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outline of chapters 4, 5, and 11

by: Becca Petersen

outline of chapters 4, 5, and 11 PSY2012-16Fall 0002

Becca Petersen
University of Central Florida

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About this Document

Notes from lectures/ the book's three chapters according to the study guide Dr. J posted on web courses. (all credit for material goes to Dr. J / Meyers Dewall Psychology 11th edition)
General Psychology
Dr. Alisha Janowsky
Study Guide
50 ?




Popular in General Psychology

Popular in Psychology (PSYC)

This 20 page Study Guide was uploaded by Becca Petersen on Monday October 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY2012-16Fall 0002 at University of Central Florida taught by Dr. Alisha Janowsky in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Central Florida.

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Date Created: 10/10/16
Psychology   Study  Guide:  Exam  II     Chapters  4,  5,  and  11       Key:   Vocabulary  words   Key  Ideas     Chapter  4:  Nature,  Nurture,  &  Human  Diversity   • Behavior  geneticists   ◦ Behavior  Geneticists  –  study  our  differences  and  weigh  the  effects  and  the   interplay  of  heredity  and  the  environment     ◦ Behavior  Genetics-­‐  the  study  of  the  relative  power  and  the  limits  of  genetic  and   environmental  influences  on  behavior   ◦ Environment  –  every  non-­‐genetic  influence  from  prenatal  nutrition  to  the  people   and  things  around  us   ◦ Chromosomes  –  threadlike  structures  made  of  DNA  molecules  that  contain  the   genes   ◦ DNA  –  Deoxyribonucleic  acid  –  a  complex  molecule  containing  genetic   information  that  makes  up  chromosomes   ◦ Genes  –  the  biochemical  units  of  heredity  that  make  up  the  chromosomes  –   segments  of  DNA  capable  of  synthesizing  proteins   ◦ Genome  –  the  complete  instructions  for  making  an  organism  consisting  of  all  the   genetic  material  in  that  organism’s  chromosomes.     Heredity  interacts  with  our  experiences  to  create  both  our  universal  nature  and  our   individual  and  social  diversity       Every  cell  nucleaus  in  the  body  contains  the  master  genetic  code  for  your  entire  body   You  have  46  chromosomes  –  23  from  your  mother  and  23  from  your  father.    Each  is  made   up  of  a  coiled  chain  of  the  molecule  DNA.    Genes  are  small  segments  of  the  giant  DNA   molecules.    We  have  20,000-­‐  25,000  genes  which  are  either  active  (expressed)  or  inactive.     Environmental  events  turn  on  genes  –  when  turned  on,  genes  provide  the  code  for  creating   protein  molecules  for  our  body’s  building  blocks.       The  nucleaus  of  every  cell  contains  chromosomes,  each  made  up  of  two  strands  of  DNA   connected  in  a  double  helix.    Genes  are  DNA  segments  that  when  expressed  (turned  on)   direct  the  development  of  proteins  that  influence  a  person’s  individual  development.     Genetically  speaking,  every  other  human  is  nearly  your  identical  twin.  Human  Genome   researchers  found  a  common  sequence  within  human  DNA.     • What  do  twin  and  adoption  studies  tell  us?   ◦ Identical  twins  –  monozygotic  twins  -­‐    develop  from  a  single  fertilized  egg  that   splits  in  two,  creating  two  genetically  identical  organisms.   ◦ Fraternal  twins  –  dizygotic  twins  -­‐develop  from  two  separate  fertilized  eggs.     They  share  a  prenatal  environment  but  genetically,  are  no  more  similar  than   ordinary  siblings.         Although  identical  twins  have  the  same  genes,  they  don’t  always  have  the  same  number  of   copies  of  those  genes.    For  this  reason,  one  twin  might  be  at  greater  risk  for  disease  than   the  other.   Most  identical  twins  share  a  placenta  during  prenatal  development  –  but  that  is  not  always   the  case  –  if  they  have  separate  placentas  one  might  receive  more  nourishment  than  the   other,  which  could  also  contribute  to  differences.         Identical  twins  are  much  more  behaviorally  similar  to  each  other  than  are  fraternal  twins.     Part  of  this  may  be  blamed  of  genetics  but  their  environmental  situations  may  also  be  more   similar  because  identical  twins  report  being  treated  alike  (whether  its  by  parents  who   dress  them  similarly  or  by  peers)     Separated  twins  –  reference  page  137  in  the  book  for  the  story  –  but  in  short  two  twins   who  had  no  knowledge  of  the  other’s  existence  until  late  in  their  adult  life  ended  up  living   shockingly  similar  lives  which  seemingly  exceed  coincidence.     