outline of chapters 4, 5, and 11
outline of chapters 4, 5, and 11 PSY2012-16Fall 0002
University of Central Florida
Popular in General Psychology
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
ESCI 101 - 01
verified elite notetaker
This 20 page Study Guide was uploaded by Becca Petersen on Monday October 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY2012-16Fall 0002 at University of Central Florida taught by Dr. Alisha Janowsky in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Central Florida.
Reviews for outline of chapters 4, 5, and 11
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 10/10/16
Psychology Study Guide: Exam II Chapters 4, 5, and 11 Key: Vocabulary words Key Ideas Chapter 4: Nature, Nurture, & Human Diversity • Behavior geneticists ◦ Behavior Geneticists – study our differences and weigh the effects and the interplay of heredity and the environment ◦ Behavior Genetics-‐ the study of the relative power and the limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior ◦ Environment – every non-‐genetic influence from prenatal nutrition to the people and things around us ◦ Chromosomes – threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes ◦ DNA – Deoxyribonucleic acid – a complex molecule containing genetic information that makes up chromosomes ◦ Genes – the biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes – segments of DNA capable of synthesizing proteins ◦ Genome – the complete instructions for making an organism consisting of all the genetic material in that organism’s chromosomes. Heredity interacts with our experiences to create both our universal nature and our individual and social diversity Every cell nucleaus in the body contains the master genetic code for your entire body You have 46 chromosomes – 23 from your mother and 23 from your father. Each is made up of a coiled chain of the molecule DNA. Genes are small segments of the giant DNA molecules. We have 20,000-‐ 25,000 genes which are either active (expressed) or inactive. Environmental events turn on genes – when turned on, genes provide the code for creating protein molecules for our body’s building blocks. The nucleaus of every cell contains chromosomes, each made up of two strands of DNA connected in a double helix. Genes are DNA segments that when expressed (turned on) direct the development of proteins that influence a person’s individual development. Genetically speaking, every other human is nearly your identical twin. Human Genome researchers found a common sequence within human DNA. • What do twin and adoption studies tell us? ◦ Identical twins – monozygotic twins -‐ develop from a single fertilized egg that splits in two, creating two genetically identical organisms. ◦ Fraternal twins – dizygotic twins -‐develop from two separate fertilized eggs. They share a prenatal environment but genetically, are no more similar than ordinary siblings. Although identical twins have the same genes, they don’t always have the same number of copies of those genes. For this reason, one twin might be at greater risk for disease than the other. Most identical twins share a placenta during prenatal development – but that is not always the case – if they have separate placentas one might receive more nourishment than the other, which could also contribute to differences. Identical twins are much more behaviorally similar to each other than are fraternal twins. Part of this may be blamed of genetics but their environmental situations may also be more similar because identical twins report being treated alike (whether its by parents who dress them similarly or by peers) Separated twins – reference page 137 in the book for the story – but in short two twins who had no knowledge of the other’s existence until late in their adult life ended up living shockingly similar lives which seemingly exceed coincidence. Biological Vs Adopted Relatives – Studies have found that people who grow up together – whether biologically related or not -‐ do not really resemble one another in personality. People who have been adopted are more similar in personality traits to their biological parents than to their adoptive parents. But they are more likely to share similar values and ideals with their adoptive parents (such as religion and political views) Temperament and Heredity: ◦ Temperament – A person’s characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity ◦ Heritability – The proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes. The heretibality of a trait may vary depending on the range of populations and environments studied. One aspect of personality – temperament – is apparent even before being born. Infants can be difficult – irritable, intense, fidgety and unpredictable. Or they can be easy – happy and relaxed with regular schedules. And others fall in the middle ground-‐ slow – they are not good at new people or new situations Heretibility – it is debated whether our personalitites can be more attributed to our genes or to our environment. Heretibility of a trait is just the extent to which variation among individuals can be attributed to their differing genes. So with the same environment, heretibility among genes would be 100% (because