Abnormal Psychology, Exam 1 Study Guide
Abnormal Psychology, Exam 1 Study Guide Psych 2500
Popular in Abnormal Psychology
Ingrid von Kleydorff
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Psychology
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
RELG 100 - 03
verified elite notetaker
This 20 page Study Guide was uploaded by ivonkleydorff on Monday October 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 2500 at University of Denver taught by Edward Garrido in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 165 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychology at University of Denver.
Reviews for Abnormal Psychology, Exam 1 Study Guide
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 10/10/16
von Kleydorff 1 Ingrid von Kleydorf 10/10/16 Study Guide Abnormal Psych Exam #1 (Chapters 1-7) 50 multiple choice questions 1. Be sure you are familiar with the 4 key objectives of the field of abnormal psychology Abnormal psychology: Scientific study whose objectives are to describe, explain, predict, and modify behaviors associated with mental disorders. Describe: Mental health professional would ask you questions and observe your behavior and reactions to formulate a psychodiagnosis: an attempt to describe, assess, and understand your particular situation and the possibility of a mental disorder; The therapist would then help you design a treatment plan Explain: Identifying the etiology: possible causes, for abnormal behavior; previous experiences and choices that may have lead to certain behavior; no single explanation adequately accounts for complex human behavior Predict: Realizing certain behaviors and how they might be connected to a mental disorder; civil commitment/duty to warn: professionals must warn people if they seem to be a threat to themselves or others; seeking out professional help to guide you through treatment and recognize disorders Modify: Distressing symptoms can often be modified through psychotherapy: which is a program of systematic intervention with the purpose of improving a client’s behavioral, or cognitive symptoms; intended to improve a person’s behavioral, emotional, or cognitive state; many therapies and professionals available 2. Be sure you are familiar with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Disorders – its purpose, how it’s evolved over the years, how it defines mental health disorders, etc. The most widely used classification system of mental disorders is the DSM-5 with classes of orders and present symptoms for diagnosis of mental disorders. A mental disorder is characterized by: Disturbance in thinking, emotion, or behavior von Kleydorff 2 Distress or difficulty with daily functioning Behavior is not being culturally expected, not explained by religious or political beliefs There is lots of gray area so the manual is focused in on extreme cases. Important to maintain a respect and understanding of cultural origins. 3. Be sure you are familiar with the historical development of the field of abnormal psychology – major players, different views of psychopathology during different historical times, etc. Stone Age: Trephining: a surgical method in which part of the skull was chipped away to provide an opening through which an evil sprit would escape; Exorcism: A practice used to cast evil spirits out of an afflicted person’s body Greco-Roman Thought: Hippocrates proposed more rational and scientific explanations for mental disorders Galen: explained the brain and central nervous system The Middle Ages: Renewed emphasis on the supernatural and cited religious truths as sacred; Hysteria: outdated term referring to excessive or uncontrollable emotion, sometimes resulting in somatic symptoms that have no apparent physical cause; Tarantism: a form of mass hysteria prevalent during the Middle Ages, characterized by wild raving, jumping, dancing, and convulsing th th Witchcraft in the 15 -17 Centuries: Malleus Maleficarum confirmed the existence of witches and signs for detecting them; witch hunts killed thousands of innocent men, women and children (100,000) Humanism: A philosophical movement that emphasizes human welfare and the worth and uniqueness of the individual Moral Treatment Movement in the 18 and 19 Centuries: Philippe Pinel: Moral Treatment movement: a crusade to institute more human treatment of people with mental illness, von Kleydorff 3 seemed to foster recovery and improve behavior; got rid of chains, dungeons etc. in mental hospitals Benjamin Rush: patients treated with respect and dignity, employed during their treatment Dorothea Dix: Campaigned for better treatment of mentally ill Clifford Beers: wrote a book on his experience