Exam 1 Study Guide
Exam 1 Study Guide Kins 478
Pacific Lutheran University
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This 23 page Study Guide was uploaded by Anela Barber on Monday October 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Kins 478 at Pacific Lutheran University taught by Dr. Hacker in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 53 views.
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Date Created: 10/10/16
Anela Barber October 10, 2016 Exam 1 Study Guide Motor Learning 1. Give the definition of learning and highlight the key words Definition: Learning is a change as a result of practice in an internal, relatively stable, state that results in a change in behavior. 2. How is habit strength related to learning Habit strength is something that aids in the process of learning but is not essential to the learning process. For example, a positive attitude is a habit strength because a better environment is created. Learning is an increase in habit strength. 3. List the 3 scholars that identified their thoughts on learning. The 3 motor learning scholars are: Bloom, Melton and Gagne. Bloom: Bloom had 3 primary factors of learning: 1. Cognitive This relates to one’s mental processes 2. Psychomotor Willful physical activity 3. Affective This relates to ones emotions and feelings Melton: Three are 7 parts to Melton’s learning: 1. Classical conditioning just as Pavlov would have done 2. Roteverbal learning straight memorization of things 3. Problem solving Using resources to figure out if you should be convergent/divergent, how to solve a task. 4. Concept Using group facts to make a coherent idea. 5. Perceptional Motor Skill Ones actual movements 6. Short Term Memory 7. Probability Solving Gagne: There are 5 components to Gagne’s components of learning: 1. Motor skills physical skills/movements 2. Verbal facts and principals 3. Intellectual Skills Discriminate between facts/differentiate 4. Cognitive skills governing thinking 5. Attitude Feelings and emotion The components that all theorists have in COMMON are the motor skills portion. Bloom terms it psychomotor, Melton as perceptual moto rskill and Gagne as motor skills. Bloom and Gagne also share the idea that attitudee and emotions are important to learning as well. 4. Give an example of a motor skill related to the 13 types The 13 types of motor skills can be easily remembered by grouping them with similar types of movements. Fine These skills can be performed with the use of our smaller muscles in the body. Usually are tiny movements that require skill. An example of this type of motor skill would be writing or typing. Gross These skill are usually performed with the large muscle groups of the body. Usually these skills are powerful, big movements. An example of this type of motor skill would be performing a field goal kick. Discrete These motor skills have a clear beginning and end to the movement. An example of this would be performing a single dribble or a single serve. Serial This motor skill can be seen as multiple discrete movements performed one after another. Usually these skills have an “ing” at the end. An example of this would be dribbling, jumping. Continuous These motor skills do not have a clear beginning or an end but rather are seen as a seamless, continuous movement. An example of this motor skill could be running or swimming. Closed This type of skill is performed virtually the same every time it is performed because the conditions are more or less controlled. For example, bowling can be seen as a closed sport because there are no environmental conditions effecting the performer. Open These skills can be compromised due to environmental or psychological factors. For example, stealing a pass from an opposite team in soccer has many variables that can ultimately effect the outcome. Self Paced These skills are performed as quickly, or as slowly, as the performer chooses. An example of this motor skill could be performing a single chip at a driving range. Externally Paced The skills are performed as quickly or as slowly as the situation calls for. An example of this would be getting up to bat during a fast pitch game. The speed of the ball determines the pace at which the performer is to swing. Body Transport These skills are simply performed in a way that the body is transported across at least 2 planes of motion. For example, a jump serve in volley ball would be termed this type of skill because the body is moving upward and forward. No Body Transport These skills are performed without the body moving across two planes. For example, a stationary volley ball can be termed this because the body is staying grounded to the court. Manipulation These skills are using some sort of object or equipment to accomplish their motor skill. For example, tennis can be this type of skill because of the use of a racket as well as a tennis ball. Wrestling can also be termed this due to the use of the other person’s body. No Manipulation These skills are performed without the use of an object or special equipment. For example, swimming can be considered this as well as long distant running and even yoga. 5. Be able to identify what type of skill a certain movement is. Use the 13 types of movements to identify a particular skill. 