Midterm Keyterms & Review
Midterm Keyterms & Review AMH 2097
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verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
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This 22 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sabrina Notetaker on Monday October 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to AMH 2097 at Florida State University taught by Anna Amundson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 102 views. For similar materials see Race/ethnicity in us in History at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 10/10/16
Exam Review: Slavery in the economy, reformers, rebels, and rebellions Richard Allen o Founder of AME church in Philadelphia first black church in united state founded in 1815. Left there integrated church to come to this church to unite. o So what’s important about this A way for black Americans to express their independence and exercise their authority as leaders within the black church since integrated churches didn’t allow them to have leadership positions. It created the way for black Americans to come together as a group. o Sir Walter Baleigh Why was his story significant Founder of Roanoke This helped the future and learned from this by creating them to change how they colonized which lead to James Town California o The western expansion o A cite of a diverse group of people would gather o Main area of Chinese immigration The immigration that came about it Sierra Leon o A main slave trading center o Became the colony that the English created. o Which created Harry Washington Slave man that escaped and went to Sierra Leon Middle Passage o The voyage that many people took after they were kidnapped and put on slave ships to America. o Goods such as cotton wheat and other products were shipped back and forth American Colonization Society o An organization founded 1817date not important, founded by mostly white people but supported by the black community its thought or idea was to create a colony in Africa for those free of slavery the thought was that it will help end slavery in the US because they would see that black people were being sent to another area. Free soil o Expansion to slavery o It is significant because it would enslave people and it should just be arranged with independent farmers o Free soil is not a pro black movement it was an anti slavery movement Diego DeLanda o A Franciscan monk leader the Franciscan mission to the Mayans, he was an example of the interactions between Europeans and Indians Always about changing their ways of life sort of like belief/religion Germans o They saw America as a utopia as long as you were willing to work. Showed a lot of opportunities. o Journey from Pennsylvania Was more of a critical look in the colonies through the German outlook Captivity narratives o Mary Rollinson one of the captivity stories we read st Queen Elizabeth 1 o She was the queen when England became an empire North West Ordainments of 1787 o Had to do with land that was west of the Appalachian Mountains and east of Mississippi river. o Established the idea that slavery should be banned. Abolition o End slavery o (chronology section) possibly o It started in the 1830s o A movement for colonization which went hand in hand with this sense of slavery gradually ending. o A response to colonization Republicanism o Was a perspective on government that came up in the late 1700s o Believed that independent land holders had the political decision The people that worked for someone else lacked political virtue because they are making their living dependent on someone else so they don’t have the right to vote Making it that those who owned land and their own property were only allowed to make political decisions. Liberalism o John Locke: believes, everyone individual having their own rights, live, liberty, and property. o Which created many people to start reading and using these liberal ideas and applying them for themselves Puritans o They were seeking religious freedom for themselves o Also believed in the idea that their society in north America would be the city set up on a hell o To show how the Christian societies should properly be built and worked. Little Turtle o A native American man o War that went on for four years, a war that took a lot of American citizens in the battle more than ever in a war against the native islands o Americans had to give land and recede Maryland o Founded along the lines of Chesippee (dont know how to spell it) colonies o Main commodity was tobacco o There was slavery o Limited amount of religious freedom Jonathan Edwards o Best known preacher of the great awakening Joaquin Murrietta o Was a stealer/gang member o That would steal from mainly Chinese immigrants and steal/kill them when they landed o As well as torturing Chinese men to find their location of gold mines Chicago Beer Riots o Were an example of what nativists were doing to immigrants o Political leaders that came to power because they were elected and started to pass laws to stop allowing immigrants into Chicago targeting Irish and German immigrants mainly. But within a year they were taken down because the Irish and German immigrants started realizing how they can use the political power they have to help elect people that will help benefit them Anne Hutchinson o She would critique the churches and would start to preach differently. Where she would be banished since she believed that God could speak to her and not only the priest being able to talk to God Somerset Case o Once you set foot on the English soil you would be free o But if you set foot in a free state you would be returned because of the fugitive slave act Lecture terms: Encomienda system o Spanish came to colonize which lead to them being in charge if indigenous people which led them to believe they were helping them out and freeing them. So in return they would ask for labor work from the indigenous people. o In 1510 the Spanish left to Mexico. In 1530 they went to Florida to dominate and take over. They captured the indigenous people and forced them into the system of labor/slavery