Behavioral Analysis PSYC 461
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Hope Good on Monday October 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 461 at University of South Carolina Aiken taught by Green in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Behavioral Therapy in Psychology (PSYC) at University of South Carolina Aiken.
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Date Created: 10/10/16
Chapters 1-5 study guide terms Behavioral Analysis The study of behavior change Functional Relations When one event varies DEPENDABLY with another Behavior Actions that can be observed Environmental event Any event in a person’s environment that can be observed Overt behavior Behavior that can be observed by someone other than the person performing it Covert behavior Behavior that can be observed by the person performing it Respondent behavior Behavior influenced by events that precede it Operant behavior Behavior influenced by events that follow it Behavioral Repertoire All things someone can do at any given time antecedent Environmental events that occur BEFORE a behavior consequence Environmental events that occur AFTER a behavior Medical model The view that behavior problems are merely symptoms of an underlying psychological disorder Target behavior Behavior to be changed by an intervention Operational definition Clearly states a behavior that can be measured/observed Functional assessment Relies on observation conducted in the natural environment and the use of conditional probabilities to demonstrates relations Functional analysis Process of testing hypotheses about the functional relations among antecedents, target behaviors and consequence Continuous recording Recording each and every occurrence of a behavior during a prescribed period Interval recording Recording whether a behavior occurs during each of a series of short intervals within an observation period A-B-C data collection Data collection method that provides a structure for noting behavior and the environmental events that surround itself Task analytic data collection Designed for the use of controlled presentation of tasks that include multiple discrete behaviors reliability Achieving a reasonable level of agreement Inter-observer reliability A measure of the degree of agreement in data tallies made by 2 or more observers Simple graphing Each point indicates number of times a behavior occurred at a particular time Cumulative graphing Each point is total number of times behavior occurred up to that point Single case design Groups that are not suitable for determining effective individuals behavior baseline Behavior is recorded and not modified intervention Modifying the behavior and recording it anomaly inconsistency trend Overall direction/path variability Degree of variance Thorndikes law of effect Demonstrates that in any situation, the probability of a behavior occurring is a function of the consequences that behaviors have had in that situation in the past situation reinforcement PROCEDURE of providing consequences for a behavior that increase or maintain the frequency of a behavior reinforcer EVENT when made contingent on a behavior will increase or maintains behavior frequency Positive reinforcer Something is ADDED following a behavior and increases it Negative reinforcer Something is REMOVED following a behavior and increasing it Primary reinforcer NOT dependent on their association with other reinforcers; biological importance Secondary reinforcer Dependent on their association with other reinforcers Contrived reinforcer Arranged for use of intervention to modify behavior Natural reinforcer Has not been arranged to modify behavior Intermitten Reinforcers dependency (extinction) occasions of target behavior Ratio schedule Number of times a behavior occurs determines timing of reinforcement delivery Interval Whether the behavior occurs following a predetermined time frame determines if reinforcement occursbehavior does not have to occur Response-duration Continuous amount of time a target behavior occurs determines the reinforcement behavior must happen Thinning schedule Gradually becomes available less often/ contingent on greater amounts of appropriate behaviors Prompt An antecedent that induces a person to perform a behavior that otherwise does not occur Response competence Hierarchy to evaluate performance level on a specific skill acquisition Initial learning of a behavior fluency The rate of accurate response maintenance Ability to perform response over time without re-teaching generalization Ability to perform and adapt the behavior under conditions different from those in place during acquisition Verbal prompt Involve spoken or written words or parts of the words Gestural prompt Involve facial and postural expression Modeling prompt Involve demonstration of the desired behavior Physical prompt Involve guiding the person’s body through the required movements to produce the desired behavior prompting Procedure of providing antecedents that evoke a target behavior fading Gradually reduces the strength of a prompt Prompt fading The behavior is acquired, less and less of the response prompt is provided Prompt delay Once the behavior is acquired, the natural antecedent is presented but the delivery of a prompt is delayed for a fixed amount of time in a graduated way. Stimulus fading When a physical stimulus is added to assist in evoking a specific response, that physical stimulus is gradually removed Shaping Used when a behavior does not yet exist or if an individual will not participate in the components of a behavior approximation To a behavior, it is any behavior that resembles/takes a person closer to desired behavior Chaining Reinforcement of successive elements of a behavior in a chain Forward chaining Chaining procedure that begins with the first element in the chain and progresses to the last step of the chain Backwards chaining Chaining procedure that starts with the last step of the chain and moves to the first
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