you have eliminated environment as a factor of influence) Gene-‐environment interactions Triggers that switch genes on and off – genes can either be active or inactive – they are self regulating – rather than acting as blueprints that lead to the same result no matter the context, genes react. Our experiences lay down epigenetic marks, which can instruct the cell to ignore any gene present in that DNA segment, those genes will be turned off – they will prevent the DNA from producing the protiens normally coded by that gene. Better described in the quote – “Things written in pen you cant change. That’s DNA. Things written in pencil you can. That’s epigenetics” Epigentics – meaning in addition to or above and beyond genetics – studies the molecular mechanisms by which environments can trigger or block genetic expression. They are often organic methyl molecules that can affect the expression of any gene in the associated DNA segment. • Evolutionary psychology – what makes us so alike as humans. The study of the evolution of behavior and the mind, using principles of natural selection. – they use Charles darwin’s principle of natural selection. Natural selection has a way of explaining our human tendencies. Nature has indeed selected advantageous variations from the new gene combinations produced at each human conception plus the mutations (random errors in gene replication that) sometimes result. ◦ Natural selection – the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations. ◦ Mutations – random error in gene replication that leads to a change ◦ Relationship with psychology Behavioral and biological similarities arise from shared human genome. ◦ Differences in mating preferences Men have stronger sex drives then women. There is also this sexual over-‐perception bias among men who require little emotional closeness before intercourse (they assume women are more sexually interested in them then they actually are, or their friendliness is perceived as a come on.) Evolutionarily speaking, this makes a lot of sense. Women can only bear a certain amount of children in her lifetime and maxes out at about 1 child per year while men seemingly have no limit. Women tend to be choosier when selecting a sexual partner because they have more at stake. Social Script – Culturally molded guide for how to act in various situations -‐ proposes that women’s behavior in sexual encounters is not so much biologically to blame but rather, their reactions are guided in ways that modern culture teaches them. o Interaction-‐ the interplay that occurs when the effect of one factor such as environment depends on another factor (such as heredity) Experience influences development – we are not blank slates. We are more like coloring books with certain lines predisposed and experience filling in the full picture. – we are composed of nature and nurture. As we grow, unused neural pathways weaken. By puberty this pruning process results in massive loss of unemployed connections. But the brain’s development does not end with childhood. Brain has an amazing amount of plasticity – neural tissue is ever changing and reorganizing in response to new experiences. • Parental influence – parents do matter. But parenting wields it effects in extremes – the abused child becomes abusive, the neglected becomes neglectful ◦ Brain development and experience ◦ Should parents be blamed for a child's shortcomings – children are not easily sculpted by parental nurture. So that question is circumstantial • Peer influence ◦ Seeking to fit within groups – especially as children. Parents are more important when it comes to education, discipline, responsibility etc. Peers are more important for learning cooperation, finding the road to popularity, for inventing styles of interaction among people of the same age. • Culture – the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next. ◦ Norms – an understood rule for accepted and expected behavior. Norms prescribe the proper behavior. – they differ by culture. ◦ Personal space – the foot or so of space that you are comfortable interacting with other people and things – this is because when you were a baby that was the approximate distance between your mothers arms to her face. ◦ Individualism vs. collectivism – Culture and the self – ▪ Individualist – great deal of your identity would remain intact. You would have an independent sense of “me” and an awareness of your unique personal convictions and values – this culture most prominently exists in north America, western European cultures, Australia and new Zealand ▪ Individualism – giving priority to one’s own goals over group goals and defining identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identification ▪ Collectivism – giving priority to the goals of one’s group (often one’s extended family or work group) and defining one’s identity accordingly. Ex Japan ▪ Individualist cultures experience more lonliness, divorce, homicide, and stress-‐related disease – demands for more romance and personal fulfillment in marriage can subject relationships to more pressure. ▪ View chart on the bottom of page 158 for clarification • Gender development ◦ Sex and gender are not the same thing. ▪ Sex – your biological status defined by your chromosomes and anatomy. – the book defines it as the biologically influenced characteristics by which people define males and females. ▪ Gender – the socially influenced characteristics by which people define men and women. Product of the interplay among our biological dispositions, our developmental experiences, and our cultural situations. ◦ Similarities and differences Males and females are not all that different in a lot of ways. Biologically speaking, we both have 46 chromosomes – 23 from your mother and 23 from you father. Of those 46, 45 are unisex. ▪ Aggression, power, connectedness Aggression – any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt someone Males tend to be more physically aggressive while females resort to relational aggression – shutting someone out of a social group etc Men display more dominance – commanding and dominating conversation, interrupting, smiling less often then women – often when groups from whether as juries or companies, leadership tends to go to males. And when salaries are pain, those in traditional male occupations receive more. Males tend to be more independent and play in large groups as children where females tend to be more interdependent – playing in small groups or perhaps with just one friend-‐ they compete less and imitate social relationships more. ◦ Nature of gender – biology does not dicate gender, but it can influence it in two ways: ▪ Genetically – males and females have differing sex chromosomes ▪ Physiologically – males and females have differing concetrations of sex hormones which trigger anatomical differences rd Your sex was determined by that 23 pair of chromosomes. From your mother you received and X chromosome and from your father you received either and X or a Y – X would make you female, and Y, male ◦ Nurture of gender – for many people, biological sex and gender coexist in harmony. Biology draws the outline and culture paints the details ◦ Role – a set of expectations (norms) about a social position, guiding appropriate behavior ◦ Gender role – a set of expected behaviors, attitudes, and traits for males or females. ▪ Gender roles vs. identity vs. typing Gender identity – our sense of being male, female, or a combination of the two. Gender typing – the acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role ▪ Social learning theory-‐ assumes that we acquire our gender identity in childhood by observing and imitating other’s gender –linked behaviors – and by being rewarded or punished Chapter 5: Developing Through the Lifespan • Developmental psychology –a branch of psych that studies physical cognitive and social change throughout one’s lifespan-‐ three major issues ◦ 1. Nature and Nurture – how our genetic inheritence (our nature) interact with our experiences (our nurture) to influence development (chapter 4) ◦ 2. Continuity and stages – the part of development that are gradual and continuous and the parts that go through stages and change abruptly ◦ 3. Stability and change – the traits that persist through life and how we change as we age • Major developmental issues ◦ Continuity and stages-‐ generally speaking, researchers see development as a slow continuous shaping process ▪ Jean Piaget created clear cut stage theories on cognitive development ▪ Lawrence Kohlberg-‐ moral development ▪ Erik Erikson-‐ psychosocial development Adult life does not progress through a fixed predictable series of steps. ◦ Stability and change –some of our characteristics such as temperament are very stable. Ex. Out of control three year olds were the most likely to become teen smokers or adult criminals or out-‐of-‐control gamblers – proverb “as at 7, so at 70.” • Prenatal development (order and what happens in each stage of prenatal development) ◦ 1. Conception – much larger egg cell allows one sperm cell to enter before reinforcing its protective coating. Before a day and a half elapses, the egg nucleus and the sperm nucleus fuse into one. This is a fertilized egg, called a zygote. Fewer than half survive beyond the first two weeks. ◦ 2. About 10 days after conception (and rapid cell division), the zygote attaches to the mother’s uterine wall and the inner cells develop into an embryo. ◦ 3. The outer cells develop into the placenta ◦ 4. Over the next 6 weeks the heart begins to beat and organs begin to form and function ◦ 5. By 9 weeks after conception an embryo looks human – called a fetus ◦ 6. During the 6 month, organs such as the stomach have developed enough to give the fetus a good chance of survival if born prematurely ◦ Zygotes – fertilized egg ◦ Embryos – developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month ◦ Fetus -‐9 weeks after conception to birth ◦ Problems in prenatal development ▪ Teratogens (e.g., FAS)-‐ literally means monster maker – agents such as chemicals or viruses that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm – fetal alcohol syndrome-‐ physical and cognitive abnormalities caused by pregnant woman’s heavy drinking • Newborns ◦ What can they do? – they have automatic reflex responses ◦ Reflexes ▪ Rooting reflex – searching for a nipple when something touches their cheek if they are hungry ▪ If