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Psych 1101, Week 8 Study Guide

by: Jasmine Cole

Psych 1101, Week 8 Study Guide Psych 1101

Marketplace > Georgia State University > Psychology (PSYC) > Psych 1101 > Psych 1101 Week 8 Study Guide
Jasmine Cole
GPA 3.6

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About this Document

This study guide covers the materials of chapters 3-6 and 9.
Intro to Psychology
Study Guide
Cognitive Psychology, Intro to Psychology, Psychology
50 ?




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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jasmine Cole on Monday October 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 1101 at Georgia State University taught by Dr.Russell in Fall 2014. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Georgia State University.


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Date Created: 10/10/16
                                        PSYC 1101 Study Guide for Exam #2:   Chapters 3, 4, 5, 6, 9 the exam questions will come from these areas. If a word is bolded, it is a vocabulary term that you should be able to define and apply to examples. Chapter 3:  Consciousness (Sleep & Drugs) 1. consciousness­ interaction between us and awareness of  yourself and environment 2. Parallel processing­ attention has various levels (focused­  texting on phone, driving) 3. Selective attention­ ignore one part of the environment  while focusing on the other. a. Cocktail part effect­ thinking you’re not paying  attention, but you had some processing of that  information. b.Inattentional blindness­ intently focused on another  task that you’re blind to the change. This shows we  don’t do multi­tasking well.  4. Problems with multitasking 5. Biological rhythms­ any regularly occurring event because of the chemicals in your body 6. Circadian rhythms­ in the time span of a day (24 hours)­  normal humans are set for 25 hours. a. Superchiasmatic Nucleus (SCN) – part of the  hypothalamus­ this resets our clock to be 24 instead of 25 hours. b. Melatonin­ chemical our body releases to help us  sleep.                                          PSYC 1101 c. Stages of sleep ­ EEG waves, other characteristics of  each stage i. Stage 1­ theta waves – very short last 10 minutes ii. Stage 2­ sleep spindles and k complexes­ you  know you’re asleep iii. Stage 3­ delta waves­ they only show up in this  stage­ very hard to wake someone up iv. REM­ low voltage­ random, fast with saw tooth  waves. EEG waves very similar to when you’re  awake.  v. changes in stages through the night vi. changes in stages in older adults d. Theories of why we sleep i. Protective rule ii. Restore damaged tissue and repair iii. Strengthen neural connections iv. Promotes creative problem solving v. Growth hormone e. Sleep deprivation effects and treatments i. Fatigue and irritability ii. Impairs concentration, productivity, and memory  consolidation iii. Depression, obesity, joint pain, a suppressed  immune system and slowed performance. f. Sleep disorders i. Insomnia­ going to sleep, hard time staying  asleep. Loud chronic snoring ii. Narcolepsy­ suddenly forced into a sleep stage. iii. Sleep apnea­ lack of oxygen when sleeping  which causes interruption. iv. Night terrors­ suddenly “waking up” screaming,                                         PSYC 1101 v. Sleepwalking and sleeptalking vi. Natural sleep aids g. Theories of why we dream 7. Psychoactive drugs a. Drug disorder (addiction)­ outside of the body that  influence behavior, thoughts or emotions i. Tolerance­  ii. Withdrawal­  b. Types of drugs  i. Depressants 1. Alcohol­ acts as disinhibitor; slows neural  processing. Too much alcohol shuts down  the body to the point of not breathing.  2. Barbiturates­ reduce anxiety 3. Opiates­ pain killers: morphine, oxycodone,  heroin. VERY ADDICTIVE.  ii. Stimulants 1. Caffeine­ soda, coffee, etc. 2. Nicotine­ ciggs 3. Cocaine (cocaine at the synapse diagram)­  blocks reuptake of dopamine,  norepinephrine and serotonin.  4. Ecstasy (MDMA)­ mild hallucinogen 5. Methamphetamine­ most addictive iii. Hallucinogens  1. Marijuana­ mild effect. Effects time, and  makes one really mellow 2. LSD­ different type of color, brain is  working really fast, mostly changing of  perception.                                         