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Sociology Review

by: Lai Jing Su

Sociology Review SYG 2000

Lai Jing Su

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Sociology review that goes through chapter 1-3,5
Principles of Sociology
Kirsten Fitzgerald
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lai Jing Su on Monday October 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SYG 2000 at University of Florida taught by Kirsten Fitzgerald in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views.


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Date Created: 10/10/16
Chapter 1: 1. What is structural functionalism? Structural functionalism is a paradigm based on the assumption that society is a unified whole that functions because of the contributions of its separate structures. 2. What is social solidarity? What are its forms? Social solidarity is the degree of integration or unity within a particular society, the extent to which individuals feel connected to other members of their group. The forms of solidarity are mechanical and organic solidarity. Mechanical solidarity- social bonds present in agrarian society in which shared traditions traditions and beliefs created a sense of social cohesion. Organic solidarity- social bonds present in modern societies, based indifference, interdependence, and individual rights. 3. How does anomie relate to social solidarity? Anomie is a sense of of disconnection brought about by the changing conditions of modern life. Social solidarity reinforces collective bonds and shared moral values which means that it helps blunt the effects of anomie. 4. What is collective effervescence? What is its relationship to Durkheim’s other Concepts? Collective effervescence is the intense energy in shared events where people feel swept up in something larger than themselves. Its relationship to Durkheim's other concept such as solidarity is that we all stand together for a common cause. An example can be how we reacted to the 9/11 attacks or to any global disaster that happens. 5. What are manifest and latent functions? Provide an example. Manifest functions are the obvious and intended functions of a social structure. An example of this is how education prepares future members of society by teaching them how to read or write. Latent functions are the less obvious and unintended functions of a social structure. An example of this is how education helps keeps children busy and out of trouble. 6. What is conflict theory? Conflict theory is a paradigm that sees social conflict as the basis of society and social change and emphasizes a materialist view of the status quo, and a dynamic model of historical change. 7. What are the thesis, antithesis, and synthesis? How do they apply to conflict theory? Thesis is any existing social arrangement. Antithesis the opposition to existing arrangements in a dialectical model. Synthesis is the new social system created out of the conflict between thesis and antithesis in a dialectical model. Conflict theory believes that through enough tension and conflict, there would be transformations of society that can be shown through the dialectical model of historical or social change. 8. Who are the bourgeoisie and proletariat? What is their relationship? The bourgeoisie are the are owners. They own the means of production and and employ wage laborers. Proletariat are the workers. They don’t have the means of production of their own and because of that they are reduced to selling their labor power in a order to live. The bourgeoisie employs the proletariat. 9. How does Marx explain alienation? Alienation is the sense of dissatisfaction modern worker feels as a result of producing goods that are owned and controlled by someone else. 10. What is critical theory? Critical theory is a contemporary form of conflict theory that criticizes many different systems and ideologies of domination and oppression. 11. What are some types of critical theory? What do they focus on? Some types of critical theory are feminist and queer theory. Feminist theory focuses on looking at gender inequities in society and the way that genders structures the social world. Queer theory proposes that categories of sexual identity are social constructs and that no secual cateory is fundamentally either deciant or normal. 12. What is Weberian theory? Weberian theory is a three 13. What is the iron cage? The iron cage is Max Weber’s description of how we are caught in bureaucratic structures that control our lives through rigid rules and rationalization. 14. How does Weber explain disenchantment? What is its relationship to bureaucracy? Disenchantment is is the rationalization of modern society. Weber explains by saying that it is an inevitable result of the dehumanizing features of the bureaucracies that dominated the modern social landscape. 15. What is symbolic interactionism? Symbolic interactionism sees interaction and meaning as central to society and assumes that meanings are not inherent but are created through interaction. 16. What is the Chicago School? Chicago School is a type of sociology practice by researchers at the University of Chicago in the 1920s and 30s that centered on urban sociology and research methods. 17. How does Goffman explain symbolic interaction? Goffman explains symbolic interaction by indicating that the self is essentially loaned to us by society. In other words, the self is created through interaction with others and social contexts. 