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by: Brittany Sholl

ENGLISH 219 MIDTERM 1! Ling 219

Marketplace > Iowa State University > Linguistics > Ling 219 > ENGLISH 219 MIDTERM 1
Brittany Sholl
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This is an AMAZING study guide I completed for you all! It covers every chapter discussed in class, complete with definitions, examples, and even WORD TREES! ~Everything for the first midterm e...
Intro Linguistics
Dr. Evg Chukharev-Khudilaynen
Study Guide
midterm, english, 219, Linguistics, Word, Trees, study, guide, words, sentences, syntax, semantics
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This 22 page Study Guide was uploaded by Brittany Sholl on Tuesday October 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Ling 219 at Iowa State University taught by Dr. Evg Chukharev-Khudilaynen in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 50 views. For similar materials see Intro Linguistics in Linguistics at Iowa State University.


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Date Created: 10/11/16
English 219 Sinem Sonsaat Midterm Highlight = Important Principle Highlight = Important Concept Highlight = Key Term (Word Trees at the bottom!)  GOOD LUCK! Chapter 1 {What is Linguistics?} What is Linguistics?  The science of language  Structure, meaning, context  Structure: Phonology, Morphology, Syntax  Meaning: Semantics, Lexical Semantics, Phrasal Semantics  Context: Pragmatics Phonetics: How language sounds are produced and perceived  EX: through, threw, clue, shoe Phonology: Patterns of sounds, different patterns of sounds in different languages  EX: what sounds go together, how sounds can change Morphology: Words & formation of words  EX: cat-calling, bi-cycle, (how new words can be created and removed from a language) Syntax: Sentence structure and formation  EX: How a sentence can be formed with adjectives, nouns, verbs.. Semantics: The study of the meaning of words  EX: lexical semantics, pragmatics Discourse: Response patterns and negotiation of meaning  EX: spoken or written language in a social context  EX: "How is your day?" "Thanks." Language Acquisition: First & Second languages  EX: Humans require capacity to comprehend more than one language Language Variation and Dialects: variation of the same language  EX: Accent, spelling What is the Human Language? What is the Human Language? {Any set or symbols used in a more or less uniform fashion by a number of people who are thus enabled to communicate intelligibly with one another} Arbitrary & Non Arbitrary  Signs: language is a system of arbitrary signs  Arbitrary signs: no inherent connection between the sign and what it indicates (stop light) we created o EX: Stop Light  Nonarbritrary signs: there is an inherent connection between the sign and what it signs cannot change o EX: smoke from a fire  Representational (iconic) Signs: basically arbitrary but a little bit iconic; sign may suggest its meaning o EX: a thumbs up sign {If we had no arbitrary signs language would be more limited, there would be no different words for the same thing, (ex: dinner; supper) word forms would not change and word meanings would not change.} **Language has an infinite number of sentences but a limited number of words.  We don’t really memorize sentences; only words to create or improve our sentences  We usually always use new sentences; barely reuse sentences  Once we learn a language we are able to separate sentences from non-sentences Noam Chomsky  Language is NOT a set of learned responses to stimuli. Linguistic Competence: what we know/understand about a language; have in our brain (unconscious knowledge about sounds, words, structures, rules) Performance: how we use this linguistic knowledge; what we do (we create sentences, use new words, stammer, pause) What is Grammar? Grammar: Knowledge speakers have about the units and rules of their language Components of Grammar: {Phonetics, Phonology, Morphology, Syntax, Semantics} Descriptive Grammar: describing linguistic rules when speaking a language Prescriptive Grammar: attempts to prescribe what rules of language people should and shouldn't use (some grammars are better than others)  EX: Whoever decided that "two negatives make a positive" and people shouldn't use double negatives; although many other languages use double negatives Teaching Grammars: Teach the sound of a new language, states the rules of a language to be able to learn and comprehend another language.  