History 1320 Unit Two
History 1320 Unit Two History 1320
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Date Created: 10/10/16
UNIT TWO: History 1320 US Foreign Policy (1890s to 1910s) 1)William McKinley a) Cuba (Colony of Spain) - Cubans rebel against Spain which resulted in war -U.S. not militarily in the war -American reaction to the war: -US Sugar companies (owned sugar plantations in Cuba), people who were invested in the companies felt a sort of way toward didn’t want cops burned -Yellow journalism (dramatic/ flamboyant/ bias), reported Spaniards are brutal/cruel/Cubans looked on as the innocent on, even though they were bias -William Randolph Hearst: owned a newspaper, ran the yellow journalist stories all the time, affected people’s feelings and emotions -The Maine (a battleship McKinley senses to Cuba) -Why? As a symbol of American concern/power/interest, but Maine doesn’t go to Cuba to fight, just there as a symbol. -The battleship explodes and sinks, Americans dead -Navy issued a report and blamed it on Spain saying “Spain sunk the ship” Spanish-American War -Sends troops/soldiers to Cuba -US victories (quick battles/fights) -war ends in just a few weeks -Treaty, which made Cuba independent of Spain (freedom) b)Platt Amendment -Declares U.S. has power/authority to intervene into government if we feel they messed up -Great example of U.S. imperialism c) Puerto Rico (colony of Spain) -Spanish-American treaty, makes Puerto Rico a U.S. territory don’t have the right to vote on the U.S. policy d)Philippines (colony of Spain) -At the end of the war, they have a treaty, making it a U.S. territory 1) New War (Philippines against U.S. power) -US troops in Philippines (against troops), brutality towards Filipinos, U.S. wins the war, Philippines stay a territory -No yellow journalism about Philippines e)Hawaii -Independent nation -Americans immigrate (2 groups) -American missionaries, group of businessmen go and buy land in Hawaii ( wanted to build sugar plantations) -US settlers rebel and over throw natives quickly -McKinley annexes Hawaii as a US territory, they want to be a US territory f)China -Independent nation but govt. weak and poor -dominated by different European countries -US policy “OPEN DOOR”: Push American trade import and export into China with no Chinese regulations/tariffs/blockage -one sided imperialistic policy -US “OPEN DOOR” policy = economic imperialism 2) Theodore Roosevelt a)Panama: -People thought about building a canal but problems, Panama change from a region to a new nation with TR’s support, TR pushed the treaty with his energetic attitude! -Treaty: -Allows US to build Panama Canal -US will have the right to control the canal and the land around the canal -US will have power over the Panamanian Govt. 3) Woodrow Wilson a) Mexico -There is a civil war in Mexico -President Wilsons Policy -To attack Vera Cruz (they actually captured) -Why? Because, it was a major port in trade in exports/imports, economically have power/influence -Orders a withdraw of US troops -his policy didn’t really work 4)US Public Opinion (Overall) -Majority of Americans supported imperialistic products -There was a minority of people who disagreed -Anti-Imperialistic: They feel imperialism wrong because it contradicts Americans views, imperialism alienates foreigners, they’re losing influences (causing people to hate us) theyre frustrated and upset, strong dislike World War One 1)1914 in Europe -Allies: Great Britain, France, etc -Central Powers: Germany, etc 2)Woodrow Wilson -neutrality for US, not sending troops/soldiers -US businesses will be able to trade/loan money to these countries, not going to do it equally -Neutrality does not mean we are completely not involved -Sell/Loan more stuff to the Allies, away from the Central Power, trade with the Allies high and Central Powers are low -Why? US had not been attacked, We won’t be attacked, nobody is planning to attack US Atlantic Ocean is to huge 3)Challenges to Neutrality (1914-1917) a)Belgium -Belgium declared neutrality in WW1, Germany attacked and conquered Belgium -Some Americans believe that neutrality is dumb, and that they should fight b) The Lusitania (ship) -British ship (passenger ship), was sunk by a German submarine -Some Americans died that were on the ship (civilians), submarine warfare was a new style; viewed as cowardly/sinful/immoral, seemed to tricky and sneaky to attack them -Wilson will demand that Germany stop striking passenger ships by submarines, Germany will agree c)Zimmerman Note (telegram) -Germany sent a note to Mexico, meant to be a secret, said Mexico should attack US, if they do so Germany will support -Began a secret, was then published, not a secret then -Result: Americans are angry at Germany, feel a sense of