with mental illness During a time when immigrants were coming into major cities and experiencing a dramatic culture shock Biological Viewpoint: Belief that mental disorders have a physical or physiological basis Emil Kraepelin: Syndromes: certain syndromes that tend to occur regularly in clusters; laid out a system for classifying mental illnesses based on their physiological causes Louis Pasteur’s germ theory of disease general paresis was deemed a degenerative physical and mental disorder von Krafft-Ebing: Proved mental symptoms of general paresis are linked to syphilis bacteria Physiological Viewpoint: Belief that mental disorders are caused by psychological and emotional factors Friedrich Mesmer: mesmerism as a system for curing hypnotism; power of suggestion could treat hysteria Breur discovered symptoms disappeared after a female patient spoke about her past trauma while in a trance Psychoanalysis as initiated by Freud Intrapsychic: Psychological process occurring within the mind * How the field has evolved, where did it start 4. The multipath model considers 4 different perspectives (biological, psychological, social, and sociocultural) for the development of mental health disorders. You should be very familiar with each of these perspectives, as well as the multipath model more generally. Remember that each of these perspectives has various subcomponents. For example, the psychological component considers the psychodynamic, behavioral, cognitive-behavioral, and humanistic perspectives. von Kleydorff 4 Multipath Model: Organizational framework for understanding the numerous influences on the development of mental disorders, complexity of their interacting components, and the need to view disorders from a holistic framework Operates under several assumptions o No one perspective is adequate o Multiple pathways to the development of a single disorder o Not all dimensions contribute equally to a disorder o Multipath model is integrative and interactive o Biological & physical strengths and positive aspects lead to recovery The model views these 4 dimensions as having permeable boundaries with considerable overlap; factors within the dimensions can interact and influence each other Biological Dimension: Certain assumptions among biological explanations: Characteristics that make us who we are Thoughts, emotions, behaviors that involve physiological activity can change brain structure Many mental disorders are associated with inherited vulnerability and/or a brain abnormality Medications & interventions can influence brain processes Genetics & heredity play important roles Cerebral cortex: o Prefrontal cortex: Helps manage attention, behavior, and emotions executive functioning o Limbic system: role in emotions, decision-making & memories If there are issues with neurotransmitters, the signal will be impaired Neuroplasticity: Ability of the brain to evolved & adapt Psychological Dimension: Psychodynamic model: model that views disorders as the result of childhood trauma or anxieties & claims many of these childhood-based anxieties operate unconsciously (Freud) Psychodynamic perspective o Personality components include id, ego, and superego von Kleydorff 5 o Defense mechanisms: ego-protection strategy that protects the individual from anxiety, operates unconsciously, and distorts reality o Psychoanalysis: Therapy with the goal of uncovering repressed material for insight on inner motivations and desires Behavioral perspective o Behavioral models: Models of psychopathology concerned with the role of learning in abnormal behavior Operant conditioning: Behavior is controlled by the outcome Observational learning theory: An individual can acquire new behaviors by watching other people perform them o Exposure therapy: Exposure to feared objects/situations o Systematic desensitization: Exposure to feared stimuli while client is in a competing state of relaxation CBT perspective o Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT): Helps clients realize patterns of illogical thinking and replace them with more realistic thoughts o Mindfulness: Conscious attention to the present o Beck & Ellis A-B-C theory of emotional disturbance Humanistic perspective o Humans need unconditional positive regard (highest potential) o Person-centered therapy focuses on facilitating conditions to allow clients to grow & fulfill their potential o Self-actualization: Tendency to strive for full potential o Respect, understanding, acceptance, positive regard Social Dimension: Social-relational explanations & assumptions: Healthy relationships = optimal functioning Social relationships = intangible health benefits Dysfunctional/absent