EX: Learning Spanish in high school (teaching sound, structure, word order, new words) Universal Grammars: General grammar vs. special grammar, universal laws of language, humans born with the ability to learn and create language {Normal children acquire a language quickly and easily and without instruction and can learn world's languages the same way with the same stages as learning their own language.} {If children are born with universal language, they can acquire the language quickly and easily because they already know the universal properties and only need to learn certain rules of the language.} Sign Language: visual gesture, own grammar rules, own lexicon of signs, fully developed languages  Hockett’s Design Features of Human Language Discreteness: messages in the system are made up of smaller, repeatable parts and can be broken down into units Creativity: language users can create and understand utterances never heard before Displacement: language user can talk about things that are not present- the message can refer to things in remote time  EX: allows discussion for past and future events and abstract ideas Purist Approach: Saving the Language Chapter 1 Continued What is NOT Human Language  Bird calls, bird songs (no internal structure), honeybees dances {nonhuman primates can string two signs together and show flashes of creativity, though their language isn't as near human linguistics} {The changing of a language is a natural process, and occurs throughout time} Language & Thought Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis: the theory that the structure of a language influences how its speakers perceive the world around them Linguistic Determinism: the strongest form of the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis which claims that the language we speak determines how we perceive the world Linguistic relativism: a weaker form of the hypothesis which claims that different languages encode different categories which can influence a speaker’s perceptions of the world {Some psychologists have suggested that speakers of gender-marking languages think about objects as being gendered} EX: Masculine, Feminine words in Spanish Chapter 2 {The Words of Language} Word Classes Word: Smallest freeform found in a language  A word can stand on it's own  Does not have to occur in a fixed position to sound "okay" Morpheme: Smallest unit of language that carries info about the meaning {Every word is a morpheme, but not every morpheme is a word**}  (More on Morphemes down the page) :) Content Words: lexical meanings, and also open class words EX: nouns, verbs, adjectives {Can create new words} Function Words: closed class words, grammatical meaning, use of function EX: propositions; conjunctions {Rarely new words added} Important things to know:  The brain treats and processes these words differently  We're more likely to process content words compared to function words  We don’t always use function words  Sometimes we mix the places of content words Morphology {Morphemes are used for word formation**} Word formation: helps us to recognize words and possible words EX: Word: asymmetrical Morphemes within this word: a - symmetry- ic - al Word: unforgettable Morphemes within this word: un - for - get- able Free Morphemes Bound Morphemes o Can stand alone o Can only function with other words o monomorphemic o Attached o polymorphemic Dervational Morphemes Inflectional Morphemes o CHANGE o DO NOT CHANGE o Carry semantic meaning  EX: Cat ---> Cat(s)  EX: Run ---> Runn(er)    (the -s suffix only makes the word plural  (the -er suffix changes the word from a without changing the meaning) verb to a noun) More about bound morphemes: Infixes: morphemes that are inserted inside a root Circumfixes: affixes that attach to both the beginning and the end of a root Roots and Stems  A root may or may not stand alone as a word EX: hospitalization ---> hospital is the root Bound root: Cannot stand alone and can only occur in a combination with other morphemes  A non-affix morpheme that can stand alone EX: receive ---> cieve Affixes Prefixes: attached to the beginning of a word {Can be separated into semantic groups:}  Time, Number, Place, Degree, Privative, Negative, Size Time: preheat, postdate, forewarning Number: multigrain, bicycle, polyglot Place: interact, subway Degree: supernatural, overdone Privative: apolitical, demilitarize, defrost Negative: nonsmoker, unapologetic, antisocial Size: megawatt, macroeconomics, microchip Suffixes: added on to the ends of words Nominal suffixes  Often employed to derive nouns EX: -ing --> building -ful ---> handful -er ---> dancer Verbal Suffixes  Derive verbs EX: -en ---> harden - ify ---> solidify Adjectival suffixes  Derive adjectives EX: -able/ible ---> fashionable - ary ---> legendary Adverbial suffixes  Derive adverbs EX: -ly---> additionally -wise ---> lengthwise Compounds: If two roots combine, it is a compound EX: spoon + feed: spoon-feed (v) over + turn: overturn (v) {we have different p/s because the English language does not allow certain sounds or letters next to one another} Allomorphs: A variety of a single morpheme  Alternate pronunciation of a phonological form of a morpheme in a particular linguistic environment Chapter 2 Continued Word Tree & Bound Morphemes Bound root morphemes: cranberry morphemes  Used to have its own meeting but now doesn't have any meaning on its own  Used to be free but now meaningless on its own  "fossilized words" EX: Anthropology: is a compound of two bound roots {Anthropo +logy} Anthropo: man/human (o)logy: branch of science Rule productivity: Dervational affixes are productive to different extents: -able can be affixed to any verb to create an adjective Un- is most productive for adjectives derived from verbs and words with polysyllabic bases Exceptions Not all words undergo regular morphological processes  Foot---> feet  Go---> went  Child--> children {These words must be learned separately} {When new words enter a language, regular morphological rules apply to them, borrowed words can contain borrowed morphology} Blending: is telescoping two words together EX: Brunch--> breakfast & lunch Compounds: joining two or more words together to make a new word EX: landlord Hierarchical Structure of Words {Morphemes are added to a base in a fixed order which reflects the structure of a word} EX: un + system + atic Un- + ADJECTIVE --> adj. (unkind, unapologetic) Un- + Adverb --> Verb (undo, untie) Noun + -atic ---> adj. (systematic, charismatic, problematic) **{Not all words go through the regular morphological processes!!} EX: Foot ---> feet Go ---> went Child---> children {These words must be learned separately since rules don't apply to them.} {When new words enter the language, regular morphological rules generally apply to them.} EX: the plural of fax became faxes instead of faxen {Borrowed words may retain borrowed morphology} Back-formations: new words can be created through misanalysis of morpheme boundaries EX: Babysit---> babysitter Edit---> editor Televise ---> television Clipping: snipping a section of a word to form a shortened form EX: Gas---> gasoline Stat---> statistics Blending: telescoping two words together EX: Brunch---> breakfast + lunch Compounds: joining two or more words together to make a new wor EX: landlord {The rightmost word in a compound is the head, which determines its meaning and part of speech} EX: Noun + adjective = adjective (headstrong) {The stress on English compounds falls on the first word} EX: greenhouse vs. green house {Two-word compounds are the most common, but there may not be an upper limit} Compounds with: Space: hot dog Hyphen: ready-to-wear, daughter-in-law No space: greenhouse, however **{The meaning of a compound is not always the sum of the meaning of its parts, but is a universal process for creating new words} {We can use our knowledge of morphemes and morphological rules to guess the meaning of words we don’t know, even if our guesses are wrong} SYNTAX Syntax Syntax: The study of syntax addresses the structure of sentences and their structural and functional relationships to each other. {Syntax includes the rules and principles that allow us to combine words into larger units} Parts of Speech:  Nouns  Verbs  Adjectives  Adverbs  Pronouns  Determiners  Auxiliary verbs  Prepositions  Conjunctions Content Words:  Nouns  Verbs  Adjectives  Adverbs EX: (lecture example) The girl goes on long walks. (Noun) The girl walks the dogs. (Verb) {Syntax helps you find the parts of speech in the sentence} {Words can also be grouped or combined in certain ways} {In analyzing sentences, it is important to realize that sentences are organized by a string of constituents and not like beads on a string.