Introduction To Sociology Midterm Study Guide
Introduction To Sociology Midterm Study Guide SOC 1838G - 004
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alyssa Andrea on Monday October 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SOC 1838G - 004 at Eastern Illinois University taught by Shane D. Soboroff in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 87 views. For similar materials see Introductory Sociology in Sociology at Eastern Illinois University.
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Date Created: 10/10/16
Introduction to Sociology Midterm Review: Lecture Topics to Cover 1. Definition of sociology and examples of areas sociologists study. Sociology is the scientific study of human social relationships. Areas of study include; crime, work and organizations, family, poverty, social stratification, and social psychology. 2. What is science? What are the ideals of science? What is the purpose of science? Science is a logical system that bases knowledge on direct systematic observation. The ideal of science is to lead to explanations through rigorous research that others can recreate. The purpose of science for sociology is to build theories to explain social phenomena and test those theories with systematic observation. 3. Why do sociologists study society scientifically? Sociologists study society scientifically to reduce their bias about the world we all live in. It helps them get around the fundamental attribution error, the false belief that a person’s behavior is due to their character when it is actually a result of the situation they find themselves in. 4. What is the sociological imagination? The idea, according to C. Wright Mills, that we can see our own lives in the context of larger social forces. 5. Why does sociology make us uncomfortable? Sociology makes us uncomfortable because it shows how our choices are shaped by other people. It often points out that what makes us unique is determined by our shared culture and group affiliation. It also shows us that we have much less to say about how our lives turn out than most of us would like to admit. 6. Who wrote the first arguably scientific sociology theory about suicide rates within groups? Emile Durkheim 7. What are the causes of suicide rates, according to that theory? What are the different kinds of suicide? The two causes of suicide rates are due to regulatory problems or due to integration problems. Regulatory Anomic suicide: not enough normative regulation. Anomie means normlessness. It occurs when people aren’t sure what they should or shouldn’t do. Moral confusion often occurs with upheaval in society. Fatalistic suicide: too much normative regulation. No freedom to act, prefer death to life. Impossible to break through the control of others such as in prison or asylum. Integration Egoistic suicide: feeling shunned, detachment from other people, or removed from opportunities to form social bonds. Altruistic suicide: excessive integration, needs of the collective put above the individual. Death serves the purpose of the greater good. Ex: Military. 8. Which groups were likely to commit suicide more often? Middle class protestant males, and those who are subjected to too much or too little normative regulation. 9. What are norms? Norms are cultural expectations for behavior. They represent the beliefs of a group about what behaviors are acceptable. 10.What is social structure? Recurring patterns of relationships between people in society. 11. Definition of social marginality To be on the fringe of society, very little power. 12.Why is social marginality possibly good for being a sociologist? People who are marginalized have an easier time seeing how systems are working against them. 13.Why do hard times give people a better social perspective? Times of turmoil lead people to question whether they have a lot of power in their lives. 14.What do social psychologists study? What is the fundamental attribution error? Social psychologists study the effects of individuals on groups, and the effects of groups on individuals. The fundamental attribution error is the false belief that a person’s behavior is due to their character when it is actually a result of the situation they are in. 15.Who coined the term sociology and founded the philosophy of positivism? What is positivism? Auguste Comte. Positivism is a way to make sociology more scientific. In positivism, you use your senses to observe the world around you. You use observation to think up general rules for how the world works. You test those rules to see if they are right. You use those rules to predict the future and control events, and you gather empirical data. 16.The work of Harriet Martineau Translated Comte’s positivism into English and made it easier to understand. a. Society in America Stories on political economics to make it more understandable to the public. b. Morals and Manners i. Moralsa societies collective ideas of what people need to do (prescriptive) and what people ought to do (proscriptive). ii. Example: Prescriptive you need to eat. Proscriptive you ought to eat healthy. iii. MannersActual patterns of activity and relationships in society. iv. Argues that a society should be evaluated against its own standards. c. Impartiality and Sympathy i. Impartialno specific culture or nation used as a standard to judge another. 17.Karl Marx a. Das Kapital i. Defining capitalist forms of production 1. Large scale, many workers, single commodity. ii. Capitalist mode of production is basically an expansion of earlier craftguild activities. iii. Humans are different than animals because we create things that have never existed before (species being). Species being is denied by private property. b. Communist Manifesto i. Written for The First International, a union that he founded and dedicated to the worker control of capital. c. Materialism and Hegel’s Dialectic i. Materialism (Marx believed in this) What we perceive as reality is a representation of real, physical objects; therefore, we compete over resources. There are 2 states for objects, owned or yet to be owned. Reality creates perception. ii. Hegel was an idealist and he believed perception creates reality. He also thought that objects are only real in the abstract, through our perception of them. iii. Dialectic Thesis Antithesis Synthesis 1. Thesis=being 2. Antithesis=non being 3. Synthesis=becoming d. Bourgeoisie vs. Proletariat The bourgeoisie are the rich factory owners, businessmen, etc. The proletariat is the working class. They are in an