they are hungry they will cry which is unpleasant for the parents who then actively look to alleviate the problem. ◦ What preferences do they show? ▪ They like face like images, things that share similarities in preference to their own, and things that are 8-‐12 inches from their eyes ◦ Habituation – decrease in responding with repeated stimulation of the same thing • Infancy & childhood ◦ Brain development – from the day you were born, you had most of the brain cells you would ever have. However, your nervous system was still immature. Branching neural networks eventually allow you to walk and talk ▪ How does it change from when you are in the womb through puberty? ▪ From ages 3 to 6 the most rapid growth happens in your frontal lobes. ▪ Maturation – biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience. ◦ Motor development – developing brain allows for physical coordination. As an infant excerises its maturing muscles and nervous system skills emerge. ◦ Memory – our earliest conscious memories rarely predate our third birthday ▪ Infantile amnesia – the inability for us to remember anything from the age of three and younger. ▪ Conscious vs. unconscious memories – conscious anything we can remember in our adult life (usually age 4 and up) and unconscious – things we cant remember that happened to us but we were too young to recall (three and below) ◦ Cognitive development ▪ What is meant by cognition? – the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating ▪ Piaget – developmental psychologist who studied children’s cognitive development. – decided that a child’s mind was not a miniature model of an adult’s ▪ Children reason very differently than adults do. His studies led him to believe that a child’s mind develops through a series of stages from a newborn’s simple reflexes to the adult’s abstract reasoning power. ▪ Core idea was that our intellectual progression reflects an unceasing struggle to make sense of our experiences. Maturing brains build schemas to sort of understand and categorize everything around us ▪ Assimilation vs. accommodation of schemas ▪ First we assimilate new experiences – we interpret them in terms of our current understandings (schemas). But as we interact with the world we adjust our schemas to incorporate information provided by new experiences. For example a toddler may call all four legged animals “doggy” for a little while until they accommodate and learn that the cat is not a “doggy” Stages of cognitive development (order and what happens in each stage) In Piaget’s theory, cognitive development happens in four major stages. 1. Sensorimotor birth to age 2 *Babies take in world through their senses and actions – looking, hearing, touching and mouthing and grasping *Object permanence – out of site out of mind. The awareness that things continue to exist even though they are not in front of you . 2. Preoperational *from age 2 to about age 6 or 7 *able to represent things with words and images but too young to perform mental operations such as imagining an action and mentally reversing it. For example, a 5 year old will say that there is more milk in a tall glass if it is poured from a short wide one into a skinny tall one. *Egocentrism present in this stage – the inability to understand other perspectives aside from your own. *They begin to develop a theory of the mind – people’s ideas about their own and others’ mental states – about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts, and the behaviors that these might predict 3. Concrete Operational Ages 7 to 12 approximately *Given concrete, physical materials, they begin to grasp conversation *Understanding that change in form does not mean change in quantity *reference chart on page 191 in the text book 4. Formal Operational *reached by age 12 *our reasoning expands from the purely concrete (involving actual experience) to encompass abstract thinking (involving imagined realities and symbols) – they can think about hypothetical situations and deduce consequences. “If this, then that.” Typical age range Description of stage Developmental Phenomena Birth to nearly 2 Experience the world Object permanence years through senses and actions – once something leaves – looking, touching, your site doesn’t mean that mouthing it doesn’t exist anymore. -‐imitation – monkey see-‐monkey do – if you clap your hands, they will clap their hands About 2 to 6 years Preoperational Pretend Play Representing Egocentrism – they different objects with words lack perspective outside of and images but lacking their own. So if you ask logical reasoning them to move because you can’t see the tv, they don’t understand how you can’t see it because they can. Theory of mind – the band aid test. If you show a kid a box of bandaids full of crayons and ask what they think other kids will see, they will say, “crayons” because if they know its crayons, everyone must know crayons are in the box Language Development Piaget’s conservation task About 7 to 11 years Concrete operational Conservational old – logical thinking about mathematical concrete events – grasping transformations analogies and performing arithmetical operations About 12 years old to Formal operational Abstract logic