6. Be able to identify 13 types of motor skills by abbreviations. (Ex. F & G, D /S & C) 7. Define performance and its relevance to learning. Performance is a temporary occurrence that fluctuates from time to time because of many potential operating variables (POVs). This is external and fluctuates. Learning is not able to be measured but by performance learning can be shown and measured. 8. What is a POV? POV stands for potential operating variable. This could be anything that may cause a difference in a motor skill for any particular reason. So examples may include: amount of sleep an athlete got the night before, weather on the field during a particular game, amount of anxiety experienced before a game or even what opponent an athlete may be facing. 9. What is latent learning? How is it demonstrated? Latent learning is known as leaning that may or may not be occurring. The only way that latent learning is demonstrated is through an event or some sort of “time to shine” moment. This is what is known as a Salient Reinforcer. A salient reinforcer is what allows latent learning to be showcased. 10. What are the 3 factors that one should consider to perform well? To perform well an individual should: 1. Be knowledgeable and anticipate potential POVs 2. Identify what can be addressed 3. Change, address and mediate potential issues 11. What are motor skills and how are they categorized? Motor skills are a set of perceptual and motor responses into an organized and integrates pattern. These skills can be categorized into 2 different categories: Spatial and Temporal. Spatial This relates to HOW the movement is performed and in what WAY. This can relate to the particular mechanics and movements of the action. Temporal This relates to the TIMING and SEQUENCE of the movement. This refers to what the body is doing at a particular point within the motion as well as the order of the movements. 12. What are the 4 application points for motor skill identification? Why would this be helpful? By knowing how motor skills are classified and categorized a number of things can benefit: 1. Appropriate changes to program can be initiated 2. Problems in learning and developing can be identified 3. Opportunities of transfer from one skill to another and from one element to another can be identified. 4. Preparation for the unexpected. 13. Describe Gentile’s Taxonomy and each of the large section names followed by the subcategories and their contents. Gentile’s Taxonomy begins with the 2 major categories that are subdivided further into 2 more categories with 2 examples of each. Environmental Context This is the first large category that relates to the environment in which the action is being performed in. 1. Regulatory Conditions This relates to the environment itself and whether or not it is changing due to POVs or not. If it doesn’t vary then it is termed to be a Stationary RC. If there is change due to POVs then it is termed Motion Oriented RC. 2. Intertrial Variability This relates to each individual performance of the action in that it can be repeated the same way every time or is effected in some way. If the performance is the same throughout repeated trials this is Intertrial variability is ABSENT whereas if the trials did vary then intertribal variability would be PRESENT. Function of Action This is the second large category of Gentiles Taxonomy. This category relates to the body’s movement on its own as well as its interaction with or without an object present. This category again has 2 different subsections. 1. Body Orientation Relates to the body’s movement throughout the action. If the body does not move much it is termed Body Stability; however, if the body does move across 2 planes then it is termed to be Body Transport. Object Manipulation This refers to an object that may or may not be present throughout the movement. If there is an object being utilized by the performer then it is termed Manipulation. If there is no object manipulated then it is No Manipulation. 14. What are the 3 components of skill proficiency? A person is deemed to be profiecient in a skill if they: 1. Have maximum certainty of goal achievement. The individual is able to perform the action under pressure or on demand. 2. Are efficient with their movements to complete the task. No erroneous movements. 3. Are able to perform the action quickly and effectively. No extra movements means that there is less time to perform them. This is the only thing that separates average teams from great teams. Both the PLU mens football team and the Seahawks perform the same movements/tasks but the Seahawks are proficient enough to perform them in: high pressure situations, efficiently, and more quickly than anyone else. 15. Define automated movements. Automated movements are movements that require very little “brain power.” This usually comes along with the skill proficiency. Does not require much attention. 16. Define implicit learning. This is improving responses through trials and attempts without awareness. This is a passive learning style and resides within the basal ganglia or the brain. Simply repeating the task will increase learning of skill. 