Biological  Vs  Adopted  Relatives  –  Studies  have  found  that  people  who  grow  up  together  –   whether  biologically  related  or  not    -­‐  do  not  really  resemble  one  another  in  personality.   People  who  have  been  adopted  are  more  similar  in  personality  traits  to  their  biological   parents  than  to  their  adoptive  parents.    But  they  are  more  likely  to  share  similar  values  and   ideals  with  their  adoptive  parents  (such  as  religion  and  political  views)     Temperament  and  Heredity:   ◦ Temperament  –  A  person’s  characteristic  emotional  reactivity  and  intensity   ◦ Heritability  –  The  proportion  of  variation  among  individuals  that  we  can  attribute   to  genes.    The  heretibality  of  a  trait  may  vary  depending  on  the  range  of   populations  and  environments  studied.       One  aspect  of  personality  –  temperament  –  is  apparent  even  before  being  born.    Infants  can   be  difficult  –  irritable,  intense,  fidgety  and  unpredictable.    Or  they  can  be  easy  –  happy  and   relaxed  with  regular  schedules.  And  others  fall  in  the  middle  ground-­‐  slow  –  they  are  not   good  at  new  people  or  new  situations     Heretibility  –  it  is  debated  whether  our  personalitites  can  be  more  attributed  to  our  genes   or  to  our  environment.    Heretibility  of  a  trait  is  just  the  extent  to  which  variation  among   individuals  can  be  attributed  to  their  differing  genes.    So  with  the  same  environment,   heretibility  among  genes  would  be  100%  (because  you  have  eliminated  environment  as  a   factor  of  influence)     Gene-­‐environment  interactions   Triggers  that  switch  genes  on  and  off  –  genes  can  either  be  active  or  inactive  –  they  are  self   regulating  –  rather  than  acting  as  blueprints  that  lead  to  the  same  result  no  matter  the   context,  genes  react.    Our  experiences  lay  down  epigenetic  marks,  which  can  instruct  the   cell  to  ignore  any  gene  present  in  that  DNA  segment,  those  genes  will  be  turned  off  –  they   will  prevent  the  DNA  from  producing  the  protiens  normally  coded  by  that  gene.         Better  described  in  the  quote  –  “Things  written  in  pen  you  cant  change.    That’s  DNA.     Things  written  in  pencil  you  can.    That’s  epigenetics”         Epigentics  –  meaning  in  addition  to  or  above  and  beyond  genetics  –  studies   the  molecular  mechanisms  by  which  environments  can  trigger  or  block  genetic  expression.     They  are  often  organic  methyl  molecules  that  can  affect  the  expression  of  any  gene  in  the   associated  DNA  segment.         • Evolutionary  psychology  –  what  makes  us  so  alike  as  humans.    The  study  of  the   evolution  of  behavior  and  the  mind,  using  principles  of  natural  selection.  –  they  use   Charles  darwin’s  principle  of  natural  selection.    Natural  selection  has  a  way  of   explaining  our  human  tendencies.    Nature  has  indeed  selected  advantageous   variations  from  the  new  gene  combinations  produced  at  each  human  conception   plus  the  mutations  (random  errors  in  gene  replication  that)  sometimes  result.   ◦ Natural  selection  –  the  principle  that,  among  the  range  of  inherited  trait   variations,  those  contributing  to  reproduction  and  survival  will  most  likely  be   passed  on  to  succeeding  generations.       ◦ Mutations  –  random  error  in  gene  replication  that  leads  to  a  change   ◦ Relationship  with  psychology   Behavioral  and  biological  similarities  arise  from  shared  human  genome.         ◦ Differences  in  mating  preferences   Men  have  stronger  sex  drives  then  women.    There  is  also  this  sexual  over-­‐perception  bias   among  men  who  require  little  emotional  closeness  before  intercourse  (they  assume  women   are  more  sexually  interested  in  them  then  they  actually  are,  or  their  friendliness  is   perceived  as  a  come  on.)    Evolutionarily  speaking,  this  makes  a  lot  of  sense.    Women  can   only  bear  a  certain  amount  of  children  in  her  lifetime  and  maxes  out  at  about  1  child  per   year  while  men  seemingly  have  no  limit.    Women  tend  to  be  choosier  when  selecting  a   sexual  partner  because  they  have  more  at  stake.         Social  Script  –  Culturally  molded  guide  for  how  to  act  in  various  situations   -­‐ proposes  that  women’s  behavior  in  sexual  encounters  is  not  so  much  biologically  to   blame  but  rather,  their  reactions  are  guided  in  ways  that  modern  culture  teaches   them.     o Interaction-­‐  the  interplay  that  occurs  when  the  effect  of  one  factor  such  as   environment  depends  on  another  factor  (such  as  heredity)   Experience  influences  development  –  we  are  not  blank  slates.    