Exam II study guide
Exam II study guide BIOL 1105
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This 2 page Study Guide was uploaded by Meghan Babington on Monday October 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 1105 at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University taught by Dr. Glen Stevens in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology in Biology at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
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Date Created: 10/10/16
BIOLOGY EXAM II STUDY GUIDE LESSON 7 REVIEW Differentiate between kinetic and potential energy. oxidation and reduction reactions. Explain the first and second laws of thermodynamics. Relate free energy changes to the outcome of chemical reactions. Contrast the course of a reaction with and without an enzyme catalyst. Describe the role of ATP in short-term energy storage. Discuss the role of enzymes as biological catalysts. List the factors that influence the rate of enzyme-catalyzed reactions. Compare anabolic and catabolic reactions in metabolism. Describe the structure and regulation of a biochemical pathway. LESSON 8 REVIEW Describe the role of oxidation–dehydrogenation reactions in biological systems. Explain the role of electron carriers in energy metabolism. Distinguish aerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration, and fermentation. Contrast substrate-level phosphorylation and oxidative phosphorylation. Summarize the steps of glycolysis. Diagram how pyruvate oxidation connects glycolysis to the Krebs cycle. Relate the major reactions of the Krebs cycle to the flow of carbon and electrons in the cycle. Calculate the energy yield from glycolysis and from the Krebs cycle. LESSON 9 REVIEW Describe the structure and function of the electron transport chain. Diagram how the proton gradient connects electron transport to ATP synthesis. Calculate the number of ATP molecules produced by aerobic respiration. Describe how feedback regulation controls cellular respiration. Explain how oxidation reactions may occur in the absence of molecular oxygen. Describe how proteins and fats are catabolized to produce energy. Explain one possible hypothesis for the evolution of metabolism. LESSON 10 REVIEW Differentiate between the light-dependent and light-independent reactions. Explain the role of pigments in photosynthesis. Contrast the function of reaction center and antenna chlorophyll molecules. Compare the function of the two photosystems in green plants. Explain how the light reactions generate ATP and NADPH. Describe how the Calvin cycle carries out carbon fixation. Explain the mechanism of photorespiration. Compare carbon fixation in the C3, C4, and CAM pathways. LESSON 11 REVIEW Explain the importance of the Hershey-Chase experiment. Describe the significance of complementarity for DNA structure and function. Summarize the key features of the Watson-Crick model of DNA Explain the importance of the Meselson-Stahl experiment. Illustrate the products of semiconservative replication. List the components required for DNA replication. Describe the role of DNA polymerase in the process of DNA replication. LESSON 12 REVIEW Summarize the key features of prokaryotic replication. Explain why replication is continuous on one strand and discontinuous on the other strand. List the proteins that function at the replication fork. Identify the function of each replication fork protein. Compare eukaryotic replication to prokaryotic replication. Describe the function of the telomere regions of eukaryotic chromosomes. Explain the importance of telomerase for eukaryotic DNA replication. Explain why DNA repair is critical for cells. Summarize the different mechanisms of DNA repair.
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