Exam 2 Study Guide
Exam 2 Study Guide Phil 1020-05
Popular in Philosophy: the Art of Thinking (Honors)
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This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jane Sible on Monday October 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Phil 1020-05 at University of Northern Iowa taught by Dr. Margaret Holland in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views.
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Date Created: 10/10/16
August 30, 2016 Philosophy = “philia” (family love) + “sophia” (wisdom) Pre-Socratics coined the term “philosophy” around the 8 century B.C. Thales was a well-known pre-Socratic who was able to predict an eclipse. The Pre-Socratics asked questions about the world and answered differently than they had been answered before with mythology; instead, they used observation and reasoning to explain things. o They knew of atoms, air contracting and the cosmos for example. Thales predicted an enormous olive harvest one year and to prove that philosophy had real-life applications he rented all of the olive presses and turned over a huge profit. Philosophy began with what we now call natural science. Socrates Focused on human life and society in his later years Asked what is human life? How should I live? He was willing to talk to anyone about his questions: men, women, craftsmen, warriors, foreigners, etc. Never wrote down his teachings or questions, but his student, Plato, did. o The Republic is the most important dialogue of Plato Discusses a complete philosophical system: metaphysics, epistemology, logic, political, ethics and aesthetics Metaphysics: What is real? Epistemology: What is knowledge? Logic: What is good reasoning? Branches of philosophy Political: How should society be organized? Ethics: What is a good life?* Aesthetics: What is art? What is beauty? *What Socrates mainly dealt with. Plato mainly dealt with metaphysics. To be real something must be eternal Being, the good, justice, beauty – these are Plato’s forms and are real Life is a journey to understand the forms Epistemology is heavily linked to metaphysics There is no right definition of what is real, but there is a wrong definition The forms were essentialist definitions – you must identify the invariable attributes of what is being studied to determine if it is real. [If the material a table is made out of is an accidental attribute rather than an essential attribute; is a table made out of whipped cream still a table?] Homework: Write out Socrates’ two defenses from “The Apology” (lines to use are numbered below) and revise the assignment on The Intellectual Free Lunch. 1. 25 (c-d) “And by Zeus …” - 26 (b) “… instruction.” 2. 27 (b-c) “Does any man…” – 28 “… heroes.” September 1, 2016 Knowledge = a justified, true belief o This is not the only definition of EPISTEMOLOGY knowledge o Belief = affirmative mental state o For a belief to be true it must correspond with the facts o Justified = the individual who believes holds the facts that correspond and can give an explanation as to why they are right o Example: A true belief might be holding an opinion on foreign aid spending, but knowledge is holding that opinion AND having reasons for that opinion. You must do research and be able to provide information relevant to the idea Knowledge does not equal certainty Inductive vs. Deductive o All arguments are one or the other o Traditionally have two premises and a conclusion Philosophy is primarily deductive in its arguments; hard sciences are primarily inductive Premise 1. All humans are mortal. LOGIC Premise 2. Socrates is human. Conclusion = Socrates is mortal. One premise must be universal to make the argument deductive. (i.e. ALL HUMANS are mortal) Inductive = make specific observations and then make a general/universal conclusion. Deductive organization is used by all the branches, it is the philosophical method POLITI CS John Stuart Mill Anarchists vs. Democracy Justice ETHIC S 3 major theories o Utilitarian = actions are right based on consequences o Deontologist = moral obligations and rights Socrates 469 – 399 B.C.E. Controversial and influential Father was a stonemason, mother was a midwife o Compared himself to his mother and philosophy to midwifery She helped give birth to children and he helped give birth to new ideas; they were never his ideas – conversation (needs 2 people) brings ideas into the world Never left Athens except to fight in the Peloponnesian War; he loved the city 25% of those in Athens were citizens (does not include women, children, and slaves mostly) Slaves were often captured in war o Aristotle believed that some people were slaves by nature and some people were slaves by convention because of this Plato did not