We  are  more  like  coloring   books  with  certain  lines  predisposed  and  experience  filling  in  the  full  picture.    –  we  are   composed  of  nature  and  nurture.     As  we  grow,  unused  neural  pathways  weaken.    By  puberty  this  pruning  process  results  in   massive  loss  of  unemployed  connections.    But  the  brain’s  development  does  not  end  with   childhood.    Brain  has  an  amazing  amount  of  plasticity  –  neural  tissue  is  ever  changing  and   reorganizing  in  response  to  new  experiences.         • Parental  influence  –  parents  do  matter.    But  parenting  wields  it  effects  in  extremes  –   the  abused  child  becomes  abusive,  the  neglected  becomes  neglectful     ◦ Brain  development  and  experience     ◦ Should  parents  be  blamed  for  a  child's  shortcomings  –  children  are  not  easily   sculpted  by  parental  nurture.    So  that  question  is  circumstantial     • Peer  influence   ◦ Seeking  to  fit  within  groups  –  especially  as  children.    Parents  are  more  important   when  it  comes  to  education,  discipline,  responsibility  etc.    Peers  are  more   important  for  learning  cooperation,  finding  the  road  to  popularity,  for  inventing   styles  of  interaction  among  people  of  the  same  age.   • Culture  –  the  enduring  behaviors,  ideas,  attitudes,  and  traditions  shared  by  a  group   of  people  and  transmitted  from  one  generation  to  the  next.   ◦ Norms  –  an  understood  rule  for  accepted  and  expected  behavior.    Norms   prescribe  the  proper  behavior.  –  they  differ  by  culture.       ◦ Personal  space  –  the  foot  or  so  of  space  that  you  are  comfortable  interacting  with   other  people  and  things  –  this  is  because  when  you  were  a  baby  that  was  the   approximate  distance  between  your  mothers  arms  to  her  face.     ◦ Individualism  vs.  collectivism  –  Culture  and  the  self  –       ▪ Individualist  –  great  deal  of  your  identity  would  remain  intact.    You   would  have  an  independent  sense  of  “me”  and  an  awareness  of  your   unique  personal  convictions  and  values  –  this  culture  most   prominently  exists  in  north  America,  western  European  cultures,   Australia  and  new  Zealand     ▪ Individualism  –  giving  priority  to  one’s  own  goals  over  group  goals   and  defining  identity  in  terms  of  personal  attributes  rather  than  group   identification     ▪ Collectivism  –  giving  priority  to  the  goals  of  one’s  group  (often  one’s   extended  family  or  work  group)  and  defining  one’s  identity   accordingly.  Ex  Japan   ▪ Individualist  cultures  experience  more  lonliness,  divorce,  homicide,   and  stress-­‐related  disease  –  demands  for  more  romance  and  personal   fulfillment  in  marriage  can  subject  relationships  to  more  pressure.       ▪ View  chart  on  the  bottom  of  page  158  for  clarification       • Gender  development   ◦ Sex  and  gender  are  not  the  same  thing.       ▪ Sex  –  your  biological  status  defined  by  your  chromosomes  and   anatomy.    –  the  book  defines  it  as  the  biologically  influenced   characteristics  by  which  people  define  males  and  females.   ▪ Gender  –  the  socially  influenced  characteristics  by  which  people   define  men  and  women.    Product  of  the  interplay  among  our  biological   dispositions,  our  developmental  experiences,  and  our  cultural   situations.   ◦ Similarities  and  differences   Males  and  females  are  not  all  that  different  in  a  lot  of  ways.    Biologically   speaking,  we  both  have  46  chromosomes  –  23  from  your  mother  and  23  from   you  father.    Of  those  46,  45  are  unisex.       ▪ Aggression,  power,  connectedness   Aggression  –  any  physical  or  verbal  behavior  intended  to  hurt   someone   Males  tend  to  be  more  physically  aggressive  while  females  resort  to   relational  aggression  –  shutting  someone  out  of  a  social  group  etc   Men  display  more  dominance  –  commanding  and  dominating   conversation,  interrupting,  smiling  less  often  then  women  –  often   when  groups  from  whether  as  juries  or  companies,  leadership  tends   to  go  to  males.    And  when  salaries  are  pain,  those  in  traditional  male   occupations  receive  more.   