threat from them d)Germany resumes submarine warfare -They will sink US ships 4)US Declares War (1917) -end of neutrality, majority public opinion supports, everyone agrees -14 points: (speech/document) explained why we’re going to war -says were fighting for idealistic reasons; fighting in an unselfish way, make “ the world free” -became very emotional, anti-German hysteria, everything about Germany is terrible/satanic/evil, depict Germans as barbaric 5)Anti-War critics (minority) -opposed to the war -Reasons; -they feel if US fighting for selfish reasons, fighting for our trades and loans for profit/money, Wilson is pulling wool over your eyes, tricking you he is a liar -Eugene Debs was opposed to war Government: -Sedition Act: it is illegal to make any criticism of US military effort and war (refers to the current war) -Supreme Court, asking is this legal? Supreme Court will make the decision that it is legal and constitutional 6) Wst Battles a) 1 part of the war -Germany invades France, both sides build trenches -Trench warfare -extremely long, very well defended, battles are in-between trenches, battles designed to capture the other persons trench -stalemate (multiple attacks) -bloody war (lots of soldiers being killed) -new: both sides have machine guns, chemical warfare b)US enters -Gen. John Pershing leads soldiers into France, joining trenches that are able already been built, (alongside French and British) c)US allies attack German army -allies push Germans out of their trench -1918 war ends 7)Versailles Treaty: -Conference in France a)President Wilson goes to France personally, no other president has ever been before -why? Wilson wanted to put his 14 points into the treaty and wanted other people to be in the treaty -Freedom to oppressed people in Europe, they redrew boundaries which resulted in creating new countries, was successful, which then created Poland -League of Nations resolve future conflicts through compromise is an organization can resolve their differences = peace (only officials nations can join) b) British & French want to punish Germany -required Germany to reduce Military permanently, reparations (money), money Germany will owe them millions of money -Wilson endorses the treaty 8) Senate – Ratification -Senate has the option to disapprove/approve the treaty -Most democrats are ready to vote yes for the treaty, Wilson was a democrat -Most republicans want to amend the treaty -Henry Cabot Lodge -weaken the league of nations; no power, no significance -why? Want the US to use power w/o any constraints, uni- lateral, wants them to use power alone by themselves no connections or allies -Wilson disagrees -Rebuttal (went around US getting public opinion) -All the power orientation going to cause more war, Wilson despised Lodge -Senate vote to defeat the treaty -Wilson loses popularity -US never joins League of Nations -Locally and nationally people look down on him Domestic Politics (1919-1928) 1)Red Scare (1919) -Fear of communist (reds) inside the US -Govt. responds: -Palmer Raids: -arrests huge # of people w/o much evidence/proof -mostly arrest immigrants, whether they are communist or not -most of these immigrants are deported an jailed -widespread arrests in different places -larger effect, decline progressive movement shift to conservatives 2)Presidential Election (1920) -Warren Harding (Republican Conservative) -Landslide victory -End a mark of progressive era) 3)Harding administration scandals -Teapot Dome -Some of the Harding’s aids took bribes and were caught Harding is personally innocent, he appointed these “crooks” -These scandals effected his presidency, popularity weakened 4)Presidents of 1920s Era 1. Warren Harding (dies in office) 2.Calvin Coolidge (vice pres. Who took it over) 3. Herbert Hoover = All republican conservatives as is Congress 5)Conservative Republican Policies a) Rejection of Progressive Policies: -Against Labor Unions b) Pass quota laws = new law on immigration - Specifically quota laws reduced European immigration -Quota varied for immigrants from different country -Wanted to strict the number of people that come in -Anti-Catholic & Anti-Jewish Policy -Every country needs a specific # immigrants for quota 6) Critic to this policy -Al Smith (1920s) -Runs for president as a Democrat, was from Tammany Hall, Catholic (1 catholic), he loses, defeated overwhelmingly Economics (1900 -1928) 1) Expansion of earlier Industrial Revolution a. Telephone and electrical network into towns i. Most middle class people have phones and electricity ii. Not mainly in rural towns (electrical appliances, fridges 2) Airplanes a. Orville and Wilbur Wright b. Aftermath i. Other inventors improved their design and product ii. Planes flew further and faster iii. Charles Lindbergh (pilot) 1 pilot to fly across the Atlantic Ocean alone in an American built plane (he is successful) c. Importance: Cultural impact and value i. Give people a sense of optimism about technology and inventions and change ii. Wright brothers didn’t have costumers, no passenger planes were around at this time iii. Importance of airplanes is how it effects people’s values/view 3) Cars a. Henry Ford (inventor and businessman) st i. Model T, 1 affordable car (priced so the average person could buy it) assembly line mass production methods ii. Why? Sturdy dependable reliable tough, most of the roads are unpaved b. Alfred Sloan (General Motors) i. Challenge Ford, how? 1. Uses a lot of advertising showing annual and yearly changes on a video 2. Emphasizing the design/style/laws 3. Makes consumer feel good about the product, went away from showing exactly how it works like (Ford) just showing people they’ll look good in the car ii. Easy credit (through GM, not the bank), can get a small down payment and you can get the car, interest rates comparable to the bank c. Walter Chrysler i. Company will be profitable will become #3 ii. All 3 are built in the USA 1. Detroit aka Motown (Motor Town) No major foreign imports 4) Tie-Ins to Auto Industry a. Rubber tire industry (real rubber) – Harvey Firestone b. Oil companies i. Making gasoline as top product, new areas of drilling oil ii. Spindle top = Texas c. Highway and Street Construction i. Hiring people paving streets 5) Radio a. Invention and growth, simultaneously, built radio sets (RCA), established radio stations i. Connect these stations into network – NBC, get business to advertise on the radio ii. David Sarnoff – major leading radio businessman, businessman for 2 different companies – NBC & RCA 6) Department Stores a. Beginning of the national chain of stores b. Change from mail order business – Sears and Wards c. New: JC Penny’s (starts a business was never mail order) d. Built in downtown areas of cities – go downtown to shop 7) Clothes a. The bra – became very popular b. The zipper – shift from buttons to zippers 8) Agriculture: a. Production increases all crops b. Crop price decline in 1920s i. Farmers are in a slump ii. The get less, not making enough money 9) Food processing: Mass production a. Coca-Cola (Coke) i. Robert Woodruff (didn’t invent he ran it)p, Coke #1 drink b. Clarence Birdseye i. Freezing veggies, will make them taste better c. Nabisco i. Oreo cookies invented d. Bread slicing machine in a factory i. Wonder bread, thought it was great to have sliced bread, “The greatest thing since sliced bread” e. Gerber baby foods i. Donald F. Gerber, very successful company 10) Conclusions a. US was #1 economic nation in the World, exports of manufacturing and agriculture and loans b. US pop. 1 time majority urban c. Shift from rural to urban d. Status of workers i. Better pay and wages and hours decreases ii. Few/weak labor unions Culture in the 20s “Roaring 20s” - Challenge to Victorian culture, emphasized values of being, respectable, proper and restrain 1) Opposition to Prohibition a. Speakeasies- culturally challenging authority 2) Jazz & Blues a. Styles emerged from the black community b. Louis Armstrong (Jazz) i. Trumpet, Jazz player ii. Playing w/ creativity/imagination different than classical c. Bessie Smith (Lady – Blues) i. Singer, sings about woman’s sexual desire ii. Challenged Victorian tradition – You could hear the music at: 1. Phonograph: Victrola 2. Radio (some radio stations will play) 3. Speakeasies a. Jazz & blues have the rep. of being illegal b. Out of mainstream media c. Got to go to an illegal place to listen to music 3) Flappers a. Characteristics: i. Young women, virgins, shorter hair, wear shorter than normal clothing, smoke cigarettes, open about how they feel, FLAPPERS, more freedom 4) Silent Movies a. Charlie Chaplin i. “Little Tramp” (character on his movie) 1. Poke fun at authority, comedies, mostly at policemen viewed as a negative, defines him as a poor person b. Romances i. Showed female sexuality, changed the views of romance 5) Novelists: a. F Scott Fitzgerald b. Ernest Hemmingway i. Both think of Victorian culture to restricted and limited, argue for individuality in their book ii. Reject the “Rags of Riches” successes story, portray people who are alienated, sad, anxious 6) Poets a. Ee cumminings i. Change word usage ii. Non-conformist, imaginative, and creative 7) Conclusion on cultural change a. Limits: i. Most Americans obeyed the law/ followed prohibition laws ii. Jazz & Blues weren’t the most popular style of music iii. Most women WERENT flappers b. Cont. into 1930s and after i. Jazz became more popular in the 30s, developed into swing music GREAT DEPRESSION a) Causes: a. Over Production i. Under consumption 1. Consumers don’t buy everything produced, lots of supply not enough demand, lay off workers a. Result: Unemployment; Increasing continuously 1929-1932 b. Worst: 25% unemployment in 1932 and more cut in wages b. Stock Market crash in 1929 i. In just a few days fell 50% ii. After cont. to decline 1930-1932 iii. =90% total decline by 1932 c. Many Bank Failures why? i. Bank loans weren’t being repaid ii. “runs” on banks iii. customer got worried ran to bank to withdraw their money d. Agricultural collapse i. On all crops, going lower and lower in prices b) President Herbert Hoover a. Congress b. Republican conservative i. Initially…. 