relationships = mental stress vulnerability Family Systems Model: Assumes family is an interdependent system & mental disorders reflect processes occurring within the system Socio-Cultural Dimension: Cultural experiences play a special role in mental health Gender: Sociocultural standards for girls von Kleydorff 6 Socioeconomic class: Lower class is perceived as having less control Acculturative stress: Psychological, physical, and social pressures experienced by individuals adapting to a new culture Multicultural model: Contemporary view that emphasizes the importance of considering a person’s cultural background and related experiences when determining normality and abnormality 5. You should be familiar with all of the different research methods that scientists use to investigate various mental health disorders. What is the purpose of each of these methods? What are the various components of each? Strengths and weaknesses? Kinds of studies, methods, components and how to define Scientific method: Systematic data collection, controlled observation, and testing hypotheses Theory: Group of principles & hypotheses that together explain some aspect of a particular area of inquiry Hypothesis: Tentative explanation for certain facts/observations Replication: Repeating results under similar test conditions Independent replication: Different researchers find the same results as the primary experiment Types of Studies: Case studies: Intensive study of one individual o PROS: can determine characteristics, course, and outcome of a rare disorder o CONS: Generalizability & cause determination are a concern-just individual; hard to establish a cause and effect relationship Correlational studies: Statistical analysis to determine correlation between variables o Positive/negative/no correlation o PROS: easy; allows you to look at relationships of variables you may not be able to manipulate o CONS: Cause determination- can’t say if one variable caused another to occur Experiments: Best tool for testing cause and effect relationships o Requires hypothesis, independent variable, dependent variable o Experimental group, control group, placebo group Analogue studies: Attempts to simulate real-life situation under controlled conditions von Kleydorff 7 o Used when not possible to control all variables in real-life situation or I ethical concerns Field Studies: Behaviors and events are observed and recorded in their natural environment Twin Studies: How consistent among pairs are disorders- is it genes or environment? o Compare rates of disorders between pairs- if there are significant comparisons of disorder rates, it is more likely environmental; vice versa suggests a genetic basis Epigenetic research: study of environmental factors that influence whether or not a gene is expressed o You inherit a vulnerability to a disorder and an environmental factor can draw the stress of that disorder out o Ex: Rachel Yehuda studied pregnant women during 9/11 and the development of PTSD and how levels of cortisol were transported to their babies 6. You should also be familiar with the different approaches researchers use for obtaining information from clients for the purpose of describing and explaining behavior. Assessment Techniques Psychological assessment: Gathering info and drawing conclusions Four main methods: o Interviews: Observe client, collet data about life history, current situation and personality Observations: Controlled observations in a lab or clinic; naturalistic observations in a natural setting o Mental status examination: To evaluate client’s cognitive, psychological, and behavioral functioning; uses questions, observations and tasks as the clinician considers the appropriateness and quality of the client’s responses o Psychological tests & inventories: Measure characteristics such as personality, social skills, etc o Projective personality tests: Test taker presented with ambiguous stimuli and asked to respond in some way Reliability/Validity Reliability: Degree to which a test or procedure yields the same results repeatedly under the same circumstances von Kleydorff 8 Test-retest reliability: Same results when given at 2 points in time; consistency across time, to determine effectiveness of medicine Internal consistency: various parts of measure yield similar or consistent results Interrater reliability: Used when coders are present, rating their observations; consistency of responses when scored by different test administrators Validity: Extent to which a procedure actually performs its designed function Predictive validity: How well a test predicts a person’s behaviors or response Construct validity: Scores should be related