Males  tend  to  be  more  independent  and  play  in  large  groups  as   children  where  females  tend  to  be  more  interdependent  –  playing  in   small  groups  or  perhaps  with  just  one  friend-­‐  they  compete  less  and   imitate  social  relationships  more.       ◦ Nature  of  gender  –  biology  does  not  dicate  gender,  but  it  can  influence  it  in  two   ways:   ▪ Genetically  –  males  and  females  have  differing  sex  chromosomes   ▪ Physiologically  –  males  and  females  have  differing  concetrations  of   sex  hormones  which  trigger  anatomical  differences   rd Your  sex  was  determined  by  that  23  pair  of  chromosomes.    From  your  mother  you   received  and  X  chromosome  and  from  your  father  you  received  either  and  X  or  a  Y  –  X   would  make  you  female,  and  Y,  male     ◦ Nurture  of  gender  –  for  many  people,  biological  sex  and  gender  coexist  in   harmony.    Biology  draws  the  outline  and  culture  paints  the  details   ◦ Role  –  a  set  of  expectations  (norms)  about  a  social  position,  guiding  appropriate   behavior   ◦ Gender  role  –  a  set  of  expected  behaviors,  attitudes,  and  traits  for  males  or   females.   ▪ Gender  roles  vs.  identity  vs.  typing   Gender  identity  –  our  sense  of  being  male,  female,  or  a  combination  of   the  two.     Gender  typing  –  the  acquisition  of  a  traditional  masculine  or  feminine   role     ▪ Social  learning  theory-­‐  assumes  that  we  acquire  our  gender  identity  in   childhood  by  observing  and  imitating  other’s  gender  –linked   behaviors  –  and  by  being  rewarded  or  punished         Chapter  5:  Developing  Through  the  Lifespan   • Developmental  psychology  –a  branch  of  psych  that  studies  physical  cognitive  and   social  change  throughout  one’s  lifespan-­‐    three  major  issues   ◦ 1.    Nature  and  Nurture  –  how  our  genetic  inheritence  (our  nature)  interact   with  our  experiences  (our  nurture)  to  influence  development  (chapter  4)   ◦ 2.    Continuity  and  stages  –  the  part  of  development  that  are  gradual  and   continuous  and  the  parts  that  go  through  stages  and  change  abruptly   ◦ 3.    Stability  and  change  –  the  traits  that  persist  through  life  and  how  we   change  as  we  age     • Major  developmental  issues   ◦ Continuity  and  stages-­‐  generally  speaking,  researchers  see  development  as  a   slow  continuous  shaping  process   ▪ Jean  Piaget  created  clear  cut  stage  theories  on  cognitive  development     ▪ Lawrence  Kohlberg-­‐  moral  development   ▪ Erik  Erikson-­‐  psychosocial  development   Adult  life  does  not  progress  through  a  fixed  predictable  series  of  steps.   ◦ Stability  and  change  –some  of  our  characteristics  such  as  temperament  are   very  stable.    Ex.    Out  of  control  three  year  olds  were  the  most  likely  to   become  teen  smokers  or  adult  criminals  or  out-­‐of-­‐control  gamblers  –   proverb  “as  at  7,  so  at  70.”   • Prenatal  development  (order  and  what  happens  in  each  stage  of  prenatal   development)   ◦ 1.    Conception  –  much  larger  egg  cell  allows  one  sperm  cell  to  enter  before   reinforcing  its  protective  coating.    Before  a  day  and  a  half  elapses,  the  egg   nucleus  and  the  sperm  nucleus  fuse  into  one.    This  is  a  fertilized  egg,  called  a   zygote.    Fewer  than  half  survive  beyond  the  first  two  weeks.       ◦ 2.    About  10  days  after  conception  (and  rapid  cell  division),  the  zygote   attaches  to  the  mother’s  uterine  wall  and  the  inner  cells  develop  into  an   embryo.     ◦ 3.    The  outer  cells  develop  into  the  placenta   ◦ 4.    Over  the  next  6  weeks  the  heart  begins  to  beat    and  organs  begin  to  form   and  function   ◦ 5.    By  9  weeks  after  conception  an  embryo  looks  human  –  called  a  fetus   ◦ 6.  During  the  6  month,  organs  such  as  the  stomach  have  developed  enough   to  give  the  fetus  a  good  chance  of  survival  if  born  prematurely   ◦ Zygotes  –  fertilized  egg   ◦ Embryos  –  developing  human  organism  from  about  2  weeks  after   fertilization  through  the  second  month   ◦ Fetus  -­‐9  weeks  after  conception  to  birth     ◦ Problems  in  prenatal  development   ▪ Teratogens  (e.g.,  FAS)-­‐  literally  means  monster  maker  –  agents  such  as  chemicals  or   viruses  that  can  reach  the  embryo  or  fetus  during  prenatal  development  and  cause   harm  –  fetal  alcohol  syndrome-­‐  physical  and  cognitive  abnormalities  caused  by   pregnant  woman’s  heavy  drinking     • Newborns   ◦ What  can  they  do?  –  they  have  automatic  reflex  responses   ◦ Reflexes   ▪ Rooting  reflex  –  searching  for  a  nipple  when  something  touches  their  cheek  if  they  are   hungry   ▪ If  they  are  hungry  they  will  cry  which  is  unpleasant  for  the  parents  who  then  actively   look  to  alleviate  the  problem.       ◦ What  preferences  do  they  show?   ▪ They  like  face  like  images,  things  that  share  similarities  in  preference  to  their  own,  and   things  that  are  8-­‐12  inches  from  their  eyes     ◦ Habituation  –  decrease  in  responding  with  repeated  stimulation  of  the  same   thing   • Infancy  &  childhood   ◦ Brain  development  –  from  the  day  you  were  born,  you  had  most  of  the  brain   cells  you  would  ever  have.  However,  your  nervous  system  was  still   immature.    Branching  neural  networks  eventually  allow  you  to  walk  and  talk   ▪ How  does  it  change  from  when  you  are  in  the  womb  through  puberty?   ▪ From  ages  3  to  6  the  most  rapid  growth  happens  in  your  frontal  lobes.       ▪ Maturation  –  biological  growth  processes  that  enable  orderly  changes  in  behavior,   relatively  uninfluenced  by  experience.       ◦ Motor  development  –  developing  brain  allows  for  physical  coordination.    As   an  infant  excerises  its  maturing  muscles  and  nervous  system  skills  emerge.       ◦ Memory  –  our  earliest  conscious  memories  rarely  predate  our  third  birthday   ▪ Infantile  amnesia  –  the  inability  for  us  to  remember  anything  from  the  age  of  three  and   younger.       ▪ Conscious  vs.  unconscious  memories  –  conscious  anything  we  can  remember  in  our   adult  life    (usually  age  4  and  up)  and  unconscious  –  things  we  cant  remember  that   happened  to  us  but  we  were  too  young  to  recall  (three  and  below)   ◦ Cognitive  development   ▪ What  is  meant  by  cognition?  –  the  mental  activities  associated  with  thinking,  knowing,   remembering,  and  communicating   ▪ Piaget  –  developmental  psychologist  who  studied  children’s  cognitive  development.  –   decided  that  a  child’s  mind  was  not  a  miniature  model  of  an  adult’s   ▪ Children  reason  very  differently  than  adults  do.    His  studies  led  him  to  believe  that  a   child’s  mind  develops  through  a  series  of  stages  from  a  newborn’s  simple  reflexes  to  the   adult’s  abstract  reasoning  power.   ▪ Core  idea  was  that  our  intellectual  progression  reflects  an  unceasing  struggle  to  make   sense  of  our  experiences.    Maturing  brains  build  schemas  to  sort  of  understand  and   categorize  everything  around  us   ▪ Assimilation  vs.  accommodation  of  schemas   ▪ First  we  assimilate  new  experiences  –  we  interpret  them  in  terms  of  our  current   understandings  (schemas).    But  as  we  interact  with  the  world  we  adjust  our  schemas   to  incorporate  information  provided  by  new  experiences.    For  example  a  toddler  may   call  all  four  legged  animals  “doggy”  for  a  little  while  until  they  accommodate  and   learn  that  the  cat  is  not  a  “doggy”     Stages  of  cognitive  development  (order  and  what  happens  in  each  stage)   In  Piaget’s  theory,  cognitive  development  happens  in  four  major  stages.         1.    Sensorimotor       birth  to  age  2     *Babies  take  in  world  through  their  senses  and  actions  –  looking,  hearing,   touching  and  mouthing  and  grasping     *Object  permanence  –  out  of  site  out  of  mind.    The  awareness  that  things   continue  to  exist  even  though  they  are  not  in  front  of  you  .     2.    Preoperational         *from  age  2  to  about  age  6  or  7     *able  to  represent  things  with  words  and  images  but  too  young  to  perform   mental  operations  such  as  imagining  an  action  and  mentally  reversing  it.    For   example,  a  5  year  old  will  say  that  there  is  more  milk  in  a  tall  glass  if  it  is   poured  from  a  short  wide  one  into  a  skinny  tall  one.     *Egocentrism  present  in  this  stage  –  the  inability  to  understand  other   perspectives  aside  from  your  own.         *They  begin  to  develop  a  theory  of  the  mind  –  people’s  ideas  about  their  own   and  others’  mental  states  –  about  their  feelings,  perceptions,  and  thoughts,   and  the  behaviors  that  these  might  predict       3.    Concrete  Operational       Ages  7  to  12  approximately       *Given  concrete,  physical  materials,  they  begin  to  grasp  conversation       *Understanding  that  change  in  form  does  not  mean  change  in  quantity       *reference  chart  on  page  191  in  the  text  book       4.    