  Syracuse lost their iron grip on people o Segesta: Sicilian Natives ally against Syracuse  Native inhabitants of Sicily - Elymians  Defeated and sold into slavery o Eastern Greece  478 - Spartans send Pausanias to lead the Greek alliance against Persia, who retreated  Sparta is in charge, But they're bad at decision making  Pausanias removed from command  He was starved to death in a temple Athens takes over the Delian League – met on Delos   Everyone contributed either ships or money o Kimon of Athens  Took command of the fleet and attacked Persian bases in Attica and any towns that didn’t join the Delian league  Naxos wants to leave the Delian League, they were forced to stay  Defeated by Athens and forced to take down their defensive walls  Lost its navy and No longer had any say in the alliance  Kimon returned the bones of Theseus to Athens  Big ego boost to the Athenian people, It was a symbol of their power over the Aegean  Those not in the Delian league formed the Peloponnesian League, led by Sparta  Thasos tried to leave the Delian League  Decision resulted from an argument between them and Athens over control of goldmines in the area  Athens besieged Thasos - They finally surrendered to Athens in 463 BC  Athens made them tear down their defensive walls and pay large fines, Also forced to forfeit their entire navy o Earthquake in Laconia and helots revolt against Sparta  The earthquake caused mass destruction in Sparta, Helots used this opportunity to revolt  Sparta reached out to Athens for aid. They sent a force of hoplites to help  They later sent a second force to help but they were rejected by the Spartans  Kimon lost favor in Athens, Epilates and Pericles took over o Epilates' reforms lead to a more democratic Athens  Broadened democracy: Archons were soon chosen by lot o Hostilities flare between Athens and Sparta (~460 BC)  Some Athenians believed the only way to protect democracy was to destroy Sparta  tried to ally with the dissatisfied members of the Peloponnesian league  to encircle Sparta with their alliance  Cutting them off from Corinth would cripple Sparta o First Peloponnesian War  Allies of Athens v. allies of Sparta  Battle at Tanagra in Boeotia  Sparta won, but only gave them minimal advantage o Great Athenian losses in Egypt  Athens was pursing both Persia and Sparta at once  Sent ships to help Egypt against Persia - Persia destroyed their almost 200 ships o The long walls  Connected Athens with Piraeus at the coast (about 5 miles) Protected the route from Athens to the sea  o Transfer of the Delian League treasury from Delos to Athens  They transferred it after the defeat in Egypt  They thought it was safer from the Persians o Citizenship laws of Pericles  Introduced stipends for jurors  Citizenship could be conferred only on those whose parents were Athenian o The end of overseas expeditions against Persia by the Delian league - treaty of Callias o 450 BC - Death of Kimon  Died on a campaign in Cyprus  The fleet survived his death o The league continues  Persia was no longer a threat so many wanted to exit the league  Athens looked weak so Sparta decided to invade o Pericles  Reconquered Europe  Before Sparta could get involved  Negotiated peace with Sparta, ending the first Peloponnesian war o New role of Athens - Capital city of the Greeks  Athenian building program - Pericles decided to rebuild o Samos tries to leave the Delian league  Pericles led an expedition against them, they surrendered o tensions between Athens and Sparta lead to the Peloponnesian war  Athens was growing richer and stronger  Sparta and the rest of Greece sinking under Athens  Athens would soon swallow all of Greece if they didn’t do anything soon o Religion and Ritual  When you die, you're not buried with your stuff, Its given to the community or to the gods  Everything in their lives was about the gods  Gods were very human-like  Hesiod  Tells us where everything came from  Greek gods are a symbol of Greek civilization  Symbolic of their triumph over savagery o The games  Began 776 BC at Olympia  Festival to honor the gods  Every 4 years, Lasted 5 days  Religious and sporting events  Prizes  Olive garland  Non athletic events  Vendors selling food  Souvenirs  Entertainers  No women were allowed to watch  The Olympiad and the "circuit"  The Olympiad was the primary method of dating (years)  Democracy, Law, and Class o Herodotus  All offices assigned by lot, and all subject to investigation  All policies are debated in public  Restricted to one, 1 year term  This system made corruption very difficult o Development of democracy in Athens  As the empire grew, the political role of the lowest class