to some other treatment; how well a test or measure relates to the characteristic or disorder in question Content validity: Assesses all areas known to be associated with a particular disorder 7. Be familiar with all aspects of anxiety disorders – defining characteristics, diagnostic criteria, etiologic origins (from all 4 perspectives of the multipath model), and treatment options (again, from all 4 perspectives). Defining characteristics: kind of symptoms required for diagnosis, etiological etc. origins Anxiety: Produces tension, worry, and physiological reactivity Unfounded fear; clinically significant distress; symptoms interfere with an individual’s day-to-day functioning Biological Dimension: Rule out medical or physical causes of anxiety symptoms such as hyperthyroidism; cardiac arrhythmias; stimulants, asthma medications Fear circuitry in the brain: o Amygdala triggers state of fear or anxiety o HPA triggers fight or flight response o Sensory signals hippocampus & prefrontal cortex o Anxiety causes stress hormones to activate when they shouldn’t Serotonin helps this process 5-HTTLPR gene may cause behavioral inhibition von Kleydorff 9 Psychological Dimension Psychological characteristics can interact with biological predispositions Negative appraisal: Ambiguous events interpreted as threatening Anxiety sensitivity: Tendency to interpret physiological changes as signs of danger anxiety Social & Sociocultural Dimensions Environmental/daily chronic stress anxiety Sociocultural factors: o Poverty; traumatic events; adverse working conditions; limited social support; acculturation Types of anxiety disorders Social anxiety disorder: fear of being watched/judged; self- conscious in social situations; avoid social situations/endured Specific phobia: fear of specific objects or situations; exposure to objects/situations – intense fear or panic attacks; endured/avoided Agoraphobia: Anxiety or panic in situations where escape is difficult; situations nearly always produce panic or are avoided Panic disorder: recurrent/unexpected attacks of fear/terror; worry about future panic attacks; with/without agoraphobia Generalized anxiety disorder: anxiety and worry over life circumstances; difficult to control; edginess, restlessness etc. Dimensions of Phobias Biological dimension: o Moderate genetic contribution Psychological dimension: o Classical conditioning: Little Albert & rat o Observational learning or modeling Social dimension: o Parental behaviors influence development of social anxiety in children Overprotection, lack of support for independence; punitive parenting style o Negative family interactions Sociocultural dimension: o More likely in females von Kleydorff 10 o Social anxiety disorder more likely in a social culture Expression differs among cultures Treatment of Phobia Medication o Benzodiazepines, SSRIs, Beta-blockers, D-cycloserine Cognitive-behavioral therapies o Exposure therapy; systematic desensitization; cognitive restructuring, modeling therapy Dimensions of Panic Disorders Biological dimension: o 32% hereditability o Fewer serotonin receptors Psychological dimension: o Individuals show heightened fear responses to bodily sensations o Cycle of cognitions in panic attacks Stressor unpleasant bodily sensationsCatastrophizing thoughts increased bodily sensationscatastrophizing thoughts Sociocultural dimension: o Stressful childhood o Asian American and Latino/Hispanic report higher anxiety but less panic attacks Treatments of Panic Disorders Medication o Benzodiazepines; antidepressants; beta-blockers o BUT psychological dimensions must also be addressed CBT o Self-efficacy promotion o Educating, identifying, teaching, encouraging Dimensions of Generalized Anxiety Disorder Biological dimension: o Small but significant heritability factor o May disrupt prefrontal cortex modulation of response to threatening situations Psychological dimension: o Negative schemas play a key role von Kleydorff 11 Ambiguous or positive situations may be viewed with apprehension o Aspects of worrying Cope with stressful events or situations Constantly generate solutions to “what if” scenarios Worry about worry Social/Sociocultural Dimension: o Mothers with anxiety may be less engaged with infants o Poverty, poor housing, prejudice, discrimination o Peer relationship conflicts Treatments of GAD Drug therapy o Benzodiazepines for dependence issues o Antidepressants lower less risk of dependence CBT o Effective psychological therapy o Symptom reduction Dimensions of OCD Biological dimension: o 3x as likely to develop OCD if genetic o Endophenotype characteristics impairs decision-making; planning; mental flexibility o Increased