18. What is postmodern theory? What is their focus? Postmodern theory is a paradigm that suggests that social reality is diverse, pluralistic and constantly in flux. Their focus on a wide array of topics such as art, music, communication and film. 19. What is deconstruction? Deconstruction involves taking apart theories and stories in order to examine them. 20.What is the sociological imagination? The sociological imagination is a quality of the mind that allows us to understand the relationship between our own circumstances and those of the larger social forces. 21. What are “troubles” and “issues”? What is their relationship? How does this work? “Troubles” a Chapter 2: 1. What is quantitative research? What kinds of questions can it ask? Quantitative research is research that translates the social world into numbers that can be treated mathematically. It often tries to find cause and effect relationships. 2. What is qualitative research? What kinds of questions can it ask? Qualitative research works with non-numerical data such as texts, field notes, interview transcripts, photographs and tape recordings. It often tries to understand how people make sense of their world. 3. What are the inductive versus deductive approaches to research? 4. What is a literature review? What is its application to social research? Literature review is a thorough search through previously published studies relevant to a particular topic. Its application to social research is that is prevents a researcher from duplicating a work that has already been done and may also provide the background upon which to conduct new research. 5. What is operationalization? Why is it important? Operationalization is giving a variable a clear and concise definition in order to facilitate its measurement. It’s important because it allows for variables to be observed and measured accurately. 6. What is participant-observation? How is it done? Participant-observation requires full immersion in the particular community. It is a method in which the researcher both observes and becomes a member in a social setting. 7. What is an ethnography? Ethnography is a naturalistic method based on studying people in their own environment in order to understand the meaning they attribute to their activities. 8. What is rapport? Why does it matter? Rapport is positive relationship that is often characterized by mutual trust or sympathy. It matter because it allows the researcher to gain the trust of the community which in turn allows them access. 9. What is access/entrée? Why does it matter? Access is the process by which an ethnographer gains entry to a field setting. It allows the ethnographer to be fully immersed in the community as part of the participant-observation method. 10. How do we analyze ethnographic data? Ethnographers analyze the data by looking for patterns and processes that are revealed in their field notes. 11. What is action research? Action research is a type of research in which the researcher is also part of the process of change itself. 12. What is interview research? How is it done? Interview research is a type of research in which the researcher ask participants questions regarding to what is being researched. Questionnaires can be sent as well as live interviews are part of interview research. 13. What is a target population? Target population is the entire group about which a researcher would life to be able to generalize. 14. What is a sample? A sample is the part of the population that will actually be studied. 15. What kinds of questions can interviewers use? What kinds should they avoid? Interviewers use close-ended questions(limits the possible responses) and open-ended questions (allows for a variety of responses). They avoid using leading questions (predisposes a respondent to answer in a certain way) and double-barreled questions (involves too many different issues at a time). 16. What is survey research? How is it done? A survey research is based on questionnaires that are administered to a sample of respondents selected from a target population. 17. What are some different types of sampling procedures? Some different types of sampling procedures are random, systematic, stratified, quota, cluster, and snowball sampling. 18. How do we analyze survey data? To begin, in order for a survey to be considered valid, there must be sufficiently high response rate. 19. What is a social experiment? A social experiment investigates the effects of a policy intervention by randomly assigning individuals, families, businesses, classrooms, or other units to different treatments or to a controlled condition that represents the status quo. 20. What is the relationship between a control and experimental group? The control group provides the standards to which the experimental group can compare with. Chapter 3: 1. What is culture? Culture is the entire way of life of a group of people. 2. What is “othering”? Why does this matter? “Othering” is 3. What are ethnocentrism and eurocentrism? Why do they matter? Ethnocentrism is the principle of using one’s own culture as a means or standard by which to evaluate another group or individual. It leads to the view that cultures other than one’s own are abnormal or inferior. 4. What is cultural relativity? What is its relationship to the beginner’s mind? ​Are there dilemmas within cultural relativity? Cultural relativity means seeing each different culture in their own terms, rather than judging based on one’s own culture. In relations to the beginner’s mind, it allows use to be open to new cultures and fully observe it for what it is and not what we preconceive it to be. There are dilemmas in cultural relativity. 