became very important o Participation in the assembly  All Athenian men over 18 could attend and vote in the assembly  Debates - Persuasive speeches  Men who attended came from all over Attica o Direct democracy: All citizens took an active part in government o Democratic leaders  Persuasive speaking was very important  Those that were persuasive held all of the power o The council and Prytanies  Council took care of things that needed more regular attention than the assembly  Council: 500 citizens, chosen by lot  Served for 1 year, but no more than twice  State offices were paid positions o Legal system  All disputes were handled by the peoples courts  No judge, no lawyers. Chairman ensured fairness  proposed penalties for each other because they had no fixed punishments  Drawbacks  Didn’t include women, metics, or slaves o Training for public life  Government recognized the importance of physical fitness  Poor boys would learn a trade, richer ones studied oratory  Often had an older mentor o Sophists  New organized form of oratory training  Disliked and feared  People thought them too persuasive o Houses  Inner courtyard, very little furniture  Separate areas for men and women inside o Clothes, they wore chitons o Food  Mostly bread  Also fish, eggs, and olives o Dinner parties (Symposia)  Important part of Greek culture  Relax and drink together o Cities were a combination of private property and public magnificence  Agora - city center/marketplace  Where council and assembly met o Baths and parks  Public bath houses - not as nice as the roman ones  Simply a place to wash. They didn’t swim o Work and trade  All citizens were required to practice a trade  Certain jobs were more prestigious  Specialization in a skill was valued o Women and the polis  Polis was male dominated  Women could only marry and give birth to children  Most of our sources on women were written by men o Hetairai and the Pornai  Prostitutes. Either slaves or free  Thin, hazy line between prostitute and entertainer o Exposure of infants  At birth the father choose to either raise or expose the child  Exposed children can be picked up and raise by anyone  Raised free or as a slave  Very important to have a son to carry on the household o Marriage and children  Girls were a potential risk to family honor  Married in early-mid teens to a man around 30 years old  After marriage, they too care of the household and kids  Never take part in public life  Few women ever actually appear in historical sources o Metics: Non-citizen residents o Slaves  Very important in Greece  Looked after their master's affairs while they were away  1/4 - 1/3 of population of Attica was slaves  Architecture, Sculpture, and Pottery o Architecture  Most commonly expressed in temples  Columns "in antis" - Columns inside a projecting wall with pillars  Prostyle  Wall consisting of only columns  Peripteral - One row of columns on all sides  Dipteral - Double rows of columns on all 4 sides  Opisthodomos - The back room  Functions of temples  Worshippers gathered outside  Buildings house the deity  Temple of Artemis at Ephesus  One of the 7 ancient wonders of the world  Built 3 times  Temple of Poseidon  In Italy, built 500BC  One of the most well preserved Doric temples  Temple of Zeus at Olympia  Doric - stout and heavy  Painted and Carvings honoring Zeus  Corinthian: Later style, more roman  Acropolis of Athens  Became rich from the Delian league and labor taxes  Lots of temples rebuilt when Pericles decided to do so  Parthenon  Most famous Greek temple  Had a continuous frieze No straight lines   Athena Parthenos  Statue of Athena promachos  Very big  Outside the temple  Built by Phidias  No longer exists  The Erecthelon  By Phidias  Irregularly shaped  The porch of maidens supported the roof  The proplyaea  Main entrance to the acropolis  Depiction of the prosperity, ability, and confidence of Athens  Athena Nike  Statue of Athena, goddess of victory o Sculpture  Lots of sculpture mixed with architecture  Statue of Apollo from the temple of Zeus  Calm yet rigid  Zeus/Poseidon  Cant tell which god it is  Statues of 2 warriors  Found in the sea  Thought to be by Phidias  Shift from severe style to high classical  Doryphoros of Polykleitos  More animated poses  Balance and harmony of the human body  Nike adjusting her sandal From the temple of Athena Nike   In motion- not posing o Pottery  Greek style was famous throughout the Mediterranean  Red and black figure  Images of the gods  White-ground  Drama and theater  Drama and religion  Drama got its roots from religion  Tragedy originated from hymns to Dionysus  Thespis  Shift from 3rd to 1st person  Also invented the