eternal struggle over who has control of resources. e. Social Class Social class is determined by multiple factors such as if you are rich or poor, what job you have, and what level of education you have. f. True Communism vs. Applied Communism i. True Communism From each according to their abilities, to each according to their needs. Everyone gets what they need regardless of what work, if any, they do. ii. Applied CommunismFrom each according to their abilities, to each according to their work. People receive resources based on the work they do. 18.Emile Durkheim a. Suicide Emile’s friend in college committed suicide and this did not make sense to him because his friend was a male from an upper class well educated family. Due to this he studied suicide extensively. b. Normative Regulation There are sanctions for violating and following norms. How much these sanctions are used is referred to as normative regulation. c. Social Integration More connections to others=more enforcement of norms and less opportunity for norm violations. Less connection to others=less enforcement of norms and more opportunities to violate norms. d. Anomie Normlessness 19.George Herbert Mead a. Self: The I and the Me The “me” is the socialized aspect of the person. The “I” is the active aspect of the person. b. Importance of Language i. Language is important because it is the set of symbols we use to negotiate our reality. c. Premises of Symbolic Interactionism—Herbert Blumer i. Humans act toward things on the bias of meanings they ascribe to those things. ii. Meanings ascribed to things arise out of social interactions. iii. Meanings are dealt through interpretation, each person handles social interaction differently, and through interaction people can negotiate the meanings of things. 20.W.E.B. Du Bois a. Critical theory An attempt to address parts of society that science may overlook or assume unimportant. b. Double Consciousness Marginalized people are aware of their own beliefs and the beliefs of others. c. The Philadelphia Negro, particularly methods and innovations i. First major sociological work in the US. Used census and interview data on African Americans in Philadelphia. History of African Americans in Philadelphia from 1600’s on, and a complete statistical profile of current population in 1896. This use of statistics, graphics, and visual aids created standards still in use today 21.Max Weber a. Verstehen i. Understanding of what it is like to be another person and hold their values. b. Objectivity and Bias i. Max Weber said that all sociologists should practice value neutrality, striving to be impartial and overcome their biases as they conduct their research. c. Bureaucracy i. Argues that bureaucracy becomes an iron cage that stifles human freedom and creativity. d. Motives for Human action: goalrational, valuerational, affective, traditional i. People have 4 basic motives that differ by culture. To understand motives, you must have a verstehen. ii. Goal Oriented Rational Action 1. Goals and means are rationally chosen. Ex: Community needs a well, so rational steps are taken to build it. iii. Value Oriented Rational Action 1. Means are rationally chosen, but the goals are not. 2. Goals are based on values. Ex: Goal of personal salvation (going to heaven) leads some people to use religious rules to guide behavior. iv. Affective Action 1. Based on the emotional state of the person. No rational goal or means for achieving it. Ex: riots v. Traditional Action 1. Can be thought of as habits instilled by a culture. No rational reason why we do things a certain way, but that is how it always has been done. Ex: shaking hands 22. What is a theoretical perspective? What are the main perspectives used by sociologists? Be able to name them and explain them. Theoretical perspectives are fundamental assumptions about society that guide sociological thinking and research. Structural Functionalismassumes society is a complex system whose parts work together to promote stability. The LeviathanDifferent parts of society have different functions. The most important part is the head, or the leader. Social Conflict society as a collection of groups with competing interests fighting for power. Symbolic InteractionismAssumes society is continuously recreated as humans construct reality through interaction. Interaction is reciprocal communication between people. Reality depends on people agreeing on what symbols mean. Critical Perspective An attempt to address parts of society that science may overlook or assume unimportant. 23. Definition of Science Science is a logical system that bases knowledge on direct systematic observation. 24. Limits of scientific sociology Society is complex. Humans respond to their surroundings. Social patterns change constantly. Sociologists are part of the world they study. 25. Various methods used by sociologists Ethnographywriting about culture. Participant observation of human behavior. Ex: Gang leader for a day Life History Compare the life stories of individuals and look for patterns among similar people. ExperimentsShow how individual thinking and behavior can be caused by social factors. People are assigned randomly to groups and the independent variable is changed. Surveys Cross sectional survey: 1 single sample at 1 point in time. Do not work for expanded time periods. Longitudinal Surveys: Survey taken multiple times by same people over an expanded period. Considers history. 26. Definition of a group and organization, as well as the advantages of forming groups. A group is a number of people who identify with and interact with each other. An organization is multiple people who have a collective goal. 27. Weber and subjective experience a. Society is almost impossible to study objectively 28. Rationalization and McDonaldization a. McDonaldization i. George Ritzer applies the idea of rationalization to the fast food industry. ii. Rationalization efficient, personal preferences are minimized (also known as Weberian Rationality). Diagnostic Quiz Questions and Answers 1. This theoretical perspective approaches society as a collection of groups with competing interests fighting for power. Social Conflict 2. Deductive reasoning in science can be summarized as: Breaking down broad theories into specific and testable hypotheses 3. Which of the following sociological theorists proposed that sociologists should try their best to conduct valuefree research? Max Weber 4. The theoretical paradigm that assumes human beings construct reality through everyday interactions is known as: Symbolic Interactionism 5. Which of the following sociologists argued that African Americans have “double consciousness,” an awareness of how other people view them because of their race? W.E.B Du Bois 6. Which of the following accurately summarizes the figure in chapter 1 about unemployment rates among young college graduates from 19892014? Unemployment spiked during the last recession and then decreased. 