5. What are material and symbolic culture? What is their relationship? Material culture are the objects associated with a cultural group, essentially any physical object to which we give social meaning. This includes objects like tools, machines, artworks, etc. Symbolic culture are the ideas associated with a cultural group which include ways of thinking and ways of behaving. Material and symbolic culture are interrelated in that materialistic culture can become symbolic. For example, a hammer in material culture signifies a tool used for the construction of objects. However, the hammer in a symbolic culture can hold a significance in a person’s life in that it may have belonged to their deceased spouse. 6. What are values? Values are the set of shared beliefs that a group of people consider to be worthwhile in life. 7. What are norms? What are some formal versus informal norms, and how do each of these work? Provide examples of informal norms. Norms are the rules and guidelines regarding what kinds of behavior are acceptable. Formal norms are officially codified and include laws, rules, and the behavioral prescriptions conveyed in the Ten Commandments. Informal norms are implicit and unspoken. These types are norms are embedded into our self conscious and cover every aspect of our social lives. Examples of informal norms are the every other seat rule in buses and men’s urinals. 8. What are sanctions? How do they work? Provide examples of a positive and a negative sanction. Sanctions are the means of enforcing norms, they include rewards for conformity and punishments for violations. There are two types of sanctions: positive and negative sanctions. Positive sanctions express approval and can come in the form of a smile or praise. Negative sanctions express disapproval and can come in the form of a frown or harsh words. 9. What does it mean that sometimes “social control… looks like self control”? Sometimes individuals are very tempted to commit a serious crime such as murder or rape but because they actions are frowned upon by society, by showing social control over what they do, it’s also essentially the same as self control. 10. What is dominant culture? Dominant culture are the values, norms and practices of the most powerful groups. 11. What is a subculture? Provide some examples. What is the relationship between a subculture and dominant culture? Subculture is a group within society that is differentiated by its distinctive values norms, and lifestyle. Some examples of subculture are Chinese Americans, senior citizens, Marlin fans, and corgi owners. The relationship between a subculture and dominant culture is that is that any country has a dominant culture with many subcultures that may derive from it. 12. What is a counterculture? Provide some examples. What is the relationship between counterculture and dominant culture? Counterculture is a group within society that openly rejects or actively opposes society’s values and norms. Some examples of counterculture are political or activists groups that attempt to bring about social change. Counterculture is in direct opposition of the dominant culture. 13. What are some of the ways we see variations in mainstream culture? We see variations in the mainstream culture through dominant culture, subculture, and counterculture. 14. What are cultural diffusion and cultural leveling? How are they related? Cultural diffusion is when different groups share their material and nonmaterial culture with each other. Cultural leveling is when cultures that were once distinct become increasingly similar to one another. Cultural diffusion can cause cultural leveling. 15. What is cultural imperialism? Why is it a “problem”? Cultural imperialism is the imposition of one culture’s beliefs and practices of one culture’s beliefs and practice on another culture through mass media and consumer products rather than by military force. It’s a problem because it causes for cultural leveling. 16. How is this related to cultural diffusion? How is it different? Like cultural diffusion, cultural imperialism also involves the spread of their material and nonmaterial culture to different cultures. However, cultural imperialism is more extreme in that it completely takes over the foreign country’s culture and causes cultural leveling. 17. What is ideology? Ideology is a set of cultural beliefs, values, and attitudes that underlie and justify the status quo or the movements to change it. 18. What is cultural hegemony? Cultural hegemony is the domination achieved through ideological means. It refers to the ability of a dominant culture to hold power over social institutions. 19. How are ideology and cultural hegemony related? Cultural hegemony appears due to mainstream ideology becoming very prominent. 20.What are the mechanisms that spread ideology? The mechanisms that spread ideology are 21. How does functionalism explain culture? Provide examples. The values and norms of a society are widely shared and agreed upon. Social stability is contributed because it reinforces common bonds and constrains individual behavior. For example, religion is an important institution that is used for the morals and ethics that followers embrace. 22.How does conflict theory explain culture? Provide examples. The values and norms are part of the dominant culture and tend to represent and protect the interests of the most powerful groups of society. For example, religion serves to control the masses by creating rules for behavior. 