adulthood Abstract reasoning What implications does Piaget's work have in today's world – Being mindful that young children are incapable of adult logic – helpful to parents and teachers Children’s cognitive immaturity is an adaptive skill that keeps them close to their parents for safety until they are ready to separate from them ▪ Social development – children form an intense bond with caregivers, and recognizing and preferring familiar faces and voices ▪ Stranger anxiety – the fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning by about 8 months ▪ Attachment-‐ an emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress upon separation 4 different types of attachment: Secure: Mother is used as secure base from which to explore – this is how it goes if it’s the ideal situation. The child knows that the parent is always there and always watching as a secure base to return to if the child gets scared Anxious/ Ambivalent: Response toward mom fluctuates between happiness and anger Very clingy child – they become incredibly upset when mom leaves but when she returns it’s a mix of feelings – they want to be with her but they might not trust her and they’re kind of annoyed. Avoidant: ignores mom for the most part Don’t really react whether the mom stays or goes. They knew she was going to leave or aren’t surprised that she left so when she returns they’re not overly enthused because they expect her to leave again Disorganized: pays no attention to mom on separation or reunion This child is all over the place. Synchronous relationship with mom and child is the ideal – where the kid doesn’t come over looking for comfort and the mom waves it off and says, “no, not now.” Or perhaps the kid is playing well on their own and the mom comes over and says, “okay time for cuddles now,” and interrupts that-‐ they are not in synch. ▪ Harlow's monkey studies and their generalization to human babies – baby monkeys were separated from their parents – given a wire frame with a wooden head and a bottle and also a wire frame with a wooden head covered in soft cloth. They clung to the cloth mother and only left when they absolutely needed to for food from the other wire mother. Comfort and contact are extremely important – especially while we’re young ▪ Critical periods – contact is one key to attachment – another is familiarity – optimal period early in life when exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces normal development ▪ Imprinting-‐ the process by which certain animal form strong attachments during early life. (Lorenz) ▪ Ainsworth's research on attachment with the strange situation task – designed by Mary Ainsworth –testing separation between mother and child in the home setting and in unfamiliar settings sometimes involving strangers ▪ Secure vs. insecure attachment ▪ Secure – in their mother’s presence, babies play comfortably, happily, exploring new environment ▪ Insecure attachment – anxious or avoidance of trusting relationships – may cling to their mother, less likely to explore their surroundings ▪ Attachment seems to be a combination of parenting and temperament ▪ Basic trust – developmental theorist, Erikson – believed that securely attached children approached life with a sense of basic trust ▪ Many researchers now believe that our early attachments form the foundation of our adult relationships Basic trust – is the sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy 0 said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers. Trust vs distrust – is mom there for you as an infant? Do you build trust with people and the world or do you leave that stage not trusting the world? The outcome is going to color what happens as you go through life ▪ What happens if one is deprived of attachment? – people become withdrawn, frightened, unresponsive. Lack of attachment results in life long scars ▪ Parenting styles ▪ Can essentially be categorized into three sections Authoritative Parents: parents who have boundaries and rules and they discuss that with you and explain why its important to obey those rules. But they are warm and responding – outcomes of children with authoritative parents are usually pretty good – they have self control and self reliance and do well in school etc. Authoritarian parents – firm control – the kids become very socially responsible and law abiding but its not necessarily a good outcome and they are more dependent on their parents Permissive/ laissez-‐faire: negative outcomes – really laid back parents who submit to their kids desires– parents who are more your friend than your parent…kids are not very disciplined, disrespectful Its “oh that dress looks amazing!” instead of “your missing half of your dress..” Helicopter parents – sort of a new phenomenon /new category – parents who are way overly involved. ▪ Adolescence – The transition period from childhood to adulthood ▪ -‐ extending from puberty to adolescence ▪ Physical development and puberty – surge of hormones that intensifies mood and triggers bodily changes – time period in which a person becomes capable of reproducing ▪ Cognitive development – until puberty, brain cells increase their connections like trees growing more roots and branches. During