metabolic activity in orbitofrontal cortex of L hemisphere of brain Psychological dimension: o Operant conditioning: learn behaviors through punishment or reward o Behavioral perspective- OCD develops because it reduced anxiety o Cognitive characteristics: control, intolerance of certainty; disconfirmatory bias Social/Sociocultural dimension: o Family variables: controlling parents, low parental warmth; discouragement of autonomy o Reactions of family members to OCD can increase symptom severity o African-American and Latino-American less likely to report OCD Treatment of OCD Biological: von Kleydorff 12 o SSRI antidepressants but only about 60% respond o Outcome improved when combined with behavioral interventions Behavioral o Flooding o Response prevention 8. You should also be familiar with the similarities, as well as differences, between each of the anxiety disorders. * Phobia and social anxiety disorder similarities and disorders; OCD and phobias etc. 9. Be familiar with all aspects of stress and trauma-related disorders. Again - diagnostic criteria, etiological factors, and treatment options. Definitions Stressor: external event or situations that place physical or psychological demands on a person Stress: Internal psychological or physical response to a stressor Acute/Chronic adjustment disorders: Difficulty coping with or adjusting to a specific life stressor o Depends on how long symptoms are persisting (acute= up to 6 months; chronic= longer than 6 months) PTSD: Needs to be more than 1 month; cause functional impairment; cannot be due to any medication, other diagnosis, medical problem, substance abuse Dimensions of Adjustment Stress Disorders & PTSD Biological dimension: o Fear extinction o Trauma clients’ amygdala doesn’t shut down with fear response Psychological dimension: o Risk factors: preexisting conditions such as anxiety, depression, hostility, anger; specific cognitive styles of dysfunctional thoughts Social dimension: o Social support can diminish PTSD symptoms Sociocultural dimension: o Ethnic differences Higher rates in POC o Women are twice as likely as men to suffer trauma Treatment of ASD & PTSD von Kleydorff 13 Medication: o Certain antidepressants show some effect BUT only 20-30% show full recovery Psychotherapy: o Prolonged exposure therapy o CBT o Trauma focused cognitive behavioral therapy 10. As with the anxiety disorders, be able to compare and contrast the different stress and trauma-related disorders. 11. Even though we did not discuss them in class, be familiar with the psychophysiological disorders – defining characteristics, examples, how treated? Psychophysiological disorders: physical disorder with a strong basis or component Medical conditions influenced by psychological factors o Actual tissue damage; disease; physiological syfunction; relative contributions of physical and psychological factors vary greatly; both medical and psychotherapy treatment may be required Coronary heart disease; hypertension (high blood pressure); migraine, tension, cluster headaches; asthma Stress can cause all of the above as well as decrease immune system’s efficiency Dimensions of Physical Disorders Biological dimension: o Stressors can deregulate physiological processes in the brain and body o Early environmental influences may produce changes in stress-response systems Psychological dimension: o Positive emotions regulate stress; negative emotions accentuate stress o Commitment, control, and openness to challenge associated with thriving through stressful situations Social dimension: o Risk factors for adverse health outcomes= lack of social support; maltreatment in social relationships o Good relationships moderate the link between hostility and poor health von Kleydorff 14 Sociocultural dimension: o Women are more likely to be impacted by stress o Exposure to racism and discrimination Treatment of Stress-Related Disorders Relaxation training Biofeedback training: learn to voluntarily control physiological processes in order to improve physical or mental health CBT o Designed to improve coping skills and manage stress o Shown to improve immune function in breast cancer patients 12. Be familiar with Dr. Barrs’ lecture on PTSD ** see notes from week 3 9/28/16 ** pg. 45-47 13. Be familiar with all aspects of somatic and dissociative disorders. Again - diagnostic criteria, etiological factors, and treatment options. Definitions Somatic: disorders characterized by bodily symptoms Prominent physical or bodily symptoms associated with significant impairment or distress; actual physical illness not usually present o Dr. should rule out any medical/biological causes Somatic symptom disorder: pattern of reporting and reacting to pain or other distressing symptoms; person remains convinced thy have a serious disease Illness anxiety disorder: chronic pattern of preoccupation with having or contracting a serious illness Conversion disorder: Motor, sensory, or seizure-like symptoms Factitious disorder/imposed on another: Symptoms of physical or mental illness are deliberately induced or stimulated with no apparent incentive, unintentionally doing things to take on the symptoms of the illness o For attention Dimensions of Somatic Symptoms and Related Disorders Biological dimension: o Biological vulnerabilities: lower pain thresholds; heightened sensitivity to pain; hyper vigilance or exaggerated focus on bodily sensation o Neural pathways may have irregularities von Kleydorff 15 Psychological dimension: o Psychodynamic perspective: Symptoms seen as defense against awareness of unconscious emotional issues Gain attention o Cognitive-behavioral perspective: cause: reinforcement, modeling, cognitions or combination If they manifest stressors, they can get treatment Idea that somatic disorders may develop in predisposed individuals Social dimension: o Rejection or abuse from family members; history of sexual abuse, previous physical illness; parental attentiveness to somatic complaints Sociocultural dimension: o Lower education levels; ethnicity; immigrant status = risk factors Treatment of Somatic Symptoms and Related Disorders Biological o Antidepressant medications rarely unsuccessful by itself Psychological treatments o Understanding he client’s view of the problem o Empathy, accepting symptoms as genuine o Providing info about stress o CBT and mindfulness strategies Dissociative Disorders Definitions Involve some sort of dissociation of a part of a person’s consciousness, memory, or identity Relatively rare 1-2% of the population Dissociative amnesia: Partial or total loss of important personal information o Localized: inability to recall a specific event or events o Systematized: loss of memory for certain categories of information o Selective amnesia: inability to remember certain details of an incident o Repressed memory: amnesia may come to light only after recalling details of a traumatic event Dissociative fugue: Confusion over personal identity von Kleydorff 16 o Complete loss of memory of one’s entire life; unexpected travel to a new location; partial/complete assumption of a new identity Depersonalization/derealization disorder: Most common dissociative disorder; symptoms must be persistent and cause significant impairment or distress Dissociative identity disorder: disruption of identity caused by 2+ personality states to function in particular situations o Alternations in behaviors, attitudes, emotions; wide range of personalities o 1.5% prevalence; higher in M than F Dissociative Disorder Dimensions Biological dimension: o Disruptions in memory encoding due to acute stress Psychological dimension: o Psychodynamic theory: Repression protects the individual from painful memories or conflicts o Contemporary theory: Dissociative symptoms develop because of the traumatic experience and inability to cope Social/sociocultural dimension: o Mass media can cause individuals to act out roles o Tatrogenic disorder: Condition unintentionally produced by a therapist through mechanisms placed on the client o Individuals who report dissociations score high on fantasy proneness and susceptibility Treatment of Dissociative Disorders Treating dissociative amnesia and fugue o Symptoms abate spontaneously o Depression often associated with fugue o Reasonable approach: alleviate depression & stress Depersonalization/derealization treatments o Spontaneous remission but slower than amnesia and fugue o Treatment focuses on alleviating feelings Antidepressants and antianxiety Behavioral therapy DID treatment o Trauma-focused therapy o Integrating personalities o Work on safety issues; reduce cognitive distortions; healthy relationships and self-care von Kleydorff 17 14. Again, be able to differentiate between these different disorders. 