Biol 1124 Midterm 2 Study Guide
Biol 1124 Midterm 2 Study Guide BIOL 1124
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Julia Murray on Monday October 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 1124 at University of Oklahoma taught by Broughton in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 64 views. For similar materials see Intro Biol: Molecule/Cell/Phys in Biology at University of Oklahoma.
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Date Created: 10/10/16
Intro to Bio 1124 Midterm Exam 2 Study Guide Vocab Key Concepts Other Important Things Vocab: Nucleic acids - DNA/RNA; hold genetic information, including that needed to make proteins; determine the 1° structure of proteins Pyrimidines - 6 membered rings of carbon and nitrogen; include cytosine, thymine, and uracil CUT Pye! Purines - 6-membered rings fused to 5-membered rings; include adenine and guanine PURe As Gold! Polynucleotides - nucleotides linked by dehydration reactions called phosphodiester linkages RNA - a single polynucleotide chain DNA - has two nucleotides aranged in a double helix Plasma membrane - made of phospholipids and proteins; lets things in and out of the cell Mitochondria - functions in energy metabolism; where cellular respiration occurs and most ATP is generated Have endosymbiotic origin Ribosomes - complexes that make protein; free in the cytosol or bound to the rough ER or nuclear envelope Lysosomes - membranous sacs of hydrolytic enzymes that cells use to digest macromolecules; used to recycle molecules within the cells Nucleolus - non-membranous structure involved in ribosome production; one or more per nucleus; site of ribosomal RNA synthesis Nucleus - contains chromosomes Organelle - a sub-cellular structure enclosed in a membrane Nucleus - contains most genes of a cell; enclosed within a nuclear envelope Nuclear envelope - a double membraned structure made of two phospholipid bilayers; has many layers; each pore is lined with a pore complex made of protein Pore complex - regulates the movement of large molecules, like RNA or proteins, across the nuclear envelope Nuclear lamina - lines the inside of the nuclear envelope; a network of protein filaments that give mechanical support to the nucleus Chromosomes - a mixture of DNA and protein called chromatin Ribosomes - complexes of rRNA and protein made in the nucleolus that carry out protein synthesis Free ribosomes - ribosomes suspended in the cytosol Bound ribosomes - ribosomes attached to the nuclear envelope and endoplasmic reticulum Endoplasmic reticulum - extensive network of membranous tubes and sacs that form cisternae Cisternae - internal compartments of the ER and golgi In the golgi, cisternae mature as they move cis to trans, allowing them to vary in function Smooth ER - lacks membrane-bound ribosomes; performs many metabolic processes such as synthesis of lipids, the detoxification of waste molecules, and the storage of calcium ions Rough ER - the outer surface has attached ribosomes and produces secretory proteins and membranes Golgi apparatus - functions in shipping, sorting, receiving, and manufacturing The golgi receives vesicles containing products from the ER and ships them to other parts of the cell, or to the plasma membrane for secretion from the cell ER products are received at the cis face and are modified as they pass to the trans face Vacuoles - membranous vesicles that function in different ways depending on cell type Chloroplasts - organelles in plant cells that use photosynthesis to convert energy form the sun into chemical energy Thylakoids - sacs in chloroplasts which contain chlorophyll, enzymes, and other molecules for photosynthesis Cytoskeleton - extensive network of filaments throughout the cytoskeleton that function in cell motility and mechanical support Microtubules - the thickest elements of the cytoskeleton; maintain cell shape, cell motility, the movement of chromosomes during cell division, and organelle movement Microtubules are polymers of tubulin Centrosome - the region of animal cells that is the microtubule organizing center (MTOC) where microtubules originate Centrioles - microtubule structures that organize events of animal cell division Flagella - long tails that some cells use for movement Cilia -many short microtubule projections on the surface of a cell used for cell movement or motion of a fluid, or motion of a fluid across a fixed cell Basal body - a complex microtubule structure similar to a centriole Microfilaments - the thinnest components of the cytoskeleton; composed of actin filaments; maintains cell shape and motility Myosin - a motor protein Intermediate filaments - made of keratin proteins coiled to make a cable that maintain cell shape and make up the nuclear lamina Prokaryotic - have cells without a nucleus; bacteria and archaea Eukaryotic - have a nucleus; animals, plants, fungus, protists Plasmodesmata - channels connecting the cytoplasms of adjacent cells; allows H2O and small molecules to pass through Fluid mosaic model - the setup of the cell membrane; phospholipid bilayers with embedded proteins In the fluid mosaic model, individual phospholipids switch places many times per second, but do not flip side-to-side This implies that there is a distinct inner and outer face for the membrane Amplipathic - has both hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions Integral proteins - proteins which go in between phospholipids Trans-membrane proteins - proteins which span the entire bilayer Peripheral proteins - proteins which are along the outside of the phospholipid bilayer Tight junctions - adjacent cells tightly bound by a network of proteins in the cell membrane Desmosomes - rivet-like junctions interspersed on membranes of adjacent cells Gap junctions - cytoplasmic channels between adjacent cells Concepts: Cell size: Cell size is constrained by scaling properties of surface area and volume o The bigger the cell, the greater the metabolic demand o Large cells cannot transport efficiently because the rate of cell transport depends on cell surface area, thus the rate cannot meet the demand Small cell size allows specialized tissue function due to the mix of specialized cells Cells have an extensive system of membranes that are more or less interconnected, exemplified by the endomembrane system All membrane systems in the endomembrane system are similar in structure The smooth ER detoxifies harmful and waste molecules by adding hydroxyl groups to make them more soluble and easy to excrete This works because hydroxyl groups are hydrophilic so they can dissolve more easily Secretory proteins produced by the rough ER are enclosed in a transport vesicle which buds off the ER and may move to the plasma membrane for exocytosis or fuse with the golgi The golgi apparatus functions similar to a "post office" in the cell; it receives vesicles containing products from the ER and ships them to other parts of the cell or to the plasma membrane for secretion from the cell Lysosomal storage disease, which is caused by a malfunction of lysosomal enzymes, causes a lipid build-up in cells Mitochondria have endosymbiotic origin, meaning that a large cell engulfed a smaller cell, thus each cell is dependant on the other and they function as one. The motion of cilia and flagella occurs due to their 9+2 construction. Dynein proteins move the microtubule doubles against each other. Because the microtubules are held together by cross linking proteins, they cannot slide and must bond together. Membranes from different species of cell types can differ greatly in the composition of the bilayer: Fatty acid chain length Degree of unsaturation, or number of double bonds in the fatty acid chain Amount of cholesterol Membrane fluidity increases with: Shorter fatty acid chains Unsaturation increases Cholesterol reduces membrane fluidity at moderate to high temperatures but maintains fluidity at cold temperatures, therefore acting as a fluidity buffer Functions of membrane proteins: 1. Transport 2. Enzymatic activity 3. Signal transduction 4. Cell-cell recognition 5. Intercellular junctions The three types of transport are passive, active, and bulk. The cell membrane is selectively permeable. **PROFESSOR WELLBORN IS STILL LECTURING ON WEDNESDAY, SO THAT INFORMATION IS NOT INCLUDED IN THIS STUDY GUIDE :)
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