PSYC 1101 Chapter 4: Development 1. General themes (issues) in developmental psychology a. Nature vs. nurture­ genetic inheritance vs. experience b. Continuity vs. stages­ gradual, slow shaping process  vs abrupt changes.  c. Stability vs. change­ same characteristics through life  vs difference over time.  2. Prenatal development:    Zygote­ first 2 weeks (10 days)­ fertilization/ rapid  multiplication of cells th  embryo – 2 to 8  week­ hands, heartbeat.   Fetus – 3  to 9  month­ characteristics of human  baby. 3. Teratogens – that will harm the infant prenatally a. Fetal alcohol syndrome 4. Newborn capacities st a. Preferences for faces (preferential looking task)­ 1   24 hours.  b. Motor skills­ not very good at moving their body c. Brain maturation genes and experience i. synaptic pruning­ if you have too many synapses­ mentally retarded.  ii. Infant memory experiment 5. Piaget’s stages of cognitive development (ages,  achievements/limitations at each stage) a. Schema­ organizes concepts  b.Assimilation­ take new experience and putting it into  a pre­existing category of schemas.                                         PSYC 1101 c. Accommodation­ come to a new experience­ change  schema to make it work d.Sensorimotor stage – birth to nearly 2 years e. Preoperational stage – 2 to 7 years  i. Symbolic thought­ take a representation of  something.  ii. object permanence­  iii. egocentrism­ unable to see somebody else’s  point of view.  f. Concrete operational stage­ (7 to 11 years)­ logical  thought about concrete events (actual experience).  i. conservation g. Formal operational stage­ 12 through adulthood  i. Abstract thinking ii. Hypothetical thinking 6. Attachment­ emotional tie that a child forms with a care  giver.  a. Harlow’s experiments i. Contact comfort ii. Stranger anxiety­ infants suddenly becoming  afraid of strangers (8 months) b. Ainsworth’s Strange Situation i. secure attachment­ happy when mother is there,  sad when mother leaves, when care giver comes  back, they are calmed down again.  ii. insecure attachment­ when mother leaves­ very  upset, when comes back, child doesn’t seem to  calm down or make things better.                                         PSYC 1101 c. Romanian orphanages­ 15 to 1 caregivers, lower  intelligence and double 20 percent rate of anxiety  symptoms.  7. Parenting styles a. Authoritative­ between permissive and authoritarian,  they have rules, set limits, set guidelines. However,  there are exceptions to limits/ rules. b.Permissive­ no rules at all; anything goes, nor no  boundaries.  c. Authoritarian­ very strict, no exceptions to rules  ever. Always punished if you break the rules.  8. Kohlberg’s levels of moral thinking a. Preconventional morality (before age 4)­ obey rules  to avoid punishment or gain concrete rewards.  b.Conventional morality (early adolescence)­ up hold  laws and rules to gain social approval or maintain  social order.  c. Postconventional morality (adolescence and  beyond)­ actions reflect belief in basic rights and self­ defined ethical principles.  Chapter 5:  Sex, Gender, & Sexuality 1. Sex – biological (XY or XX; anatomy) 2. Gender – cultural/ experiental­ male/ female 3. Prenatal sexual development a. Chromosomal sex b. Y chromosome & sry gene c. Gonadal sex d. Influence of androgens (testosterone) on:                                          PSYC 1101 i. internal genitalia ii. external genitalia iii. brain structures (Brain sex) 4. Puberty – time period of developing more sex  characteristics a. Primary sex characteristics – things you have to  have for reproduction b. Secondary sex characteristics – hair growth 5. Idea that variations in sexual development exist 6. Gender role – society’s expectations of male/female  7. gender identity – type of gender, male/ female, we feel  more comfortable with.  8. How gender is learned a. Social learning theory­ watching someone do  something and imitate what the same sex is doing. b.Gender schemas­ how you organize information of  what is male/female c. Transgender­ gender identity is opposite of biological sex. Chapter 6:  Sensation and Perception 1. General concepts a. sensation – physical aspects of process b. perception – organizing information into meaning c. Sensory receptors – detect simulation d. Transduction­ converts incoming energy into  electrochemical energy.  