theatrical mask  City of Dionysia  Theatrical performances took place there  Festival honoring Dionysus  The competitions  Several performances in one day  Archon provided sponsors to fund 8 plays each year  The best one receives a reward  The actors Always men, The poet who wrote it was usually also in it   The chorus  Choral song was essential  Action was in the dialogue, the chorus is a reflection of the plot  The theater  First it was a bare slope, then a wooden seating area  Eventually changed to stone  Deus ex machina  Swooped actors in and out of the stage area  Set, costumes, and masks  Sets weren't elaborate  Costumes were good  Masks were the most important part  Showed which character was being portrayed  The story  Stories weren't new  The message portrayed in the story was the important part  Characters  Usually taken from legends or sagas  Narrative structure  Tragedies had basic plot  Action  The climax was usually not shown on stage  Reported to the audience by a messenger  Hubris and Catharsis  Tragedies must have grand characters  Hubris - violent arrogance  Catharsis - cleaning  Aeschylus  Oldest of the 3 tragic poets  Active in politics  Sophocles  123 plays, only 7 survived  Euripides  looked into the hearts of his characters  Lots of heroes or extraordinary people in extraordinary situations  Satyr Plays  Had a chorus of Satyrs  Half the length of tragedies  Aristophanes  Most well-known comic playwright  Based a lot on contemporary politics Comedy   Few actors, had a chorus  Aristotle  The unities  Unity of action  Unity of place  Unity of time  Education, math, science, and philosophy o Traditional education in Athens  Families were in charge of educating their own kids  Girls taught domestic skills  Boys taught reading, writing, and math  Schools and teachers  Parents were urged to educate their children  Law said kids must earn a craft  School boy was accompanied by a slave  Paidagogos  Music  Songs and poems were very similar  Memorized poetry at school o The Palaistra  Wrestling school  Learned athletic training o Sophists taught rhetoric  Protagoras  Said the truth was subjective  Socrates  Not a sophist but a teacher  Only interested in useful and practical topics, what is true and moral  Found guilty of corrupting the youth and of impiety  Died by drinking poison  Isocrates  Was a sophist  Thought Athens to be better than everyone else o Greek intellectuals became interested in theoretical, not practical knowledge o Anaxagoras and Demokritos  Anaxagoras came to Athens  A theoretical thinker  Lots of theoretical thoughts about the moon  Demokritos  Had theories about matter but nothing he could prove o Why was Greek thought theoretical?  Valued mind over senses  Didn’t have scientific instruments to test theories o Socrates and theoretical  Focus on justice, virtue, friendship, education, and abstract ideas o Plato  We rely on him for Socrates' teachings  Mathematician and philosopher  Republic of Plato  He disliked democracy  Ruled by a small elite o Xenophon  Also one of Socrates' pupils o Plato's theory of ideal forms  Invisible, unchanging, world of ideals of which our world is just a corrupt copy o Plato's concept of dualism  Immortal souls and mortal bodies o Plato and the study of music  Music is very important to the development of kids  Also loved geometry o Pythagoras  Foundations for Greek math o Herakleides and astronomy  Said the earth is a sphere that rotates  Said solar system was heliocentric o Aristotle  "the master of them that known"  Studied physical things  Did not conduct experiments  Believed things had functions  Thought man is a political animal o Medical treatment  Trainers had knowledge of sprains and training injuries  Peloponnesian War o Thucydides and the Peloponnesian war  Chief source of info on these wars  He was a general, but was exiled early on  Father of scientific history o 3 main stages of war  Archidamian War  Peace of Nicias  Ionian War o Pericles  General of Athens  Under his leadership the acropolis was rebuilt o Preliminaries to war  Athens enforced its will upon other "allies-turned-subjects" o Build up to war  Athens allied with a colony of Corinth against Corinth  Potidaea refused to ally with Athens and thus rebelled o Events not emphasized by Thucydides  Megaron decree  Megara couldn’t use Athens' ports  Lifting the decree would have prevented war o War under Pericles  Rely on sea power and the long walls o 1st year of war  Athens was seen as oppressors  Sparta as the liberators  Athens raided the Peloponnesian coast o Plague in Athens  Due to unsanitary conditions, a plague broke out  Pericles died in this plague o The rise of