Diego DeLanda (1562) o 510 thousands of Mayans were tortured as well as the Spaniards burning down thousands of ritual locations. Began to be too brutal so after a year the Spaniards would stop. Diego even went back to Europe to explain for his barbaric actions toward the Mayans. Cuartez went to find land and convert people into Catholicism within months he was losing men to disease. They would then want to still take over the Mayans where the Mayan leaders were killed and murdered so Spaniards found them with less people and leaders went down 80% which sort of forced the Mayans to join the Spaniard system. Queen Elizabeth I o When England started to colonize more o England had to become united, she reigned for 50 years o Protestant English identity is what brought England to the outside world o War with Spain and England won during her reign o Ireland was all catholic which was seen as a threat to England so England began to colonize o Colonization of Ireland and North America were seen to be very similar strategies o First attempt to colonize in North America was in 1585 which was a failure o Wanted England to be an empire which is why a lot of people migrated Sir Walter Raleigh o Spent a year with ships and all 100 men, women, children went to Roanoke o But hen more colonists were sent later (about 4 years) they found the area abandoned but has no idea what happened to the colony that was there. They believed that it couldve been through Native Tribes, disease, or slowly died out due to other occurrences. Jamestown o Founded in 1607 o Started with 104 men Searching for gold and other natural resources o First permanent English colony in America o High death, Melania which was due to living by the swamps o No one cropped or made food so they were dependent on shipments and tribes. o If tribes didn’t allow them to take food the colonists would raid them which created friction with tribes o In 1616 those who travelled there, 80% of them would die o This almost became a failure because they were close to going back but ran into more colonists and decided to link up/work together which lead them to going back to Jamestown Tobacco o Made Virginia and Maryland rich o Elite English people would smoke it This making everyone in Europe want to do it o Jamestown colonist instead of growing crops they would sell tobacco instead o In the 17 century over thousands of men and women went to America. o A lot of fighting would occur due to land ownership between the indigenous people and colonists Maryland o Founded like Virginia o Different rules of land ownership o More of a catholic state Lots of English Catholics would go to Maryland o Margaret Brent Marriage was hard lots of deaths if a man were to die all of his possessions would go to her giving a woman the ability to own land or even go to court. She was powerful and her siblings had thousands of acres of land. She became an attorney and landowner. She and many other women were taken into positions that weren’t allowed in Europe. Puritans o In Holland Went to Netherlands first Wanted a distinct identity Wanted to settle in Virginia but ended up in Massachusetts. Where they stayed and settled. They weren’t suppose to cause it was indigenous land but they didn’t care. o In New England They arrived in 1620 Healthy/rich were seen to be saved The unhealthy/poor were unsaved Settled in an abandoned village in 1620 They found Squanto who would be value to them. He was taken to England Europe then back to America Squanto o He helped the Puritans by being a translator Taught them to hunt and communicate Great Migration o 1642 o Puritans moved from England to North America in huge groups. Roger Williams o Founder of the colony in Rhode Island o Idea that the government shouldn’t judge, it was God’s idea So he was banished from Massachusetts along with his people which is where they started to colonize Anne Hutchinson o She preached Accused ministers for faulty preach/treason that they are wrong for their judgments She knew the Bible/rights and accusing ministers for being wrong Were a threat and argued mythology and that she can interpret god’s word on her own so she and her follower were kicked out. They went to Rhode Island and then long island and were later killed in an indigenous attack. Anthony Johnson o A man who demonstrated how slavery evolved in Virginia o Earned his way into his own freedom o Owned a 2 acre tobacco farm o Had white indentured servants and even and African slave o The demand on tobacco is what changed the open slavery into a systematic slavery that was oppressive It was declared that a negro would be an alien and land would be given to the white family The Middle Passage o Women would be abused/sexually assaulted which would cause suicide or women using object to kill their children Priscilla: went through the passage and was bought at an auction in South Carolina to a rice plantation. She was 10 when she arrived and survived longer then a usual young woman would. Her family line can still be traced to today. Fort Mose o St Augustine the first black settlement Stomo Rebellion o 100 slaves headed over to St Augustine o They stole arms, burned plantations, and called for slaves to leave through drumming o Those who ran were caught and beheaded o Laws became more invested in slavery and allowing any kind of punishment to those who tried to escape Harry Washington o Wanted freedom Sierra Leone o Hub for getting black slaves o Slavery existed everywhere o European developed the idea to not enslave one another Which is why race was a part of slavery because Africans weren’t European/Christian Germans o Was one of the largest groups of European migrants. They thought that the US was a utopia for work and opportunities The Great Awakening o Jonathan Edwards: Preached the best sermons of the great awakening o You decide for yourself the way you will go about religiously People started to oppose paying taxes for the churches o Preachers condemned the elite (southerners) Some preached against slavery o Many slaves joined Christianity because of the great Awakening o This new approach caused citizens to question their