23.How does interactionism explain culture? Provide examples. The values and norms are social constructions. Meanings in culture are created, maintained and changed through ongoing social interaction. For example, religion consists of beliefs and rituals that a part of the interaction among followers. Chapter 5: 1. What is a group? How is it different from an aggregate, crowd or category? A group is a collection of people who share some attribute, identify with one another, and interact with each other. Unlike a group, an aggregate is only the collection of people who share a physical location but have no lasting social relations. Crowds are just a temporary gathering of people in a public place that may interact but do not identify with each other nor will they keep contact. A category is people who share one or more attributes but lack a sense of common identity or belonging. 2. What is a social network? A social network is the web of direct and indirect ties connecting an individual to other people who may also affect the individual. 3. What are some of the ways we can think about social networks? What do they help us understand about the flow of resources, power, information, etc.? In order to think of social networks first we must think of ourselves as being in the center of a web with lines connecting us to our families, friends, and peers, etc. Those lines represent the direct ties that we have. Now imagine another line running from our families, friends, peers, etc to their own social circle. These second sets of lines are the indirect ties that we have in society. Th They help us understand that the flow of resources, power, information, etc, eventually connects us to another. In other words, we are all interconnected even though we may not know it. 4. What is anomie? How does it relate to “life in groups”? Anomie is used to describe the alienation and loss of purpose that result from weaker social bonds and an increased pace of change. It relates to life in groups because it causes for group memberships to anchor us to the social world. 5. What are virtual communities? Virtual communities are social groups whose interactions are mediated through information technologies, particularly in the internet. 6. What are the components of group identity? That is, what do we study to make sense of how people belong to groups? The components of group identity are attributes that keeps them together, so like common interests/goals, geography, categories, etc. 7. What are two group structures we can study? How do these relate to stability and relationships among group members? Two group structures that we can study are dyads (2 person social group) and triads (3 person social group). A dyad is the most intense but are also the most unstable because if one person decides to leave then it’s over. A triad on the other hand is slightly more stable because because a third person can help mediate conflicts between the other two conflicting members. Another more than a 3 person social group is no longer as intimate. 8. Describe the relationship between in groups and out groups. In groups have bias towards their own groups and view others outside of their group as something they need to oppress ( viewed as out group). 9. What is group cohesion? What is its relationship to groupthink? Group cohesion is the sense of solidarity that individuals feel toward a group to which they belong. A high level of cohesion can lead to groupthink which can lead to poor decision making. Groupthink --in a very cohesive group-- is the tendency to enforce a high degree of conformity among members, creating a demand for unanimous agreement. 10. What are the different degrees of conformity? How do these relate to social influence? The different degrees of conformity are groupthink and social loafing. These relate to social influence as groupthink and social loafing will affect the individual's decision 11. What are some examples of positive peer pressure? Examples of positive peer pressure are pressure to get into college, conforming to rules, and doing well in their respective activities. 12. What are some of the paradoxes of teamwork? Some paradoxes of teamwork are that even though groups almost always outperform single individuals there will always be losses in productivity in team processes. Two sources of inefficiency are the gaining of members in a group and organization within the group. Both of which lead to social loafing. 13. What is social identity theory? How does it operate in relation to the problems with teamwork? Social identity theory is a theory of group formation and maintenance that stresses the need of individual members to feel a sense of belonging. In relation to the problems with teamwork it operates by thinking and feeling like a representative of a group, where the individual has a real to belong to the group. 14. What is power? What is the difference between coercion and influence? Power is the ability to control the actions of others. Coercion is power that is backed by the threat of force, whereas influence is the power supported by persuasion. 15. What is authority? Authority is the legitimate right to wield power. 16. What are Weber’s ideal-types of authority? Provide an example of each. Weber’s ideal types of authority are: Traditional (based on divine right, birthright or custom): tribal chiefs Legal-rational (based on laws and rules): presidency in US Charismatic (based on the personal qualities of the leader): President JFK 17. What are the two styles of leadership? How are they different from each other? Two styles of leadership are instrumental leadership and expressive leadership. Instrumental leadership is the leadership that is task or goal oriented, whereas expressive leadership is leadership concerned with maintaining emotional and relational harmony within the group. 