17. What are 2 explanations of choking? Although they are similar, the 2 examples of choking are: 1. Distraction External or internal distractions effect an automated movement. Individual begins to overthink. 2. Controlled Processing This is the process of taking a once automated skill and turning it into a controlled skill. Essentially, a shift from an implicit to an explicit movement is created. 18. How do you take a situational approach to a new client? A situational approach aims to personalize a clients experience is some way. There are 3 components to this process: 1. Consider Person who is the clients as a person? Get to know them 2.Consider the task what are they working towards? 3. Consider the setting what setting is it placed at? Where? Treat each new client as a new situation and figure out how you would handle this new situation. Each case is an individual experience. Somewhat relates to the Cratty’s 3 level theory/model. 19. What are the 4 terms that are related to Pavlov? Pavlov is famous for terming classical conditioning. The 4 major terms that relate to this are: 1. Unconditioned Stimulus 2. Conditioned Stimulus 3. Conditioned Response 4. Unconditioned Response 20. What is learning by contiguity? An association between 2 seemingly unrelated events is created by the creation of an SR bond. 21. Define signalizaton. The process of creating SR bonds. 22. How does one increase a positive SR bond? SR bonds are essential to increase because it creates a positive association between 2 events. A way to do this is by simply look for commonalities between similar events. 23. How do you discourage a negative SR bond? There are 3 ways that one can combat a negative SR bond: 1. Countering Generally dispute the clients negative SR bond. 2. Factual Dispute Dispute the negative SR bond by providing specific facts that point towards steps in the right direction. 3. Positive Future Expectations Convey positive thoughts for the future and what the client will see coming. Ex. If the negative SR bond would be “every time I go to cardiac rehab I don't feel like I’m improving,” the following actions can be taken: 1. You are getting better I can tell. 2. You are getting better because last week you walked on level 3 for 1 minute and this week you walked on level 3 for 3 minutes. 3. Just wait and see how fast you are going to progress in this program. 24. What is the difference between Pavlov and Thorndike? What were his ideas of learning? Pavlov and Thorndike both believed in the power of SR bonds and their influence on learning; however, they did differ in what portion they emphasized. Pavlov really focused on the stimulus portion of classic conditioning whereas Throndike emphasized the response. Because of Thorndike’s emphasis on response he believed learning: 1. Trial and Error Attempting different attempts to solve the issue 2. Mechanical Easy to replicate and repeat procedure 3. Problem Solving Attempting different responses till correct outcome occurs. 25. Differentiate between the Law of Exercise and the Law of Effect. Law of Exercise this law simply states that with more practice and repetitions SR bonds are strengthened. Essentially, the “use it or lose it” term best suits this. This is also a reason why repeated incorrect techniques are hard to “undo” because they are so engrained and are hard to break. Law of Effect this law states that if an action is followed by a reinforcer then the individual is more likely to repeat that particular action and the SR bond is strengthened. 26. Define the Identify elements of theory of transfer. This theory states that learning is always specific and never general. It suggests that one will respond to a new situation as they would in a previous situation so long as they share a common element. If similarities between 2 situations is pointed out transfer of knowledge is more likely. Ex. “Oh serving in tennis is essentially the same movement as throwing a pitch in baseball.” “The golf rotational action is very similar to the rotation experienced in a baseball swing.” “This is just like THIS.” 27. What is instrumental conditioning? How does it differ from classical conditioning? Rather than placing emphasis on SR bonds and 2 events closely related to each other as the basis of learning, this learning process emphasizes that learning is a result of rewards and punishments. This process is also known as Behaviorism. This was made famous by B.F. Skinner. 28. What is shaping? What is an architect? Shaping is the act of molding someones behavior by providing the necessary reinforcement. An architect is the person that is DOING the shaping. 