societies Impressment o The act of taking men into a military or naval force by compulsion, with or without notice. Republicanism o Was a perspective on the government that was in the late 1700s o The belief that independent landowners were more important and should be able to make the political decisions. o It meant that women and black men could have to potential to vote if they owned land and weren’t dependent on someone else. Liberalism o The belief that individuals deserved to have life, liberty and property. o Middle path in the 1700s o Abolitionism was formed from this o This created the thought that everyone is equal and should be treated equally John Locke o Laid much of the groundwork for the Enlightment o He made central contributions to the development of liberalism. o Believed that liberty was a universal law o He argued that women should have the rights to divorce a man or own property o Wanted to end slavery Salutary neglect o Refers to the British crown policy that avoids strict enforcement of parliamentary laws meant to keep American colonies obedient to England. John Peter Zenger (and freedom of the press) o People could be brought to court for anything offensive, seditious, rivalry o 1735 people of New York started to change on saying something offensive. He discussed and published the other perspective of how bad New York’s governor was. They took him to court and the attorney argued that he shouldn’t be punished for saying what’s true. This then lead to papers being able to post politics and controversial information if it was true. The Junto o Founded by Ben Franklin in Philadelphia in 1777 Purpose was to debate questions of morals, politics, natural philosophy, and to exchange knowledge on business affairs. o Founded first library o Street lights and night watchmen became a thing As well as cafes/restaurants began so people could discuss about news/politics/religion The Articles of Confederation o Was the first written constitution of the US o Stemming from wartime urgency, its progress was slowed by fears of central authority and extensive land claims by states before was it was ratified on March 1, 1781. The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 o Land that was west of the Appalachian mountains and east of the Mississippi river so that this land area would be divided into states o This established that slavery should be banned in this area, but was allowed south of the Ohio River. o Led to slavery being established in southern areas Gradual Emancipation o Was part of an act that outlawed slavery outright as well as established a scheme where slavery would eventually stop. o It would be approached through gradual emancipation by granting freedom to those born to slaves after a given date. Shays Rebellion o An uprising led by Daniel Shays, this broke out in western Massachusetts in 1786. His followers protested foreclosures of farms for debt and briefly succeeded in shutting down the court system. “3/5ths Compromise” o The population of slaves would be counted as 3/5ths in total when appropriating Representatives, as well as electors and taxes o Proposed by James Wilson and Roger Sherman Somerset case o The enslaves person would declare free if they physically set foot on English soil o This led to fugitive slave laws, stating that if a person made it to where they were free, that they would not be free. o They did not want this case coming into the Americas. Little Turtle o Started the war against the US for four years for the largest loss of American life o When they lost the government demanded enormous amounts of land The French Revolution o Began in 1789 and ended in the late 1790s o French citizens razed and redesigned their countries political landscape, uprooting centuriesold institutions such as absolute monarchy and the feudal system. o Was influenced by the Enlightment ideals The concepts of popular sovereignty and inalienable rights. The Whiskey Rebellion o A tax protest in the US beginning in 1791 o During the president of George Washington o Was the first tax imposed on a domestic product by the newly formed federal government On the Equality of the Sexes o Judith Sargent Murray, the author o A feminist writer who fought for the right and recognition of women from society. o She compares woman’s and mans ability in imagination, reason, memory, and judgment. Mary Wollstonecraft o An English writer, philosopher, and advocate of women’s’ rights o Argues that women are not naturally inferior to men o Suggests that both men and women should be treated as rational beings Denmark Vesey o A literate, skilled carpenter and leader among African Americans in Charleston, South Carolina o Likely born into slavery in St. Thomas,, he served a master in Bermuda for some time before being brought to Charleston where he gained his freedom. Richard Allen o In 1815 he founded the AME, African Methodist Episcopal Church, the first independent black denomination in the US. It was a way for black Americans to express their independence or exercise authority and come together as a community. American Colonization Society o Purpose was to create a colony in Africa for people who had been freed from slavery. In effort to stop slavery. Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World o Written by David Walker Not enslaved o The goal was to send blacks back to Africa. o This appeal was seen as one of the most important social and political documents of the 19 century. The Market Revolution o To describe the expansion of the marketplace that occurred in the early 19 h century America, prompted mainly by the construction of new roads and canals to connect distant communities together for the first time Manifest Destiny o the attitude prevalent during the 19th century period of American expansion that the United States not only could, but was destined to, stretch from coast to coast. o Helped fuel western settlement, Native American removal and war with Mexico. Free Soil o A movement that opposed the slavery in the western lands o They saw that the west was not a place for enslaved people or plantations, they believed in independent farmers. o