15. Be familiar with all aspects of mood disorders. Again - diagnostic criteria, etiologic, and treatment options. Definitions Mood disorders o Affect a person’s wellbeing o Days, weeks, months long o Often occurs for no apparent reason o Involves extreme reactions not easily explained by individual’s circumstances Depression: Intense sadness or loss of interest in normally enjoyed activities o Changes in emotion, behavior etc. Diagnostic guidelines o Most of the day, every day, for 2+ weeks; depressed mood, sadness, emptiness o 4+ changes in functioning o Impairment in functioning One of the most common psychiatric disorders Dimensions of Depression Biological dimension: o Possibly caused by too little serotonin, dopamine or norepinephrine o Tends to run in families o Genes interact with environmental factors to produce depression o Over-production of cortisol and stress related hormones appear to play an important role in depression o Increased connectivity in the default mode network brain regions Depressed individuals have different patterns of neural activity o Circadian rhythm regulated by melatonin and can play a role in depression Psychological dimension: o Depression occurs with insufficient social reinforcement o Variables that enhance or hinder positive reinforcement Not participating in reinforcing activities von Kleydorff 18 o Co-rumination: constantly talking of problems or negative experiences with others o Learned helplessness: belief we have little influence over what happens o Negative attributional style: causes that are internal, stable, and global; negative outlook Social dimension: o Stressful interpersonal events increase risk of depression o Failure to develop meaningful relationships early in life o Targeted rejection: active, intentional social inclusion or rejection Strongly linked with depressive symptoms Sociocultural dimension: o Cultural differences in symptoms, treatment, dr-patient interactions, outcomes o Depression is experienced differently among cultural groups o Discrimination or perceived discrimination is a risk factor o More commonly M than F Treatment of Depression Medication o Alleviates doesn’t cure o Only works about 50% of the time Circadian-related treatments Brain stimulation Behavioral activation therapy: Increasing exposure to pleasurable events and activities Interpersonal psychotherapy: Evidence-based treatment focused on current interpersonal problems CBT Mindfulness Definitions of Bipolar disorder Characteristics of moods: o Same as depressive Symptoms: o Hypomania: milder form; increased levels of activity or energy Combined with self-important, expansive mood or irritable, agitated mood von Kleydorff 19 Impulsivity and risk taking may appear Person may talk excessively (more than normal) o Mania: even more pronounced mood change than hypomania Variety of behaviors from euphoria to extreme irritability Cause marked impairment in social or occupational functioning May involve loss of contact with reality: psychosis Diagnosis is complicated o Brief depressive and hypomanic symptoms can occur in individuals without a mood disorder o Depression occurs both in depressive and bipolar disorders o Symptoms may vary considerably o Severity of symptoms considered o Assessment must confirm presence of hypomanic or manic symptoms, their frequency and severity of the symptoms Types o Bipolar I: At least one manic episode with or without a history of major depression (1% prevalence) Manic episodes must have lasted at least 1 week o Bipolar II: At least 1 major depressive episode and at least 1 hypomanic episode (1.1% prevalence) Depressive episode at least 2 weeks long Hypomania at least 4 days. o Cyclothymic disorder: milder hypomanic symptoms consistently interspersed with milder depressed moods for at least 2 years (0.4-1% prevalence) Mixed features: 3+ symptoms of mania or depression occurring during an episode from the opposite pole Rapid cycling: 4+ mood episodes/year Dimensions of Bipolar Disorder Biological dimension: o Genetic basis 50% likelihood if family history o Interactions among genes influence by lithium o Neurological abnormalities o Some SSRIs may trigger mania (careful with diagnosis) Psychological dimension: o Major stressful events o Selective attention causing them to recall negative info about themselves von Kleydorff 20 Biological may play a much more prominent role than other factors Treatment of Bipolar Disorder Eliminate symptoms to the greatest degree possible Combination of mood-stabilizing medication and psychotherapy and psychoeducation = best effects Biomedical treatments o Multiple medications/changes o Lithium considered most effective medication for those who respond to its effects Psychosocial treatment: o Family-focused therapy o Interpersonal therapy; psychoeducation; interventions focused on regulating sleep patterns; mindfulness 16. Be able to differentiate between the different disorders. Commonalities between Bipolar and Schizophrenic Disorders Both chronic disorders with neurological irregularities Manic symptoms Risk alleles Cognitive deficits that cause confused thought processes and poor insight *Common disorders; which is more common within certain disorders
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'