29. What is a 2nd reinforcer? Unlike a primary reinforcer, which is the main reason why someone would be performing an action, a secondary reinforcer is something that also provides reinforcement to the individual but not as strongly. For example, someone may do yoga at the end of the day as a way to unwind and relax after work. This would be a primary reinforcer. The person may also experience more flexibility as a result of the yoga and subsequently continues to do yoga for this effect as well. This would be a secondary reinforcer, or just a “cherry on top.” 30. What is the Successive Approximation process? Successive approximation is the process of taking a client at the level they are at the moment and creating a program/game plan to achieve a specific goal. Once the goal is set a number of steps are mapped out to give a clear successive plan to achieve it. 1. What is the final task/goal the client wants to achieve? 2. Where are they now? 3. Map out the steps and additional subtasks needed to reach that final goal. 4. Reinforce successive steps till final goal is reached. Reward behavior! 31. Define and differentiate between the 13 principles as set by Skinner. Strengthen new behavior: 1. Positive Reinforcement Principle A person is more likely to continue a particular behavior or action if positive reinforcement is given immediately after. This is able to strengthen a newly acquired behavior. Ex. Every time a client completes their prescribed interval training at cardiac rehab a verbal praise is immediately given. To develop new behavior: 2. Successive Approximation This principle relates to how someone may be able to start from one level of skill and progress to another level. This is done primarily through identifying the clients current position, identify where they would like to be in the future and then create the necessary steps to achieve that goal. Ex. A client is overhead pressing a 3lb weight during pulmonary rehab at 10 reps per arm. The client would like to overhead press a 5 lb weight at 10 reps per arm. The necessary steps to achieve this goal would be to 1. introduce the 4lb weight at 5 overhead presses per arm then 2. complete 10 overhead presses with 4lb weight and then 3. finally introduce the 5lb weight with 5 overhead presses before the final goal is reached. 3. Modeling Principle Provide client with an individual that is at a higher level of expertise to look at as a role model for that particular activity. This is a moving target, one model for someone may not be the correct model for another. Ex. A 5 year old soccer player may have a high school soccer player as their model. On the other hand, a high school soccer player may have a professional soccer player as their model. It’s a moving target. 4. Cueing Principle Instructor is able to use a visual or audio cue in order to signal when/how to perform the activity. Ex. A track coach may be training an individual for running the 400m hurdles. In order to signal when to properly jump and loud CLAP is given. 5. Discrimination Principle This is the process of identifying WHEN a client should do a particular action under particular circumstances. Sometimes an action is only correct under right set of circumstance. Ex. A particular soccer team has been taught the greatest defensive tactics. It is important to use these tactics when defense is required, not when offensive is required. To stop inappropriate behavior: 6. Satiation Principle In order to remove an inappropriate/undesired behavior it is encouraged to be repeated over and over until it disappears on its own. Ex. A client is throwing a basketball incorrectly and is thus hurting their back. The more shots they take the more their back hurts. Eventually the client does not continue the incorrect behavior due to its pain and performs the shot correctly. 7. Extinction Principle Whenever a client performs the wrong behavior/action no reward is given. Ex. Whenever a cardiac rehab client does not do their preferred exercises at home they are not able to pick the exercises they are able to do in class. Exercises are then assigned. 8. Incompatible Alternative Principle Whenever the client is performing the action correctly, they are physically unable to do the action incorrectly. This is pointed out and stressed and rewarded. Ex. Whenever a golfer is taking the club back with the proper takeaway it is impossible to take the club back from the outside. Every time this proper takeaway is performed praise is given. 9. Negative Reinforcement In order to stop an undesired behavior it may be arranged for the client to have something immediately taken away or stopped to remove that behavior. This will immediately improve the behavior. Ex. When a client is not hitting their driver correctly during competition the driver may be removed from the golf bag to immediately remove the aversive behavior. To maintain new behavior: 10. Substitution Principle Pairing a previously ineffective award/praise with a new praise/award so that the ineffective award has newfound meaning. Ex. Previously, every time this athlete completed a series of drills a “good job” was given. The good job is no longer effective in motivating a good practice regime so a pat on the back is paired with the “good job.” 11. Intermittent Principle In order to maintain a persons new behavior reinforcement/reward is gradually removed as the skill becomes more mastered. Ex. An athlete learns how to properly jump serve. Over time the athlete becomes more and more skilled and rewards are given less and less frequently. To modify emotional behavior: 12. Fear Prevention Model An individual faced with fear may need some aid in getting over that fear. Ex. An individual who is afraid of hitting a ball over a water hazard may need to develop a way to get over their fear. Possible steps toward getting over this fear would be practicing hitting over a target that represents the water hazard. Then steps are progressively taken, moving toward the final goal. 13. Avoidance Principle To teach a person to avoid a situation pair the negative situations with adverse consequences/effects in order to discourage that behavior. Ex. To avoid getting into fist fights with the other team, avoid getting into a situation where that could occur. 