believe women to be inferior; ideas outlined in the Republic Socrates wondered about the natural world at the start of his career and then switched to people and society later in life Spent time in the marketplace talking to everybody who would talk with him o Charged no fees and did not market himself as a teacher Asked, what is a good life for a human being? o Rational inquiry would give us the answer Thought it was dangerous to pretend to have knowledge when you do not have it Had a daimon or a divine sign o A voice that would tell him not to do things – the first written conscience in Western history Plato 427 – 347 B.C.E. Also lived in Athens most of his life Connected to political family and was expected to go into politics o His affiliation with Socrates prevented any political future he may have had Wrote many dialogues on many topics o Republic = most famous and important dialogue about Justice Believed leaders should be elected based on knowledge and their care for the city, not wealth Left Athens after the death of Socrates for a decade Established a school called the academy and it lasted for eight centuries o There were lectures and discussions, students and teachers ate together and discussed something specific every day over lunch o Aristotle was a student at this academy Apology Rhetoric = persuasive speaking, didn’t care about being right or wrong but convincing others that they spoke the truth o Sometimes took things out of context o Brought emotion into the argument o Used scapegoats o Used popular opinions to back o Given to an uneducated audience o Building trust for the speaker o Immediate audience tells their friends With the above tactics, it is possible to convince others the lie is the truth. Plato did NOT use rhetoric in his speeches – he didn’t have a style other than questioning The earlier accusers mentioned around 18 b refer to the negative attitude people had towards Socrates since the beginning of his questioning and he dispels the rumors of him being a Sophist. o Sophist = a man who would tutor young men for a very high fee September 8, 2016 Apology Cont. Line 21: had a reputation similar to that of Sophists because of his questioning due to the Oracle of Delphi’s prophecy The Oracle was the mouthpiece of Apollo and only spoke in riddles The Oracle said that Socrates was the wisest man alive Socrates began questioning men that he felt were wise but they could not adequately explain their beliefs – they maybe had true beliefs but not justified true beliefs. Only the craftsmen knew things, but also claimed to know things that they didn’t actually know. Socratic Wisdom: ability to distinguish what you know from what you don’t know and not claim to have knowledge that you don’t possess – recognizing your ignorance Line 23: These conversations made him unpopular with the people Nobody want to be wrong Hubris = excessive pride in oneself He could’ve been viewed as condescending It revealed un-flattering things about people Pushed the status quo Caused young men, who were supposed to be quiet and respectful, to question their elders = claim that the was corrupting the youth Socrates’ defenses: Against the claim that he is corrupting the youth Wicked people harm those around them and good people benefit those around them. (premise) No man wants to be harmed. (premise) No one would corrupt someone willingly because then they would be harmed. (conclusion) If he was corrupting the youth unwittingly, he should’ve been instructed in his home and not brought to court When an argument is valid it is a conclusion drawn from premises; for the argument to be sounds the premises must be true. Against the claim of impiety He might not believe in the Greek gods (could believe in Egyptian gods) OR not believe in any gods = impiety Meletus charges Socrates with not atheism You cannot believe in activity without believing in what caused it. (premise) Cannot believe in flute music without believing in the flute player Teaching about religious activities is equivalent to believing in religious activities which means that you believe in the religion. (premise) It is evidenced that Socrates believes in the Oracle. (premise) Socrates is not an atheist. (conclusion) Line 28 “b-e” Most important thing is living a good life, not avoiding death = used Achilles as an example Line 29 before b “To fear death…” No one knows death -> he does not fear death because he does not know whether it is good or bad “ignorance with the illusion of knowledge” is the most harmful ignorance of all because you are unlikely to correct it Line 30 above d “Be sure if you kill…” Types of harm that might happen to Socrates 1. Killed 2. Disfranchised = not a citizen 3. Banished 4. Treated unjustly a. Not living a good life, committing