18. What is bureaucracy? Bureaucracy is a type of secondary group designed to perform tasks efficiently characterized by specialization, technical competence, hierarchy, rules and regulations, impersonality, and formal written communication. 19. What are the six characteristics of bureaucracy? The six characteristics of bureaucracy: 1) specialization 2) technical competence 3) hierarchy 4) rules and regulations 5) impersonality 6) formal written communication 20. What is rationalization? How does it relate to bureaucracy, and what is its ultimate effect? Rationalization is the application of economic logic to human activity. It uses formal rules and regulations in order to maximize efficiency without consideration of subjective or individual concerns. Bureaucracies are highly efficient secondary groups that operate on this principle. The ultimate effect is that is it trickles down into other areas of our everyday lives through a process called McDonaldization. Chapter 6: 1. What is deviance? Deviance is a behavior, trait, or belief that departs from a norm and generates a negative reaction in a group. 2. How do sociologists study deviance? Sociologists study deviance by making a social judgement instead of a moral one. 3. What is the structural functionalist explanation for deviance? From a structural functionalist point of view, deviance reminds individuals of their shared notions of wrong and right and promotes social cohesion. 4. What is structural strain theory? How does it explain deviance? Structural strain theory is the principle of discrepancies between culturally defined goals and the institutionalized means available to achieve these goals. It explains deviance in that an individual’s position in society determine whether they have the means to achieve goals or must otherwise turn to deviance. 5. How does conflict theory explain deviance? From a conflict theorist point of view, definitions and rules of deviance are applied unequally based on power. 6. What are some ways feminist theory explains deviance? A way that feminist theory can explain deviance is that because of our current patriarchal and unequal society, when an individual stands up for gender equality it may be portrayed as a deviance in that they are not agreeing with the norm. 7. How does symbolic interactionism explain deviance? From a symbolic interactionist point of view, the definition of variance is relative and depends on the culture, time period, and situation. 8. What is differential association theory? How does it explain deviance? Differential association theory was created by Edwin Sutherland which asserts that we learn to be deviant through our interactions with other who break the rules. 9. What is labeling theory? How does it explain deviance? Labeling theory was an idea from Howard Becker that explains that deviance is a consequence of external judgements that modify the individual’s self-concept and change the way others respond to the labeled person. In other words, applying deviant labels to a person may lead them to further deviance. 10. What is a self-fulfilling prophecy? Self-fulfilling prophecy is an inaccurate belief that basically means a prediction that causes itself to come true. 11. What is stigma? What are the different types of stigma? Stigma is any physical or social attribute that devalues a person or group’s identity and that may exclude those who are devalued from normal social interactions. The different types of stigma are physical (physical or mental impairments), moral (signs of a flawed character) and tribal (membership). 12. What are the different ways people can “negotiate” stigmatized identities? Describe and explain these. Ways to negotiate stigmatized identities: Passing​ - concealing stigmatizing information. In-group orientation ​- they reject the standards that mark them as deviant and may actively propose new standards in which their special identities are well within normal range. Outsiders​ - those labeled deviant and subsequently segregated from normal society Deviance avowal​ - process by which an individual self-identifies as deviant and initiates her own labeling process. 13. What tool can we use to gather statistics about crime? What can these statistics explain? We can use the Uniform Crime Report (UCR) to gather statistics about crime. These statistics can explain the crime index in the US. They can also tell us the frequency of the type of crime committed. 14. How do sociologists interpret these statistics? They compare crime rates using variables as year and region. 15. What is the criminal justice system? The criminal justice system is a collection of social institutions that create and enforce laws. It is made up of the local, state, and federal government bureaucracies and are responsible for making laws together with the police, courts, and prison systems. 16. What is positive deviance? What can it tells us about deviance more broadly? What are some examples of positive deviance? Positive deviance are actions considered deviant within a given context but are later reinterpreted as appropriate or heroic. Deviance is dependent on the context of the situation. Some examples of positive deviance are Rosa Parks's act of civil disobedience and the three soldiers in Vietnam that went against their superiors orders in order to stop a massacre of innocents.


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