Demagogues  The most notorious was Kleon  Demostethens and Pylos  Demostethens thought Pylos was a good Spartan territory for Athens to fortify Spartans got trapped by Athenian navy   KLEON  Represented the demands of the commercial class  Very rash  Athens decided to expand in 424  Attacked Boeotia but failed o Peace of Nicias  Leaders on both sides died, so they were ready for peace  Didn’t invade each other for over 10 months  Nicias  Politician, general, aristocrat o The Sicilian Expedition  Largest Greek expedition of the war  Athens's greatest defeat o The Athenian Disaster  Athenians attacked Sicily and won  Lots of men and ships lost o Ionian phase of war  Athens had 3 main problems  Vulnerability of the grain supply route from the black sea  Threat of subject revolts in the Aegean  Depletion of Athenian financial reserves  Revolts against Athens  They all vied each other for Spartan assistance against Athens o Alcibiades Returning to Athens  Led Athens to key successes  Sailed home to Athens with great majesty and display  Falls from favor  Sails out on naval operation  Minor loss lost him popularity o Battle of Arginusae  Last Athenian victory o Final defeat of Athens  Battle of Aegospotami  Lost because of negligence o End of the war  Spartan general ordered all overseas Athenians be driven home  Then they began a siege of Athens Study Guide: Greek Names to Know  Hesiod (750? – 650?) o Known as the father of history o Is our main source of the events of the Persian Wars  Polykleitos (fl. ca. 450 – 420) o He was an ancient Greek sculptor, one of the most important of classical antiquity  Praxiteles (fl. ca. 370 – 330) o First sculptor to sculpt the nude female form in a life size statue o None of his sculptures exist today, but many copies do  Pausanias (d. 470) o Greek general in the battle of Plataea o He was removed from command and starved to death in a temple  Kimon (510 – 450) o Athenian strategist, responsible for the victory in the battle of marathon  Ephialtes (fl. ca. 475 – 461) o He led the democratic movement in Athens o Took over after Kimon was ostracized  Thespis (500s?) o First person to appear onstage as a character in a play o Created the use of masks in plays  Aeschylus (ca. 535 – 456) o Tragedy writer o Some of the only works of classical Greek literature to have survived  Sophocles (ca. 497 – 406) o The second of 3 tragedy writers  Euripides (ca. 480 – 406) o Final tragedy writer  Aristophanes (ca. 446 – 386) o Ancient comic playwright  Protagoras of Abdera (ca. 490 – 420) o Greek sophist  Socrates (ca. 469 – 399) o One of the founders of western philosiphy  Isocrates (436 – 338) o Ancient greek rherotician  Thales (624 – 546) o Greek philosopher o Looked to explain the existence of natural things  Herakleitos (ca. 535 – cs. 475) o Greek philosipher  Anaxagoras (500 – 428) o Greek philosopher o Brought philosophy to athens  Demokritos (460 – 380) o Philosopher o Atomic theory of the universe  Plato (ca. 427 – 347) o Founded the first higher learning institution in the ancient world o Philosopher o Most pivotal figure in the formation of philosophy  Xenophon (ca. 430 – 354) o Historian, soldier, and mercenary o Student of Socrates  Pythagoras (ca. 570 – 495) o One of the foremost Greek mathematicians o Pythagorean theorem  Herakleides (ca. 390 – 310) o Greek philosopher and astronomer o Lots of theories about the moon  Aristotle (384 – 322) o Philosopher and scientist o Student of Plato  Hippokrates (ca. 460 – 370) o Physician o One of the most important people in the history of medicine  Thucydides (ca. 460 – 395) o Athenian historian o Father of scientific history  Pericles (ca. 495 – 429) o Athenian leader who reconquered Europe before Sparta got involved after the Persian Wars o Negotiated peace with Sparta that ended the 1 Peloponnesian War o New citizenship laws: juror stipends, and only those whose parents were citizens could be citizens themselves  Kleon (d. 422) o Athenian general during the Peloponnesian War  Demosthenes (d. 413) o Greek statesman and orator o Provided insight into the politics of ancient greece  Nicias (ca. 470 – 413) o Athenian general and politician during the Peloponnesian War o Negotiated the Peace of Nicias during the war  Alcibiades (ca. 450 – 404) o Strategic advisor in the Peloponnesian war o Also a military commander and a politician  Lysander (d. 395) o Spartan admiral who commanded the Spartan fleet at Hellenspont o Brought the Peloponnesian war to an end  Agesilaos (444 – 360) o King of sparta  Darius II (died 404) o King of Persia  Artaxerxes (died 424) (Cyrus) o Fifth king of persia


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