evil b. When one acts unjustly knowingly, one damages their character September 13, 2016 Apology Cont. Line 31 d “divine sign” o Socrates was never a teacher. Line 36 d-e o Socrates has been found guilty and they are now discussing punishments. o Socrates says that he should be given free meals and that the public should celebrate him as they would an Olympian athlete. Line 37 d-e o Imprisonment is not a good alternate. o They could fine him or they could exile him. o Exile – line 38 b “the unexamined life is not worth living” and no other cities would allow him to continue his examination due to his reputation. Conversation leads to examination which leads to critical thinking. A good life is different for each individual and each individual must pursue it. Socrates proposes a fine of 30 minas, but the jury votes for the penalty Meletus put up – death. Line 38 c – 39: “Neither I nor any other man should, on trial or in war, contrive to avoid death at any cost.” – Socrates thoughts on his sentence Line 39 c – Socrates death will bring vengeance on the jury. They didn’t want to be challenged by his constant questioning. o D – killing people doesn’t stop challenges from coming though. Avoiding challenges only prevents you from growing and learning how to properly think Line 40 c – Socrates talks about death o He decides it’s either sleep or the soul moves to a new realm: things either end or change and both could be good. o If everything is over then it will be peaceful, if his soul moves he can discuss with other souls that have passed. Nothing bad will happen when he challenges the souls of the dead, what are they going to do? Kill him again? o “I go to die, you go to live. Which of us goes to the better lot is known to no one, except the god.” = Nobody knows what will happen next. Apology Important Points Recap Socrates spoke plainly, without rhetoric First vs. Second Accusers Two arguments (wickedness and religious activities) Charged with impiety (atheism) Does not fear death “The unexamined life is not worth living” Ignorance without knowledge is evil Socratic Wisdom Deductive Reasoning o Base line for logic and reasoning Having facts Decent speech despite not being a good speaker for Socrates Crito Crito was an actual person and a dear friend of Socrates. Tradition was to execute people right after the sentence was given, but you couldn’t execute somebody while others of the city were on a religious expedition. o Socrates was in jail for a month. Crito comes when the ships of the expedition have been spotted meaning Socrates only has a few more days. o Socrates had a dream about the ships landing, he has three more days. Crito gives five reasons for Socrates to escape prison while he still can. 1. He will lose an irreplaceable friend. 2. His reputation will be ruined; people will think that he valued his money more than he valued Socrates and that he didn’t try to facilitate Socrates’ escape. 3. Socrates is being unjust since he received an unjust sentence. 4. Socrates is betraying his sons. 5. Socrates is choosing the easiest path, not the best one. He’s just giving up and being passive. Line 46 b-c = let’s figure out what the right thing to do is. “I am the kind of man who listens to nothing within me but the argument that… seems best to me.” Line 46 d – 48b = responding to Crito’s reputation question in his usual questioning manner o You can pay attention to some opinions but not all. o You pay attention to the good opinions – those of the wise. The wise are those with specialized knowledge. o Specialized knowledge puts you in the minority not the majority, so there’s no use worrying about the opinion of the majority on anything. Line 48 b-c = life is not as important as good life is Line 48 c = is escaping a just action to take? o A principle can help you define how to act in different situations, so the two agree on three principles 1. One must never do wrong willingly. 2. One must not inflict wrong in return of a wrong. 3. Just agreements must be kept. Crito cannot reason for his side so Socrates converses with the laws to think it through. (line 50 – 51) FIRST TEST ON THURSDAY OF THIS WEEK September 22, 2016 Crito Cont. Law gives reasons why Socrates should not escape. 1. If he escapes he’ll destroy the city. a. Citizens must respect the law and without respect there will be anarchy. 2. Socrates has an agreement with the laws. a. If you disagree with the laws, you have to try and get them changed or you can leave. Socrates never expressed disagreement with the laws and he never left. 3. Laws have benefitted him a. They helped his upbringing and gave him a good marriage and sons 4. He loved the city, as evidence by having children there. 5. No other city would be governed as well as Athens and so he would not be able to do his questioning. 