Formal  Operational     *reached  by  age  12       *our  reasoning  expands  from  the  purely  concrete  (involving  actual   experience)  to  encompass  abstract  thinking  (involving  imagined  realities  and  symbols)  –   they  can  think  about  hypothetical  situations  and  deduce  consequences.       “If  this,  then  that.”     Typical  age  range   Description  of  stage   Developmental   Phenomena   Birth  to  nearly  2   Experience  the  world   Object  permanence   years   through  senses  and  actions   –  once  something  leaves   –  looking,  touching,   your  site  doesn’t  mean  that   mouthing   it  doesn’t  exist  anymore.       -­‐imitation  –  monkey   see-­‐monkey  do  –  if  you  clap   your  hands,  they  will  clap   their  hands   About  2  to  6  years   Preoperational   Pretend  Play   Representing   Egocentrism  –  they   different  objects  with  words   lack  perspective  outside  of   and  images  but  lacking   their  own.    So  if  you  ask   logical  reasoning     them  to  move  because  you   can’t  see  the  tv,  they  don’t   understand  how  you  can’t   see  it  because  they  can.       Theory  of  mind  –  the   band  aid  test.    If  you  show  a   kid  a  box  of  bandaids  full  of   crayons  and  ask  what  they   think  other  kids  will  see,   they  will  say,  “crayons”     because  if  they  know  its   crayons,  everyone  must   know  crayons  are  in  the  box   Language   Development     Piaget’s   conservation  task   About  7  to  11  years   Concrete  operational   Conservational   old   –  logical  thinking  about   mathematical   concrete  events  –  grasping   transformations   analogies  and  performing     arithmetical  operations   About  12  years  old  to   Formal  operational     Abstract  logic   adulthood   Abstract  reasoning   What  implications  does  Piaget's  work  have  in  today's  world  –     Being  mindful  that  young  children  are  incapable  of  adult  logic  –  helpful  to  parents  and   teachers   Children’s  cognitive  immaturity  is  an  adaptive  skill  that  keeps  them  close  to  their  parents   for  safety  until  they  are  ready  to  separate  from  them   ▪ Social  development  –  children  form  an  intense  bond  with  caregivers,  and  recognizing   and  preferring  familiar  faces  and  voices     ▪ Stranger  anxiety  –  the  fear  of  strangers  that  infants  commonly  display,  beginning  by   about  8  months   ▪ Attachment-­‐  an  emotional  tie  with  another  person;  shown  in  young  children  by  their   seeking  closeness  to  the  caregiver  and  showing  distress  upon  separation     4  different  types  of  attachment:     Secure:  Mother  is  used  as  secure  base  from  which  to  explore     – this  is  how  it  goes  if  it’s  the  ideal  situation.    The  child  knows  that  the   parent  is  always  there  and  always  watching  as  a  secure  base  to  return  to   if  the  child  gets  scared     Anxious/  Ambivalent:  Response  toward  mom  fluctuates  between  happiness  and   anger     Very  clingy  child  –  they  become  incredibly  upset  when  mom  leaves  but  when  she   returns  it’s  a  mix  of  feelings  –  they  want  to  be  with  her  but  they  might  not  trust   her  and  they’re  kind  of  annoyed.         Avoidant:  ignores  mom  for  the  most  part     Don’t  really  react  whether  the  mom  stays  or  goes.    They  knew  she  was  going  to   leave  or  aren’t  surprised  that  she  left  so  when  she  returns  they’re  not  overly   enthused  because  they  expect  her  to  leave  again           Disorganized:  pays  no  attention  to  mom  on  separation  or  reunion         This  child  is  all  over  the  place.         Synchronous  relationship  with  mom  and  child  is  the  ideal  –  where  the  kid   doesn’t  come  over  looking  for  comfort  and  the  mom  waves  it  off  and  says,  “no,  not   now.”    Or  perhaps  the  kid  is  playing  well  on  their  own  and  the  mom  comes  over   and  says,  “okay  time  for  cuddles  now,”  and  interrupts  that-­‐  they  are  not  in  synch.     ▪ Harlow's  monkey  studies  and  their  generalization  to  human  babies  –  baby  monkeys   were  separated  from  their  parents  –  given  a  wire  frame  with  a  wooden  head  and  a   bottle  and  also  a  wire  frame  with  a  wooden  head  covered  in  soft  cloth.    They  clung  to   the  cloth  mother  and  only  left  when  they  absolutely  needed  to  for  food  from  the   other  wire  mother.    Comfort  and  contact  are  extremely  important  –  especially  while   we’re  young     ▪ Critical  periods  –  contact  is  one  key  to  attachment  –  another  is  familiarity  –  optimal   period  early  in  life  when  exposure  to  certain  stimuli  or  experiences  produces  normal   development         ▪ Imprinting-­‐  the  process  by  which  certain  animal  form  strong  attachments  during   early  life.    (Lorenz)     ▪ Ainsworth's  research  on  attachment  with  the  strange  situation  task  –  designed  by   Mary  Ainsworth  –testing  separation  between  mother  and  child  in  the  home  setting   and  in  unfamiliar  settings  sometimes  involving  strangers   ▪ Secure  vs.  insecure  attachment   ▪ Secure  –  in  their  mother’s  presence,  babies  play  comfortably,   happily,  exploring  new  environment   ▪ Insecure  attachment  –  anxious  or  avoidance  of  trusting   relationships  –  may  cling  to  their  mother,  less  likely  to  explore   their  surroundings   ▪ Attachment  seems  to  be  a  combination  of  parenting  and   temperament       ▪ Basic  trust  –  developmental  theorist,  Erikson  –  believed  that  securely  attached   children  approached  life  with  a  sense  of  basic  trust     ▪ Many  researchers  now  believe  that  our  early  attachments  form  the  foundation  of  our   adult  relationships   Basic  trust  –  is  the  sense  that  the  world  is  predictable  and  trustworthy  0   said  to  be  formed  during  infancy  by  appropriate  experiences  with   responsive  caregivers.       Trust  vs  distrust  –  is  mom  there  for  you  as  an  infant?    Do  you  build  trust  with  people  and   the  world  or  do  you  leave  that  stage  not  trusting  the  world?    The  outcome  is  going  to  color   what  happens  as  you  go  through  life       ▪ What  happens  if  one  is  deprived  of  attachment?  –  people  become  withdrawn,   frightened,  unresponsive.    Lack  of  attachment  results  in  life  long  scars     ▪ Parenting  styles     ▪ Can  essentially  be  categorized  into  three  sections     Authoritative  Parents:  parents  who  have  boundaries  and  rules  and  they  discuss  that  with   you  and  explain  why  its  important  to  obey  those  rules.    But  they  are  warm  and  responding   –  outcomes  of  children  with  authoritative  parents  are  usually  pretty  good  –  they  have  self   control  and  self  reliance  and  do  well  in  school  etc.     Authoritarian  parents  –  firm  control  –  the  kids  become  very  socially  responsible  and  law   abiding  but  its  not  necessarily  a  good  outcome  and  they  are  more  dependent  on  their   parents     Permissive/  laissez-­‐faire:  negative  outcomes  –  really  laid  back  parents  who  submit  to  their   kids  desires–  parents  who  are  more  your  friend  than  your  parent…kids  are  not  very   disciplined,  disrespectful   Its  “oh  that  dress  looks  amazing!”    instead  of  “your  missing  half  of  your  dress..”     Helicopter  parents  –  sort  of  a  new  phenomenon  /new  category  –  parents  who  are  way   overly  involved.         ▪ Adolescence  –  The  transition  period  from  childhood  to  adulthood   ▪ -­‐  extending  from  puberty  to  adolescence       ▪ Physical  development  and  puberty  –  surge  of  hormones  that  intensifies  mood  and   triggers  bodily  changes  –  time  period  in  which  a  person  becomes  capable  of   reproducing     ▪ Cognitive  development  –  until  puberty,  brain  cells  increase  their  connections  like  trees   growing  more  roots  and  branches.    During  adolescence,  comes  selective  pruning  of   unused  neurons  –  what  we  don’t  use,  we  lose.     ▪ Reasoning  in  adolescence-­‐  during  early  teen  years,  reasoning  is  often  self-­‐focused.     They  may  think  their  private  experiences  are  completely  unique  and  unrelatable  to   anyone  else     ▪ Kohlberg  &  moral  development  –  three  basic  levels  of  moral  thinking  that  work  a  lot   like  a  ladder     ▪ At  what  level  do  we  start  to  reason  about  what  is  moral  and  what  is  not     ▪ Pre-­‐conventional:  before  9  years  old,  wrong  is  equated  with  punishment     ▪ Conventional:  13  years  old  social  conformity  and  rules     There  are  laws  in  place  for  a  reason,  you  have  to  follow  the  rules     ▪ Post-­‐conventional:  some  16  year  old  and  adults  –  respect  law  but  realize  it  is  flawed   and  should  be  changed     ▪ Social  development   ▪ Erikson's  ideas  on  forming  an  identity  –  table  on  page  209     Identity  achievement  –     Have  gone  through  a  crisis  period  and  committed  to  an  occupation  and  ideology   These  are  people  who  have  gone  through  some  sort  of  crisis  period  in  their  life  and  have   committed  to  an  outcome.         Think  of  registering  to  vote  for  example.    You’re  trying  to  figure  out  which  party  to  vote  for   so  maybe  you  go  online  and  do  some  research,  maybe  you  talk  to  mom  and  dad,  maybe  you   look  at  what  are  the  big  events  coming  up.    