1. No real action towards Depression, they saw it as something temporary 2. Weak policies by Federal Reserve System, kept the Gold Standard ii. Later… 1. Raised tariff 2. Highest ever, was a disaster, other countries put tariffs on our products US exports fall temporarily, 3. Smoot-Hawley tariff iii. Bonus Army 1. Group of WW1 veterans, in WW1 they were promised a bonus payment, bonus was never paid. These veterans will come to DC to lobby to get it paid, they will camp out in front of DC for weeks a. Hoovers response: Refused to pay bonus, because it’ll cost too much money didn’t want to disrupt balanced budget b. US army expels vets c. Public opinion i. Was divided ii. People sympathized w/ the bonus army, conservatives sided w/ Hoover for balanced budgets FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT (FDR) & THE NEW DEAL A) Liberal movement begins a. Beliefs i. Govt. needs to have reforms ii. Govt needs to take action to solve Depression iii. Govt needs to create more equality = permanently 1. Include groups that have been excluded 2. Including “outs” – different ethnic groups and religious groups iv. Optimism (that they can change things) b. Election of 1932 i. Democratic party becomes liberal majority ii. Won by a landslide iii. FDR wins, Congress becomes a liberal and democratic majority B) New Deal Policies a. Policies towards business i. FDIC: Govt insurance for bank customers 1. Result: Was to end “runs” on the bank 2. If people didn’t pull their money out the bank stays in business so they don’t bankrupt and close ii. Govt regulation of stock markets 1. Require business to disclose their financial situation 2. Keep customers in the loop of stuff if goes wrong, stock buyers feel more confident iii. Govt loans money to big businesses 1. Keep businesses in businesses iv. Repeal prohibition 1. Brewery’s and wineries can reopen 2. All legal/sell as per usual 3. Businesses expanded v. Take US off the Gold Standard partially 1. Federal Reserve will become more stronger/effective b. Policies towards workers i. Build govt. buildings in a city 1. Post office, courthouse, school, library 2. Hiring them to build govt. buildings a. Harry Hopkins b. Ran this program ii. Build things irrational and state parks 1. To build smaller projects/things away from the city 2. Cabins, trail 3. Hires young skilled workers (17-19 year old man) iii. Wagner Act: 1. Help Labor Unions 2. AFL still exist, CIO 3. Rival to the AFL a. Result: Helped both of them, they’re both growing b. Both winning strikes, members get better wages, makes it almost impossible for strikebreakers iv. Fair Labor Standards Act: 1. Designated for non-union workers 2. Help non-union labor workers 3. Have an 8 hour day, 5 days a week, 1 minimum wage, end of child labor 4. Minority groups, immigrants, less of the mainstream v. Social Security 1. Workers could pay money to the govt so that when they retire govt can give them a secure payment 2. Very limited/small (at the time) 3. Only get money when you pay into it c. Towards agriculture/farmers i. Govt Paying farmers 1. Reduce their over planning 2. Farmers get a larger price when they will sell 3. Reduce planting more money ii. Built many dams 1. Why? Control flooding, help farmers 2. Provide irrigation water when it is not enough water, cause of a drought/no harm 3. Provide electricity to rural areas 4. Largest: Tennessee Valley Authority C) Conclusions for FDR and New Deal a. Govt. spending increased i. Deficits: each year ii. Because they didn’t calculate iii. Liberals thought it was okay 1. Believed would solve the problem of under consumption, would boost the whole conomy b. Conservatives: Opposed the New Deal i. Mostly Republicans ii. Accusations of Communism c. FDR was popular i. Won 4 elections ii. Fireside chats 1. Radio speeches, speeches made in a conversational tone, they’re very informal 2. Very persuasive 3. Eleanor Roosevelt a. Active, toward diff. places, made a connection/ voters 4. Polio a. His legs were permanently disabled, he concealed his fact he couldn’t walk, wanted to show a positive image
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