6. Socrates will never see his children again, Crito will have to take care of them, so it doesn’t matter to the children whether he dies or flees. 7. The laws are just; it was the verdict that was unjust. a. Escaping damages the laws and the laws did not wrong him, the jury did. The just or good life is the most important thing, if he acts unjustly then he is destroying his own ideals or principals as defined earlier. Returning the wrong by escaping is bad because returning any wrong at all is bad, but he’d be returning it to the wrong party, thus wronging of his own accord. Escaping would validate the accusation laid on him as well. o Juries will make mistakes. The laws do not need to be changed, just the people. Crito Final Thoughts and Wrap-Up In Phaedo, Socrates describes dying from hemlock – cold from feet up and once the coldness hit his heart, he’d die. o Most prisoners fought but Socrates just took the cup and drank of his own accord. Socrates was brave. Should he have escaped? o He accepted fate AND accepted death – not an easy feat o We probably wouldn’t talk about him as much Not afraid to die – “who goes to the better, only the god knows” Everything he questioned in other people might have been doubted as true if he had escaped. Exile was on par with death o He knows what will happen if he leaves, but he doesn’t know what will happen if he dies. We all need to confront how we should live More from Plato – look at Republic On Liberty – Background on Mill English, 1806 – 1873 Philosopher and political theorist Father = James Mill and friend, Jeremy Bentham created Mill’s education; he would not attend public school. o Some think he received the best education any English speaker has every received. o Learning math and Greek @ 3 o Latin, geometry and algebra @ 11 o Logic and philosophy @ 12 o Extraordinary vocab and knowledge base to draw upon for his writings Wrote many books o On economics, ethics, political theory and the rights of women Elected to Parliament in 1867 and proposed a bill letting women vote. o Advocated for women to have equal rights as men under the law. o The bill failed. Jeremy Bentham = utilitarian o Wrote a book called Utilitarianism. Not actually about utilitarianism o Utilitarianism = ethical and economic theory that advocates for actions and policies to be enacted to provide the greatest good for the greatest number of people Everybody affected gets counted equally – no question of racism or sexism, only question if non-humans count too. How much does sentience give them? Better to give to the greater number rather than the greatest thing to fewer people – according to some You have to figure out how is affects and you have to account for all of them. On Liberty was published in 1859 o Voted one of the 10 most dangerous books of the 18 and 19 th centuries o Classic in history of political thought o Concerned only with modern, advance democracies and only with the rights of adults, not children o Defends free through/discussion o Condemns blind conformity o Diversity is essential for progress o Only justification for interfering with a person’s activities is if they’re harming somebody else o Arguing for where to draw the line for individual freedom and why Every country limits individual freedom to some extent (i.e. murder is frowned upon) o First pages are about the term liberty Original use = societies with unelected rulers and citizens had no say and they wanted to be free form that tyranny Hierarchical Once you had democracy you were liberated He thinks even though citizens can elect rulers, they’re not as free as they think Fellow citizens limit the freedoms o Pg. 8 “The will of the people…” Not the people, but the majority or the loudest population There is a difference between the most numerous and the most active Active part may be smaller numerically but have more power famous or upper-class people Numerical majority different than the power majority Rules are made by the people who show up o Quoted in the Supreme Court o “Tyranny of the majority” – the population can constitute itself as a tyrant to limit the power of fellow citizens September 27, 2016 Vocab words: Remonstrating Sovereign Tyranny Usurping Fallibility Laudable Abated Conspicuous Coercion Servility Amenable Efficaciously Axiomatic Despotism Supercede Forbearance Emanate Bigot Dogma Unequivocal Heretics Tacit Chapter 2 breakdown Pg. 19-20: Intro Pg. 20-36: Majority is false, minority is true Pg. 37-47: Majority is true, minority is false Pg. 47-53: mixed truth Pg. 53-55: rules for debate and then conclusion Intro Free speech, arguments for allowing the people to express themselves When the majority belief is true – why it’s good to have discussion Mixed