adolescence, comes selective pruning of unused neurons – what we don’t use, we lose. ▪ Reasoning in adolescence-‐ during early teen years, reasoning is often self-‐focused. They may think their private experiences are completely unique and unrelatable to anyone else ▪ Kohlberg & moral development – three basic levels of moral thinking that work a lot like a ladder ▪ At what level do we start to reason about what is moral and what is not ▪ Pre-‐conventional: before 9 years old, wrong is equated with punishment ▪ Conventional: 13 years old social conformity and rules There are laws in place for a reason, you have to follow the rules ▪ Post-‐conventional: some 16 year old and adults – respect law but realize it is flawed and should be changed ▪ Social development ▪ Erikson's ideas on forming an identity – table on page 209 Identity achievement – Have gone through a crisis period and committed to an occupation and ideology These are people who have gone through some sort of crisis period in their life and have committed to an outcome. Think of registering to vote for example. You’re trying to figure out which party to vote for so maybe you go online and do some research, maybe you talk to mom and dad, maybe you look at what are the big events coming up. People who are in an identity achievement phase have done all the research and really thought it through. Identity Diffusion-‐ Lack commitment and haven’t decided upon an occupation and uninterested in ideological matters These are people who lack the commitment part of their crisis – maybe these people haven’t registered to vote at all. Identity Moratorium-‐ Still in crisis, attempting some compromise among parental wishes, society’s demands and their own capabilities If you ask them what they want to do with their life they will say, “eh I don’t know.” These people are actively in a crisis and trying to commit to something but they just can’t make it work. Trying to appease everyone in their life. If mom is a democrat and dad is a republican maybe they say they are independent because they want to make everyone happy Identity Foreclosure-‐ Made a commitment without experiencing a crisis (i.e. becoming what others had intended for them) Mom and dad are republicans? I guess I’ll be a republican. ▪ Relationship with peers vs. parents – discussed earlier – peer relationships are very important but you receive a lot of your ideals regarding morals, religion, political views etc from your parents. ▪ Adulthood – 18 until death – divided into three stages – early, mid, and late adult hood (65-‐death) ▪ Emerging adulthood-‐ a period from about age 18 to mid twenties, particularly in western cultures, where you are no longer and adolescent but have not yet achieved full independence as an adult ▪ Cognitive development-‐ up until teen years, we process info at a greater and greater speed. Past that it starts taking a little more time to react and problem solve. The aging brain is plastic and partly compensates for what it loses by recruiting and reorganizing neural networks ▪ Cross-‐sectional vs. longitudinal studies ▪ Cross sectional – a study in which people of different ages are compared with another ▪ Longitudinal study – research in which the same people are restudied and retested over a long period ▪ Neurocognitive disorders-‐ acquired (not lifelong) disorders marked by cognitive deficits; often related to alzheimer’s disease, brain injury or substance abuse ▪ Memory –early adulthood is when we peak in terms of learning and memory Chapter 11: Motivation and Work • Motivation -‐ A need/desire that energizes and directs our behavior • Motivational concepts • 1. Hunger • 2. Sex • 3. Need to belong • 4. Work Motivational approaches 1. Evolutionary: role of instincts in motivation a. Instinct-‐ unlearned complex behavior rigidly patterned throughout a species 2. Drive Reduction Theory: need creates drive – physiological need creates an aroused tension state that motivates an organism to satisfy that need. a. Need – deprivation that creates a drive b. Drive – aroused state due to physiological need c. Homeostasis – regulation of any aspect of the body chemistry – a state where we are comfortable – our bodies are constantly trying to maintain a state of homeostasis Need (for food and water) à Drive (hunger and thirst) à Drive-‐ reducing behaviors (eating and drinking) 3. Optimum Arousal Theory: a. Low Vs High arousal and effects on performance i. Example: maybe there is only one exam for the entire semester and you are super stressed out about it and maybe because of that you don’t perform as well on the exam ii. People reach their personal happy medium at different states b. Sensation seekers i. These people need tons of arousal to make them happy. 4. Cognitive Approach: the idea here is that we as humans are very rational and aware of what motivates us. So we can think about what makes us engage in different behaviors for the long term and for the short term a. Intrinsic Motivation – internal factors – taking a class because you find it very interesting and you want to learn – usually we put forth more effort with this and put forth a better quality
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'