Psych 1101, Week 8 Study Guide
Psych 1101, Week 8 Study Guide Psych 1101
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jasmine Cole on Monday October 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 1101 at Georgia State University taught by Dr.Russell in Fall 2014. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Georgia State University.
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Date Created: 10/10/16
PSYC 1101 Study Guide for Exam #2: Chapters 3, 4, 5, 6, 9 the exam questions will come from these areas. If a word is bolded, it is a vocabulary term that you should be able to define and apply to examples. Chapter 3: Consciousness (Sleep & Drugs) 1. consciousness interaction between us and awareness of yourself and environment 2. Parallel processing attention has various levels (focused texting on phone, driving) 3. Selective attention ignore one part of the environment while focusing on the other. a. Cocktail part effect thinking you’re not paying attention, but you had some processing of that information. b.Inattentional blindness intently focused on another task that you’re blind to the change. This shows we don’t do multitasking well. 4. Problems with multitasking 5. Biological rhythms any regularly occurring event because of the chemicals in your body 6. Circadian rhythms in the time span of a day (24 hours) normal humans are set for 25 hours. a. Superchiasmatic Nucleus (SCN) – part of the hypothalamus this resets our clock to be 24 instead of 25 hours. b. Melatonin chemical our body releases to help us sleep. PSYC 1101 c. Stages of sleep EEG waves, other characteristics of each stage i. Stage 1 theta waves – very short last 10 minutes ii. Stage 2 sleep spindles and k complexes you know you’re asleep iii. Stage 3 delta waves they only show up in this stage very hard to wake someone up iv. REM low voltage random, fast with saw tooth waves. EEG waves very similar to when you’re awake. v. changes in stages through the night vi. changes in stages in older adults d. Theories of why we sleep i. Protective rule ii. Restore damaged tissue and repair iii. Strengthen neural connections iv. Promotes creative problem solving v. Growth hormone e. Sleep deprivation effects and treatments i. Fatigue and irritability ii. Impairs concentration, productivity, and memory consolidation iii. Depression, obesity, joint pain, a suppressed immune system and slowed performance. f. Sleep disorders i. Insomnia going to sleep, hard time staying asleep. Loud chronic snoring ii. Narcolepsy suddenly forced into a sleep stage. iii. Sleep apnea lack of oxygen when sleeping which causes interruption. iv. Night terrors suddenly “waking up” screaming, PSYC 1101 v. Sleepwalking and sleeptalking vi. Natural sleep aids g. Theories of why we dream 7. Psychoactive drugs a. Drug disorder (addiction) outside of the body that influence behavior, thoughts or emotions i. Tolerance ii. Withdrawal b. Types of drugs i. Depressants 1. Alcohol acts as disinhibitor; slows neural processing. Too much alcohol shuts down the body to the point of not breathing. 2. Barbiturates reduce anxiety 3. Opiates pain killers: morphine, oxycodone, heroin. VERY ADDICTIVE. ii. Stimulants 1. Caffeine soda, coffee, etc. 2. Nicotine ciggs 3. Cocaine (cocaine at the synapse diagram) blocks reuptake of dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin. 4. Ecstasy (MDMA) mild hallucinogen 5. Methamphetamine most addictive iii. Hallucinogens 1. Marijuana mild effect. Effects time, and makes one really mellow 2. LSD different type of color, brain is working really fast, mostly changing of perception. PSYC 1101 Chapter 4: Development 1. General themes (issues) in developmental psychology a. Nature vs. nurture genetic inheritance vs. experience b. Continuity vs. stages gradual, slow shaping process vs abrupt changes. c. Stability vs. change same characteristics through life vs difference over time. 2. Prenatal development: Zygote first 2 weeks (10 days) fertilization/ rapid multiplication of cells th embryo – 2 to 8 week hands, heartbeat. Fetus – 3 to 9 month characteristics of human baby. 3. Teratogens – that will harm the infant prenatally a. Fetal alcohol syndrome 4. Newborn capacities st a. Preferences for faces (preferential looking task) 1 24 hours. b. Motor skills not very good at moving their body c. Brain maturation genes and experience i. synaptic pruning if you have too many synapses mentally retarded. ii. Infant memory experiment 5. Piaget’s stages of cognitive development (ages, achievements/limitations at each stage) a. Schema organizes concepts b.Assimilation take new experience and putting it into a preexisting category of schemas. PSYC 1101 c. Accommodation come to a new experience change schema to make it work d.Sensorimotor stage – birth to nearly 2 years e. Preoperational stage – 2 to 7 years i. Symbolic thought take a representation of something. ii. object permanence iii. egocentrism unable to see somebody else’s point of view. f. Concrete operational stage (7 to 11 years) logical thought about concrete events (actual experience). i. conservation g. Formal operational stage 12 through adulthood i. Abstract thinking ii. Hypothetical thinking 6. Attachment emotional tie that a child forms with a care giver. a. Harlow’s experiments i. Contact comfort ii. Stranger anxiety infants suddenly becoming afraid of strangers (8 months) b. Ainsworth’s Strange Situation i. secure attachment happy when mother is there, sad when mother leaves, when care giver comes back, they are calmed down again. ii. insecure attachment when mother leaves very upset, when comes back, child doesn’t seem to calm down or make things better. PSYC 1101 c. Romanian orphanages 15 to 1 caregivers, lower intelligence and double 20 percent rate of anxiety symptoms. 