People  who  are  in  an  identity  achievement   phase  have  done  all  the  research  and  really  thought  it  through.         Identity  Diffusion-­‐   Lack  commitment  and  haven’t  decided  upon  an  occupation  and  uninterested  in  ideological   matters   These  are  people  who  lack  the  commitment  part  of  their  crisis  –  maybe  these  people   haven’t  registered  to  vote  at  all.           Identity  Moratorium-­‐     Still  in  crisis,  attempting  some  compromise  among  parental  wishes,  society’s  demands  and   their  own  capabilities       If  you  ask  them  what  they  want  to  do  with  their  life  they  will  say,  “eh  I  don’t  know.”    These   people  are  actively  in  a  crisis  and  trying  to  commit  to  something  but  they  just  can’t  make  it   work.    Trying  to  appease  everyone  in  their  life.    If  mom  is  a  democrat  and  dad  is  a   republican  maybe  they  say  they  are  independent  because  they  want  to  make  everyone   happy         Identity  Foreclosure-­‐       Made  a  commitment  without  experiencing  a  crisis  (i.e.  becoming  what  others  had   intended  for  them)         Mom  and  dad  are  republicans?    I  guess  I’ll  be  a  republican.           ▪ Relationship  with  peers  vs.  parents  –  discussed  earlier  –  peer  relationships  are  very   important  but  you  receive  a  lot  of  your  ideals  regarding  morals,  religion,  political   views  etc  from  your  parents.       ▪ Adulthood  –  18  until  death  –  divided  into  three  stages  –  early,  mid,  and  late  adult  hood   (65-­‐death)   ▪ Emerging  adulthood-­‐  a  period  from  about  age  18  to  mid  twenties,  particularly  in   western  cultures,  where  you  are  no  longer  and  adolescent  but  have  not  yet  achieved  full   independence  as  an  adult     ▪ Cognitive  development-­‐  up  until  teen  years,  we  process  info  at  a  greater  and  greater   speed.    Past  that  it  starts  taking  a  little  more  time  to  react  and  problem  solve.    The  aging   brain  is  plastic  and  partly  compensates  for  what  it  loses  by  recruiting  and  reorganizing   neural  networks   ▪ Cross-­‐sectional  vs.  longitudinal  studies   ▪ Cross  sectional  –  a  study  in  which  people  of  different  ages  are   compared  with  another   ▪ Longitudinal  study  –  research  in  which  the  same  people  are   restudied  and  retested  over  a  long  period   ▪ Neurocognitive  disorders-­‐  acquired  (not  lifelong)  disorders   marked  by  cognitive  deficits;  often  related  to  alzheimer’s   disease,  brain  injury  or  substance  abuse     ▪ Memory  –early  adulthood  is  when  we  peak  in  terms  of  learning  and  memory       Chapter  11:  Motivation  and  Work     • Motivation  -­‐  A  need/desire  that  energizes  and  directs  our  behavior   • Motivational  concepts     • 1.  Hunger   • 2.  Sex   • 3.  Need  to  belong   • 4.  Work     Motivational  approaches     1. Evolutionary:  role  of  instincts  in  motivation   a. Instinct-­‐  unlearned  complex  behavior  rigidly  patterned  throughout  a  species   2. Drive  Reduction  Theory:    need  creates  drive  –  physiological  need  creates  an  aroused   tension  state  that  motivates  an  organism  to  satisfy  that  need.   a. Need  –  deprivation  that  creates  a  drive   b. Drive  –  aroused  state  due  to  physiological  need   c. Homeostasis  –  regulation  of  any  aspect  of  the  body  chemistry  –  a  state  where   we  are  comfortable  –  our  bodies  are  constantly  trying  to  maintain  a  state  of   homeostasis     Need  (for  food  and  water)  à  Drive  (hunger  and  thirst)  à  Drive-­‐  reducing  behaviors   (eating  and  drinking)       3. Optimum  Arousal  Theory:   a. Low  Vs  High  arousal  and  effects  on  performance   i. Example:  maybe  there  is  only  one  exam  for  the  entire  semester  and   you  are  super  stressed  out  about  it  and  maybe  because  of  that  you   don’t  perform  as  well  on  the  exam   ii. People  reach  their  personal  happy  medium  at  different  states   b. Sensation  seekers   i. These  people  need  tons  of  arousal  to  make  them  happy.       4. Cognitive  Approach:  the  idea  here  is  that  we  as  humans  are  very  rational  and  aware   of  what  motivates  us.    So  we  can  think  about  what  makes  us  engage  in  different   behaviors  for  the  long  term  and  for  the  short  term     a. Intrinsic  Motivation  –  internal  factors  –  taking  a  class  because  you  find  it  very   interesting  and  you  want  to  learn  –  usually  we  put  forth  more  effort  with  this   and  put  forth  a  better  quality


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