Did not believe in black equality, they just believed in antislavery Potato Famine o 18451851 o Onefourth of the Irish population died, about half migrated, or died. o Transportation to other places included ships on long and cramped rides. o Land in the Americas was passed down to one son. One daughter received an endower. o Men worked in mining, factories and other places. Woman often came to America by themselves. “Bridgets” o Irish woman stereotype that meant stupid, clumsy, or lazy Gottfried Duden o a German emigration writer of the early 19th century o he wrote about the beauty of Missouri in his famous book Bericht über eine Reise nach den westlichen Staaten Nordamerika's ("Report of a journey to the western states of North America") Reform Judaism o Initiated in Germany by the philosopher Moses Mendelssohn (1729–86), that has reformed or abandoned aspects of Orthodox Jewish worship and ritual in an attempt to adapt to modern changes in social, political, and cultural life. “Fortyeighters” o Were Europeans who participated in or supported the revolutions of 1848 that swept Europe. o In the German states, these people favored unification of the German people, a more democratic government, and guarantees of human rights. Nativism o The political position of supporting a favored status for certain established inhabitants of a nation as compared to claims of newcomers or immigrants. KnowNothing Party o known as the American Party o prominent United States political party during the late 1840s and the early 1850s o Originated in 1849 o Strongly opposed immigrants and followers of the Catholic Church. Chicago Beer Riots o A group that came to power because they got elected, then passed immigration laws, then those German immigrants got angry. An example of Irish and German people coming together in order to politically vote out the party Ancient Order of Hibernians o an Irish Catholic fraternal organization o Members must be Catholic and either Irishborn or of Irish descent Opium o began with the use of it for medicinal purposes during the 17th century o The practice of mixing it with tobacco for smoking spread from Southeast Asia, creating a far greater demand. Chinese got addicted because the British gave it to them. Chinese government tried to limit it, but then the British attacked the ports. Which lead to an agreement to still trade this, but in return allow the British use the Chinese ports. This turned into a huge debt, some people sold everything they owned, even their children. Desperation turns to violence with the 1850 Thai King Rebellion. The Gold Rush o Brought 300,000 people to California o The goldseekers, called "fortyniners", often faced substantial hardships on the trip California th o The epicenter of the migration, where diverse groups of people came in the 19 century o Westward expansion Joaquin Murrietta o Would steal gold from Chinese minors and most of the time kill them o He would torture them until they gave up the location of their gold mines o Created a ton of threats for those of Chinese descent People v. Hall o An appealed murder case in the 1850s in which the California Supreme Court established that Chinese Americans and Chinese immigrants had no rights to testify against white citizens. Transcontinental Railroad o A contiguous network of railroad track age that crosses a continental land mass with terminals at different oceans or continental borders. o Helped open up unpopulated interior regions of continents to exploration and settlement that would not otherwise have been feasible. o Also formed the backbones of crosscountry passenger and freight transportation networks. Terms from readings: Thomas/Thomasine Hall: o An English servant in colonial Virginia Whose alternation between male and female attire and mannerisms created the public controversy in 1629. o The local community responded to their inconsistent gender with a physical inspection by several neighbors, and the case reached the Quarter Court at Jamestown, which ruled that Hall was both a man and a woman. It ordered them to dress in male and female clothing simultaneously. The decision was the first of its kind in early modern colonial history. Captivity narratives: o Are usually stories of English people who are captured by enemies whom they consider uncivilized, or whose beliefs and customs they oppose such as the native Americans o Ex: Mary Rowlandson Jonathan Edwards: o The author of “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God” talking about how people get into questioning authority o Fired up the people and why church was taxing them so much o Led to the separation of church and state Journey to Pennsylvania: o Talked about the conditions about the journey in a ship to America. o Conditions on board the ship include people turning on each other, families cheating, and people killing each other. o Arriving, the travelers see many different types of religion. Also, it was easier to change jobs because there were many new openings for jobs that let these people have opportunities. The Age of Reason: o It talks about separation of the Church and State. This probably upset many people because they thought it would give them “too much” freedom. Thomas Paine: o Wrote “Common Sense” and “The Age of Reason”. o His religious perspective is deism. He died alone, and his funeral was attended by about 6 people. Maria Miller Stewart: o sees that the issues in America as a black person is that they are denied education which in turn results in a lack of opportunities o She was also concerned about black women who were seen as the lowest class. About slavery, she says that free or not, black slaves have been degraded. She believed the colonization movement was wrong and people needed to be equal. Deism: o The ideology that there is a Creator but then let us live our own lives. That He could be away, so that people could connect to him but still back away and have freedom from churches. Abolition: o A movement to end slavery o Started around the 1830s, around the revolutionary war also around the time of colonization
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