7. The Robbers Cave study examined how _________ Boys at a summer camp react to competition and crisis 8. Zimbardo’s Stanford Prison experiment showed that ___________. Normal Stanford students will abuse prisoners when assigned the role of prison guard 9. Social Psychology experiments are most influential when they show that individual behavior ________. Assumed to be caused by personality traits are actually results of situational pressure. 10. What best summarizes the two figures in Chapter 2 about imprisonment rates and neighborhood racial composition in Philadelphia? Any neighborhood where the nonwhite population makes up more than 25% of residents has a higher imprisonment rate than neighborhoods with fewer minorities. 11. Cecilia Ridgeway’s experiment showed that women can overcome resistance to their leadership at work when they display an interest in team success and ______. Show competence 12. A sociologist who approaches the portrayal of women in the media as a way society maintains the advantages of men over women is likely using a ____. Feminist Perspective 13. A sociologist is studying how U.S. culture and language affect how students from rich families interact with students from poor families. What perspective is that sociologist likely using? Symbolic Interactionism Perspective 14. When measures used in research accurately represent the concepts within a theory, those measures are considered _______. Valid 15. What is the term for a part of the population that represents the whole? Sample 16. Which of the following is given as a possible explanation for students studying fewer hours in 2011 compared to 1961? a. Technology has reduced the necessity of long hours spent studying. b. Technology has become a distraction from studying. c. Standards for achievement have fallen over time. d. All of the above. 17. If a sociologist recreated an experiment to see if they arrived at the same conclusion, this is an example of ______. Replication 18. According to Chapter 2, what percentage of homeless adults work for pay? 44% 19. Sociology has been characterized as _______. e. Seeing the general in the particular f. Seeing the strange in the familiar g. A rant that never ends h. Both A and B 20. This author of Society in America translated Comte’s Positive Philosophy into English and supported the abolition movement in the U.S. Harriet Martineau 21. Which of the following is NOT a limitation of scientific sociology? i. Human behavior is too complex for sociologists to predict any specific person’s behavior precisely. j. Sociologists cannot be 100% value free in research. k. Social patterns may change from one historical period to the next, or from one culture to the next. l. It is not possible to replicate social research. 22. A spurious correlation exists when a researcher finds a relationship between two variables that is actually explained by a third variable. True Jeopardy Questions and Answers 1. The idea, according to C. Wright Mills that we can see our own lives in the context of larger social forces is known as the Sociological Imagination 2. This stage of development, according to Mead, involves children learning about many roles involved in a single situation. Game Stage 3. This is a group made up of 2 members. Dyad 4. This is the social institution that organizes the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services. Economy 5. A socially constructed category of people who share biological traits that members of a society deem socially important is called Race 6. August Comte founded the philosophy of _____, a way of understanding the world based on science. Positivism 7. The abstract sense of society’s norms and values that people use to evaluate themselves. Generalized Other 8. Some of the earliest studies on conformity were performed by this researcher. Solomon Asch 9. When a person changes position—up or down—in a social hierarchy, this is known as____ _____. Social Mobility 10. This is one’s category based on a shared cultural heritage. Ethnicity 11. This perspective of society approaches it as a complex system in which the parts work together to maintain the whole. Structural Functionalism 12. These are groups that are most influential in shaping our attitudes, feelings, and behavior. They include family, school, peer groups, and mass media. Agents of Socialization 13. These formal organizations consist of formal rules, hierarchy, and paid officials. Bureaucracy 14. This is a person’s economic position in society, associated with income, wealth, and occupation. Social Class 15. Simplified descriptions applied to every member of a social category and often bases for discrimination are known as______. Stereotypes 16. When researchers investigate how the interests of different groups drive competition and social change, they are likely using this perspective. Social Conflict 17. This is socialization regarding the norms, values, and roles of society that takes place in classrooms. Hidden Curriculum 18. The tendency for a bureaucracy to be ruled undemocratically by a small group of powerful individuals is known as Weber’s ____ ___ __ _________. Iron Law of Oligarchy 19. _____ ____ turns emotions into an economic commodity, according to Arlie Hochschild. Emotional Labor 20. This is the unequal treatment of various categories of people based on prejudiced attitudes. Discrimination 21. In a cause and effect relationship, this is the variable that changes due to change in another variable. Dependent Variable 22. Organizations that resocialize people using strict discipline and isolation from the rest of society are referred to by Goffman as this. Total Institutions 23. People join this type of organization because of some material benefit they expect to receive as members. Utilitarian Organization 24. This theory, based in structural functionalism, argues that stratification is necessary to promote talented people into important jobs. Davison Moore Thesis 25. What island did Native Americans seize in 1969 to demand the U.S. government respect its treaties with Native tribes? Alcatraz
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