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FOWS 5270 UPDATED Exam 2 Study Guide

by: Hanna Fowler

FOWS 5270 UPDATED Exam 2 Study Guide FOWS 5270

Marketplace > Auburn University > Forestry and Wildlife Sciences > FOWS 5270 > FOWS 5270 UPDATED Exam 2 Study Guide
Hanna Fowler
GPA 3.56

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Addition of NEPA notes after Dr. Shepard's suggestion today in class. Enjoy!
Natural Resource Policy
Dr. Shepard
Study Guide
50 ?




Popular in Natural Resource Policy

Popular in Forestry and Wildlife Sciences

This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Hanna Fowler on Monday October 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to FOWS 5270 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Shepard in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see Natural Resource Policy in Forestry and Wildlife Sciences at Auburn University.


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Date Created: 10/10/16
Natural Resource Policy Exam 2 Study Guide NEPA: Nastonal Environmental Policy Act o 1 broad environmental protection law o Requires federal agencies in executive branch to assess the environmental effects of their proposed actions prior to making decisions  Also required if private company needs to cross federal land as part of action o 3 federal agencies manage  Council on environmental quality  H  U.S. Institute for environmental conflict o Gave more transparency to the government processes, as well as a form of evaluation o 3 pathways  Categorical exclusion: Least complicated. Actions that don’t have many individual or compound actions.  Environmental assessment: Moderate complexity. Determines the significance of environmental effects of proposed action.  Determines whether or not an EIS is needed and acts as the preparation for it if so  Environmental Impact Statement: Most complex. Needed if proposing major federal action significantly affecting the environment.  DEIS: Draft environmental impact statement  FEIS: final environmental impact statement  FONSI: Finding of no significant impact  ROD: record of decision Lobbying and Lobbyists o Lobbying:  Originated in English parliament  People waiting in lobby hoping to influence policy makers as they left chamber o Lobbyists:  An effective way to get the attention of a policy maker  Contract lobbyists: lawyers who work at law firms specializing in government affairs  Specialize in particular area, but have no allegiance to a cause  Only allegiance is to the client  Experience in congress or legislature and have first hand knowledge of how the system works  Groups who hire lobbyists: labor associations, unions, public interest groups  Lobbyists don’t have to be lawyers, they can be an experienced individual from any profession  Must be registered with the state  Auburn has multiple lobbyists on staff  They monitor legislation that may affect the university  Ex: out of state fees for distance learning Endangered Species Act o Why?  Created due to the loss of several species  And others were in danger of extinction  Rate of extinction currently higher than ever seen in history  In the midst of the 6 great extinction o First federal law  Endangered Species Preservation Act: 1966  Amended in 1969 to extend protection to species worldwide  Led to the 1973 conference in Washington D.C.  80 countries signed CITES  CITES: Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora o U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA)  Created in 1973 following CITES  Broadened protection to plants and invertebrates  Created “Take” regulations  Prohibited federal agencies from jeopardizing a listed species or their habitat  Implemented CITES in the U.S.  Endangered: species is in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range.  Threatened: species is likely to become endangered within the foreseeable future.  Plants are only protected on federal land  Eligibility: All plants/animals, except pest species  Passed in the Senate 92-0 and in the House 390-12  i.e. ESA passed by a landslide  Signed into law by Richard Nixon  Administered by U.S. Fish/Wildlife services and National Marine Fisheries Service  FWS: terrestrial/freshwater organisms  NOAA: marine organisms  Purpose:  Provide means of conservation for the ecosystems upon which endangered species and threatened species depend.  To create a program for such conservation  Policy:  All federal departments and agencies shall seek to conserve endangered or threatened species  Federal agencies shall cooperate with state and local agencies to resolve water resource issues related to the conservation of endangered species  Ecosystems:  Only indirectly protected  Alabama:  128 threatened or endangered o Section 4:  Listing and delisting of a species  Can be listed by NOAA, FWS, or petitioned by private citizen or organization  Petition by person or business:  Adequate documentation of why it needs protection  Within 90 days of petition service makes initial response  Service determines either there was not a substantial amount of information, and process stops.  Or information warrants listing and process continues  Factors considered:  Present or threatened modification of habitat or range  Over-utilization of species  Disease or predation  Inadequacy of existing regulatory mechanisms  Other factors affecting its continued existence  Agency initiations: informed by accredited sources  Process:  Objective is to compile as much information as possible  Status review of information from other sources  Publish 12 month finding with 3 possible outcomes  Listing not warranted. Process ends  Listing is warranted. Process continues  Listing is warranted, but priority not given. Becomes candidate species.  