means that both parties have partial truths Pg. 9 = political despotism o Need protection from fellow citizens o Good life = freedom from disapproving neighbors Pg. 13 = thesis paragraph broken into sentences and their explanations 1. Topic and project of the book – what Mill is actually concerned with a. Under what circumstances should society interfere with the freedom of individuals b. Every society has guidelines for freedoms – limitations/restrictions on things such as murder. Where to draw the line? 2. Principle = self-protection a. Only purpose for interfering with liberty is to protect ourselves 3. Only time to exercise power on someone against their will is fi they are causing harm to others 4. “own good” not a good enough justification to stop them a. No right to enforce your way on somebody if they’re only harming themselves 5. The opinions of others – the ‘right’ thing to do – not a good reason to force an individual to change 6. These are reasons to talk to them – not force them to change 7. To justify compulsion, the person must be doing something that harms others 8. Only conduct you should agree or be agreeable with society is conduct that affects other people 9. Conduct that only concerns the individual is absolutely theirs, not interference from government or others is needed 10.The individual has absolute rule over themselves Pg. 14 o “I regard utility as the ultimate appeal on all ethical questions…” Progressive = long-term consequences and future generations need to be considered, such as environmental policies o “If any one does an act… for the injury.” At first glance you might want to punish him, but he could be made to do positive things instead. Inaction can be just as harmful as action. Refusal to act can be detrimental. Should be held accountable for both September 29, 2016 Pg. 15 + 16 o Three regions of human liberty 1. Consciousness – beliefs and expression of beliefs a. There is a place to limit speech (i.e. speech that will provoke anger or violence) 2. Tastes and pursuits – actions and ways of life (i.e. food preferences) a. You are free to act how you like as long as it does not harm others (i.e. murder, assault) 3. Uniting with others – forming groups (i.e. nudist colonies) a. More restrictions on uniting: only adults can unite, the purpose cannot be to cause harm, individuals cannot be forced to join, shouldn’t be deceived into joining (i.e. KKK, cults, groups using threats such as gangs) Pg. 16: “Mankind are greater gainers…” o Suffering in this context means allowing, as in to “suffer somebody’s presence” o We do better to allow things we don’t like than to force everyone to one “good” life. o Everyone has a right to their own life. o Diversity = progress. o You will get offended – get over it. o Some societies are more caught up in tolerance and intolerance than others. Chapter 2: of the liberty of thought and discussion – liberty of consciousness Pg. 20 “If all mankind…” o Numbers are irrelevant – individuals have a right to their own opinion, doesn’t matter how many else share it. “But the peculiar evil…” o Silencing opinions robs humanity now and later o Those who do the silencing lose more than those who get silenced If the silenced opinion is right, they lose the truth If the silenced opinion is wrong, they truth is better understood and you gain more evidence to support yourself o If you don’t hear opposing opinions, why did you pick your side? What reason did you have? o If we stifle an opinion, we can’t know if it’s false of true – silencing is evil either way Suppression: denying that the dissenting opinion could be true. We are assuming our own infallibility. He gives his position, gives opponents position and then responds – he must follow his own advice to give credit to his arguments Pg. 23 “Complete liberty…” o Must hear opposing opinions to have a reason to adopt an opinion – gather all info. o Errors being corrigible: we are fallible and corrigible as humans. Pg. 27 o Socrates illustration of what happens when a majority turns on a minority – can be put to death o What they lost and how extreme they were Pg. 28 o Marcus Aurelius = last great emperor, model of a great leader, selected to rule by previous emperor based on intelligence ruled to help his people – not for power pagan – persecuted Christianity. Wasn’t particularly against it, but he didn’t stop it by any means made the mistake of not recognizing minority views anybody can make the mistake then Pg. 34 o Social stigma (stigmata = marks on Christ’s hands and feet – mark of disgrace) o Stigmas pressure people to keep silent about beliefs – effective mechanism for controlling people o The beliefs are not against the law – no legal persecution
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