32. What are the 3 schedules of reinforcement? When should they be used? The 3 schedules of reinforcement are: 1. Continuous A reinforcement is given after every successful completion of desired task. Ex. Say good job after every successfully completed chinup. 2. Ratio A reinforcement is given after a set NUMBER of reps/completions of a particular task. This schedule is further divided into: A. Fixed Ratio After a specific number of reps/completions a reinforcement is given. Ex. After every correct 3rd bench press a reinforcement is given. B. Variable Ratio A reinforcement is given after a certain number of reps/completions are complete but the amount varies. Is based off of NUMBER. Ex. After ever 4th, 7th and 12th squat a reinforcement is given. 3. Interval This type of reinforcement, rather than based of a NUMBER, is based of of a TIME. This category is also further separated into 2 parts. A. Fixed Interval A reinforcement is given after a set amount of time. Ex. Every 5 minutes of treadmill work a reinforcement is given. B. Ratio Interval A reinforcement is given on an unpredictable schedule. Ex. Reinforcement is given after ever 3, 5 and 17 minutes of aerobic activity. Continuous reinforcement should be used when a person is first introduced to a new activity/skill. This does not mean that they are a “beginner” but simply new to the activity. Ratio and Interval reinforcement should be used once a client becomes more successful with the new skill. 33. What are the possible issues of using continuous reinforcement for too long? Prolonged continuous reinforcement can result in 2 different outcomes: 1. Extinction When a client is no longer given reinforcement they will no longer perform the task. 2. Satiation The reinforcement given by the instructor is no longer meaningful and holds no weight. 34. What effects does prolonged fixedratio reinforcement have? If someone is reinforced via ratio reinforcement for a long time the Staircase Effect may present itself. The staircase effect describes an increase in performance after a reinforcement is given. The client is able to predict when the reinforcement is coming. 35. What are the effects of fixedinterval schedule of reinforcement? Similar to the staircase effect, the Scaling Effect is what can result under a prolonged fixedinterval schedule of reinforcement. A client is able to detect when reinforcement is coming and will thus perform better once reinforced and then slowly level off. This effect is not as pronounced as the staircase effect. 36. What order should we reinforce behavior after moving from continuous reinforcement? Why? We should always start with continuous reinforcement when a client is trying something new for the first time. After that this is the order that reinforcement should be used: 1. Variable Ratio 2. Variable Interval 3. Fixed Ratio 4. Fixed Interval This order of reinforcement will produce the most enduring behavior, that is, the likely to be continued behavior. 37. What is Cognitive Theory? How do these theorists define learning? Cognitive theory is the idea that taking a whole is better than individual parts. This theory way created as a REVOLT to the SR theory and places emphasis on the learner and their control in the learning process. As a result, these theorist believe learning is: 1. Understanding does this make sense to me? Do you hear me? Want the learner to KNOW the material and WHY. 2. Insight Bringing ones own knowledge and experience will aid in clarification. 3. Perception An individuals interpretation on a situation will ultimately determine their reaction to that situation. 38. What is the Gestalt Model? This model emphasizes the individuals perception of reality. The model is as follows: 1. Physical Reality 2. Perception of Reality 3. Physical Response It is important to know that the perception of the physical reality as constructed by the individual may be the same as or be completely different from the actual physical reality. 39. What does an “Aha!” moment mean? When someone has an “Aha” moment it is said that they have reached a Gestalt. This relates to the individuals perception of the physical reality and an immediate understanding of that reality. The individual finally “gets it.” 40. What is the cybernetic model? The cybernetic model is a model of learning that emphasizes 41. Explain the difference between a “thermostat” client and a “thermometer” client. A thermostat client is able to regulate their emotions by noting where their emotions are at and being able to bring them back down if they are too high and being able to kick it up if they are too low. A thermostat client is able to own their actions and take responsibility for themselves and make the right decisions to get back to homeostasis. A thermometer client is someone who is simply a reader of the situation and are unable to regulate their emotions. This is a person who simply takes the situation as it is and believes it is out of their hands. These people are unable to bring themselves back to homeostasis. 