7. Parenting styles a. Authoritative between permissive and authoritarian, they have rules, set limits, set guidelines. However, there are exceptions to limits/ rules. b.Permissive no rules at all; anything goes, nor no boundaries. c. Authoritarian very strict, no exceptions to rules ever. Always punished if you break the rules. 8. Kohlberg’s levels of moral thinking a. Preconventional morality (before age 4) obey rules to avoid punishment or gain concrete rewards. b.Conventional morality (early adolescence) up hold laws and rules to gain social approval or maintain social order. c. Postconventional morality (adolescence and beyond) actions reflect belief in basic rights and self defined ethical principles. Chapter 5: Sex, Gender, & Sexuality 1. Sex – biological (XY or XX; anatomy) 2. Gender – cultural/ experiental male/ female 3. Prenatal sexual development a. Chromosomal sex b. Y chromosome & sry gene c. Gonadal sex d. Influence of androgens (testosterone) on: PSYC 1101 i. internal genitalia ii. external genitalia iii. brain structures (Brain sex) 4. Puberty – time period of developing more sex characteristics a. Primary sex characteristics – things you have to have for reproduction b. Secondary sex characteristics – hair growth 5. Idea that variations in sexual development exist 6. Gender role – society’s expectations of male/female 7. gender identity – type of gender, male/ female, we feel more comfortable with. 8. How gender is learned a. Social learning theory watching someone do something and imitate what the same sex is doing. b.Gender schemas how you organize information of what is male/female c. Transgender gender identity is opposite of biological sex. Chapter 6: Sensation and Perception 1. General concepts a. sensation – physical aspects of process b. perception – organizing information into meaning c. Sensory receptors – detect simulation d. Transduction converts incoming energy into electrochemical energy. e. Absolute threshold – minimal level needed (one stimulus) PSYC 1101 f. difference threshold minimal difference needed i. Weber’s Law for an average person to perceive a difference, two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage. g. Sensory adaptation when you have a constant stimulus, body starts ignoring it. 2. Vision a. Light i. Wavelength/frequency (hue) – distance from peak to peak ii. Amplitude (brightness) how high the wavelength is b. Anatomical structures of the eye i. Cornea ii. Pupil iii. Lens iv. Retina 1. Photoreceptors: rods sensitive to faint light. Cones sensitive to detail and color. v. Fovea best detail vision center of your vision. vi. Blind spot vii. Optic nerve c. Parallel processing in general your brain is able to deal with multiple things at the same time. d.Bottomup processing individual pieces of information, you then put together e. topdown processing starts at a thinking level, interpret information coming based on the preconception. PSYC 1101 f. Feature detection having individual neurons that code specific pieces of information. g. Form perception i. Gestalt principles 1. figureground Figure= object/front. Ground= background 2. proximity, closure, continuity 3. form perception human minds use these grouping strategies to see patterns and objects. h.Depth perception able to see an object as a 3D object. i. Monocular cues (pictorial cues) just one eye is being used 1. Linear perspective lines are parallel in the real world, but they appear to converge in your viewpoint 2. relative size(top down processing) the bigger object is going to be closer, and similar is going to be further away. 3. light and shadow shadows that are darker, are closer. But lighter the shadow the further away it is. 4. interposition overlapping. Object that is partly covered, is further away than the object that is whole. 5. Texture gradient the texture is going to be easiest to see closet to you, but further away the texture is hard to see. ii. Binocular cues when both eyes are being used. PSYC 1101 1. Retinal disparity the two eyes see slightly different images; you brain is going to automatically piece them together. iii. Gibson’s visual cliff experiment i. Perceptual constancies ability to see objects as the same, even though lighting, distance and orientation change. i. Shape constancy you see the same object. ii. Size constancy objects are the same size even though there is a distance between them. iii. Color constancy Chapter 9: Intelligence 1. Defining Intelligence/Intelligence Tests (know how each person/test defines intelligence) a. Binet: Mental Age vs. Chronological Age compared what the ability of the age of the person could do compared to others of the same age. b. Terman: Intelligence Quotient/Calculating IQ – mental ability to learn from experience c. Spearman: general intelligence (g) all intelligence has one cause. d. specific ability usually is correlates to other tests or skills e. Wechsler i. WAIS (subtests) ii. Application of normal curve f. Emotional Intelligence PSYC 1101 i. Perceiving emotions recognize them ii. Understanding emotions predict what kind of emotions will appear iii. Managing emotions the ability to express them/ show other people what you are feeling. iv. Using emotions putting them to creative use. g. Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences i. Intrapersonal intelligenceself ii. Interpersonal intelligencepeople iii. Linguistic intelligencewords iv. Logicalmathematical intelligencemath v. Bodilykinesthetic intelligencebody/athletic h. Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory of Intelligence i. Analytical intelligence book smart, memorize, be able to communicate the information ii. Creative intelligence being able to use something in a unique way, or come up with a unique solution. iiiPractical intelligence street smarts, knowing what to do in real life situation with no rule book, or obvious steps to take.
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