e. Absolute threshold – minimal level needed (one  stimulus)                                         PSYC 1101 f. difference threshold­ minimal difference needed i. Weber’s Law­ for an average person to perceive  a difference, two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage.  g. Sensory adaptation­ when you have a constant  stimulus, body starts ignoring it. 2. Vision a. Light   i. Wavelength/frequency (hue) – distance from  peak to peak ii. Amplitude (brightness)­ how high the  wavelength is  b. Anatomical structures of the eye i. Cornea ii. Pupil iii. Lens iv. Retina  1. Photoreceptors: rods­ sensitive to faint  light. Cones­ sensitive to detail and color.  v. Fovea­ best detail vision­ center of your vision.  vi. Blind spot vii. Optic nerve c. Parallel processing­ in general your brain is able to  deal with multiple things at the same time.  d.Bottom­up processing­ individual pieces of  information, you then put together e. top­down processing­ starts at a thinking level,  interpret information coming based on the  preconception.                                          PSYC 1101 f. Feature detection ­ having individual neurons that  code specific pieces of information. g. Form perception i. Gestalt principles  1. figure­ground­ Figure= object/front.  Ground= background 2. proximity, closure, continuity 3. form perception­ human minds use these  grouping strategies to see patterns and  objects.  h.Depth perception­ able to see an object as a 3D  object. i. Monocular cues­ (pictorial cues)­ just one eye is  being used 1. Linear perspective­ lines are parallel in the  real world, but they appear to converge in  your viewpoint 2. relative size­(top down processing)­ the  bigger object is going to be closer, and  similar is going to be further away. 3. light and shadow­ shadows that are darker,  are closer. But lighter the shadow­ the  further away it is.  4. interposition­ overlapping. Object that is  partly covered, is further away than the  object that is whole. 5. Texture gradient­ the texture is going to be  easiest to see closet to you, but further away  the texture is hard to see.  ii. Binocular cues­ when both eyes are being used.                                          PSYC 1101 1. Retinal disparity­ the two eyes see slightly  different images; you brain is going to  automatically piece them together.  iii. Gibson’s visual cliff experiment i. Perceptual constancies­ ability to see objects as the  same, even though lighting, distance and orientation  change.  i. Shape constancy­ you see the same object.  ii. Size constancy­ objects are the same size even  though there is a distance between them.  iii. Color constancy Chapter 9:  Intelligence  1. Defining Intelligence/Intelligence Tests (know how each  person/test defines intelligence) a. Binet: Mental Age vs. Chronological Age­ compared what the ability of the age of the person could do  compared to others of the same age.  b. Terman: Intelligence Quotient/Calculating IQ –  mental ability to learn from experience c. Spearman: general intelligence (g)­ all intelligence  has one cause.  d. specific ability­ usually is correlates to other tests or  skills e. Wechsler  i. WAIS (subtests) ii. Application of normal curve f. Emotional Intelligence                                         PSYC 1101 i. Perceiving emotions­ recognize them ii. Understanding emotions­ predict what kind of  emotions will appear iii. Managing emotions­ the ability to express them/  show other people what you are feeling. iv. Using emotions­ putting them to creative use. g. Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences i. Intrapersonal intelligence­self ii. Interpersonal intelligence­people iii. Linguistic intelligence­words iv. Logical­mathematical intelligence­math v. Bodily­kinesthetic intelligence­body/athletic h. Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory of Intelligence i. Analytical intelligence­ book smart, memorize,  be able to communicate the information ii. Creative intelligence­ being able to use  something in a unique way, or come up with a  unique solution. iiiPractical intelligence­ street smarts, knowing  what to do in real life situation with no rule book, or obvious steps to take.


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