42. What is the information processing model? The information processing model is a process that highlights a persons ability to take an incoming stimulus, interpreted and then acted upon in the form of an outcome. This can be showcased in 3 steps: 1. Stimulus Identification Receiving information from sense organs. What will I react to? 2. Response Selection Determining how to respond to the stimulus given. 3. Response Programming After decision on HOW to respond to the stimulus is make, body is readied for position and action. 43. What are the 6 steps (processing stages) to the information processing model? There are 6 steps to correctly executing the information processing model: 1. Anticipate 2. Identify 3. Categorize 4. Review 5. Store 6. Retrieve Information Knowing each one of these steps can help identify where clients may be having issues and what can be done to overcome those issues. 44. Identify the differences between novices and experts in the 7 most common categories. Sense Organs Experts are able to scan their surrounding quickly and effectively, this allows them to have more time to respond to the stimulus around them. Experts can anticipate upcoming events and have a wider peripheral vision field. Perception Experts are able to cognitively process more than 2 things at once. They are able to “chunk” information together to cut down time. Filter & Attention Experts are able to filter out unimportant information and focus on the task at hand. Subskills are unattended to and they just execute the action. Short Term Memory Experts are able to rehearse more quickly due to the chunking technique with information. They are also able to attach new information to previously learned info. Able to retrieve info from long term mem. quicker. Long Term Memory Experts are more experienced and able to store mastered information. They are able to make more accurate judgements and decisions. Able to anticipate actions better than novices. Motor Programs Experts are able to carry on skills with very little conscious attention whereas novices may require more time and attention. Internal & External Feedback Experts are able to use BOTH external and internal feedback of action performed. They are able to consistently replicate movements and integrate more detail into movements. 45. Differentiate between knowledge of performance (KP) and knowledge of result (KR). Knowledge of Performance this is the critique of the athletes action itself. This means that even though that the result may not have been desires, the way the skill was executed could have been correct. Ex. An athlete rips a drive 220 into a hazard, but it turns out they are just aimed over there. It was a great shot but the result wasn’t desired. Knowledge of Result this relates to simply the result that a particular action has created. This means even though a skill may not have been executed to the best of ones ability, the result is still good. Ex. Instead of taking a divot and creating a high ball flight, an athlete sculls the ball onto the green a foot from the pin. Although the execution wasn’t technically sounds, the result was still good. 46. Define Adam’s Closed Loop theory/model. Adam’s closed loop model/theory aims to take any particular action that one may learned and how it may be learned/taught to a beginner. The process has 3 essential steps. 1. Reference Movement this is a movement that the client can refer to as the one that is to serve as a model for the client to imitate. 2. Motor Response A motor response is given by the client in response to the reference movement. 3. Feedback Based on the motor response in relation to the reference movement errors are detected at first. Corrections are then made to make the motor response more like the reference movement. Reference movement —— motor response —— Feedback 47. Define Cratty’s 3 level theory/model. This is an individualized, personal approach to generating a correct response. Typically seen in these 3 steps: 1. General Supports of Behavior This relates to personal motivation, level of aspirations and what makes you YOU! 2. Perceptive Motor Ability Traits This relates to the individual’s motor skills, physical attributes and traits such as speed and flexibility. 3. Task Specifics Takes into consideration past experiences, social interactions and practice conditions. Also relates to what kind of a learner an athlete may be: audio ,visual, tactile, etc. Essentially this means that whenever you teach someone a new skill it will never be the same. Everyone is different due to these 3 different variables between clients.
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