Listing Priority:  1 criterion: magnitude of threat  2 : immediacy of threat rd  3 : priority relates to taxonomy  Candidate Species:  Not protected, but become higher priority  Their listing is justified, but prevalence is given to another species instead  May become listed in the future, but has to undergo entire process again  Sub-species: Any distinct population segment of any species  Evolutionary significant units (ESU): subportion of a species that represents important component of evolutionary legacy of the species  Distinct Population Segments (DPS):  3 elements:  Discreteness: geographic relation to rest of species  Significance: importance to overall species  Conservation status  International Protection:  Applied to species that migrate between different countries  Provides assistance to foreign governments o Critical Habitat  “Specific area within the area occupied by the species that has specific physical or biological features essential to the species.”  Required for all species and is designated at time of listing  Not determinable if:  Biological needs of species not well known  Information required for designation of critical habitat is lacking  Mostly affects federal agencies  Indirectly affects private landowners and businesses  Applications for federal permits  Cost share payments for farmers and landowners  Property values decrease  May be accused of a take if alter the critical habitat  May alter management of property to ensure a critical habitat does not develop  Economic, national security, and other relevant impacts considered in designation  Areas can be excluded, but not if its exclusion will result in extinction of the species in question o Section 4(d)  Allows FWS to establish special regulations for threatened, but not endangered, species.  Must be “necessary and advisable for conservation of the species”  Ex: gray wolf  Federal agents trap and kill wolves that prey on animals  Prevents over-killing of the wolves by citizens  Ex: northern long eared bat  Exempt normal forestry activities from take prosecution  Avoid clearcutting known roost trees  Incidental take if >1/4 mile from known roost tree o Section 9: Take  Harrass, harm, pursue, hunt, wound, kill, trap, capture, or collect any endangered or threatened species  Harm:  Kills or injures wildlife or fish  Significant habitat modification that impairs essential behavior patterns  Incidental take: performing normal activities and unknowingly harm a species. Can’t be prosecuted. o Recovery Plans  Not required until 1978 amendment  Now required under section 4 for new species o Conservation Banks  Agreements between services and private landowners where private lands are permanently protected/managed  Landowner runs the bank as a for profit business  Permanently preserved habitat managed specifically for the species  Pay money to the bank if you are going to knowingly harm the species in a different area o Mega-listing  Petition to list 404 species in the southeast  6 year period of research for FWS o Money spent  Most money spent on Palid Sturgeon  Congress requires annual report  Most money spent on fish  Not so much on plants, but more if it’s a flowering plant o Problems with the ESA  No one knows how the listed species are doing  Prohibits harming, does not mandate helpful actions  Upsets landowners and businesses  Legal battles drains resources  Not enough species listed of the eligible species  Not enough funding  Critical habitat designations often result in court cases  Not enough funding for the recovery plans o Other statutes  Lacey Act:  Unlawful to import, export, sell, acquire, or purchase of fish, wildlife or plants that are taken and sold  First official law to protect wildlife  Due to wildlife trade: elephant ivory and rhino horns  Pittman-Robertson Act:  Treasury collects excise taxes on manufacture of firearms, ammo, and archery equipment  Then distributes tax to states for protection and care of species  States match 25% of the funds Clean Water Act o Water pollution control act  Enacted in 1948  Became Clean Water Act in 1972  Revised every 5 years  However, last significant revision was 1987 o Goals:  Restore/maintain chemical, physical, biological integrity of nation’s waters o Purpose:  Established basic structure of regulating pollutant discharge into water  Gave EPA authority to implement pollution control  Set water quality standards  Unlawful to discharge pollutants without a permit  Created sewage treatment plants o Provisions:  Discharge of pollutants into navigable waters be eliminated by 1985  Discharge of toxic pollutants in toxic amounts prohibited  Federal financial assistance be provided to construct public water treatment facilities  Control of nonpoint sources of pollution be developed and implemented o Basics:  Section 303: water quality standards  Section 319: nonpoint sources  Section 402: point sources  Section 404: wetlands  Programs are delegated to the state with federal oversight  Point pollution: any single identifiable source of pollution from which pollutants are discharged  Non-point pollution: pollution from diffuse sources.  Polluted run-off, wind-blown debris o Section 303  Developed by states, approval by EPA  Quality standards differ depending on use  Some are actual numeric standards of amount of pollution, others are just free from  Total maximum daily loads: maximum amount of a pollutant allowed in a water body  TMDL= WA + CA + MOS  WA: wasteload allocation (all point sources)  LA: load allocation (nonpoint sources)  MOS: margin of safety  Mostly a planning process o Section 319: Nonpoint Sources  Non regulatory  Some have a permit process  Some only have notification of intent  Federal standard is a backdrop o Silviculture  The growing and cultivation of trees  Alabama Forestry Commission (AFC) makes all laws relating to timber and forestry  Power to adopt rules and regulations regarding forestry  Relies on Alabama Water Pollution Control Act for water quality enforcement provisions  AFC best management practices (BMPs) are voluntary except those required by the wetlands


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