} Constituents: a group of words that serve as structural units. RULES: Phrase: any constituant of a clause. A phrase may be a string of words or just one word  (smallest syntactic unit) Clause: made up of at least a subject (NP) and a predicate (VP)  (largest) Sentence: can be a single clause, two clauses or more. It can include any number of clauses Nouns Nouns: (semantic definition) A noun is the name of a person, place, thing, and or idea. Determiners:  Articles (a, an, the)  Quantifiers (many, several, few, all)  Numerals (one, two, three)  Possessive determiners (my, your, her)  Demonstrative determiners (these, that) Determiners: function words {Nouns can be preceded by more than one determiner} EX: all five kittens a few customers {Some nouns do not need a determiner} Generic nouns: (Lions roar) Mass nouns: (Lou makes lovely pottery) Proper names: (Mary walked in the door) Verbs Verbs:(semantic definition) A verb is a word that denotes an action or state of being. Verbs have 5 forms:  Infinitive (base form, the form that is not inflected)  Present tense (-s)  Past tense (-ed)  Present participle (-ing)  Past principle (-en) Verbs in English are divided into 3 groups:  Main verbs  Auxiliary verbs  Modal verbs Main verbs:  Tom feels sad.  Tom went on a ship.  Tom ate an apple.  Tom ran into an old friend.  Tom hopes to win a million dollars. Auxiliary verbs:  Have (Tom has eaten too much pasta.)  Be (Tom is trying the best he can.) Modal Verbs:  May, might, shall, should, will, would, can, could, must Adverbs Adverbs: modify verbs and contribute meaning of various sorts to sentences Adverbs are divided into semantic categories:  Adverbs of direction (there)  Adverbs of location (nearby)  Adverbs of manner (joyfully)  Adverbs of time (soon, later)  Adverbs of frequency (sometimes) Function Words {function words are both harder and easier to identify} Why they are easier: there is a finite, and limited set of words. Because they are ‘closed’ classes, we don’t readily add new words to these classes, and there are fewer of them. Why they are harder: there are fewer ‘tests’ that we can do, and their form (morphology) doesn’t change for the most part. Function Words:  Pronouns  Determiners  Auxiliary verbs  Prepositions  Conjunctions Pronouns Pronouns: take the place of whole noun phrases EX: The rats when on a run. They went on a run. There are many different types of pronouns:  Personal pronouns  Possessive pronouns  Relative pronouns  Indefinite pronouns  Interrogative pronouns  Demonstrative pronouns Personal Pronouns: personal pronouns refer to people, and have different forms depending on how they are used EX: I, you, he, she, or me, you, him, her, it us Possessive Pronouns: show belonging EX: mine, yours, hers, his, ours, theirs Relative Pronouns: allow us to insert new clauses into a sentence related to some previous noun phrase (NP) EX: who, that, whom, which Indefinite Pronouns: anyone, someone, everyone, something Interrogative Pronouns: who, whom, whose, what, which Demonstrative Pronouns: this, that, these, and those Determiners Determiners: come before nouns, and can have other words (such as adjectives) in between the determiner and the noun Types of Determiners:  Articles  Quantifiers  Possessive determiners  Demonstrative determiners Articles: a, an, the Quantifiers: many, several, few, some, all {Some determiners have the same form as a pronoun. When these forms occur before a noun, they are determiners. When they occur in place of a noun, they are pronouns} Possessive determiners: my, your, her, his, its, our, their (as in their computer or your book) EX: His book is expensive Demonstrative determiners: this, that, these, and those when they occur before nouns (as in these plants or that dog) EX: These books are expensive Auxiliary Verbs: are “helping” verbs. They are verbs that occur before the main verb in some verb phrases Primary auxiliaries: forms of be, have, and do when they occur before another verb (such as were going, had forgotten, or didn’t like) Modal Auxiliaries: may, might, will, would, shall, should, can, could Auxiliary Verbs: are used in many verb phrases, and to create questions in English (often occur before "not") EX: Will, does, may Prepositions Prepositions: with noun phrases (NP) to form prepositional phrases (PP), which modify nouns or verb EX: in, on, through, with, before, after, into, around, by, of **if after is followed by a noun it will be a preposition {When talking about open-class and closed-class categories, prepositions fall in the middle} Conjunctions Coordinating conjunctions: join words and phrases of the same category Seven Coordinating Conjunctions:  And  But  Or  Nor  Yet  So  For Subordinating: create dependent clauses EX: because, although, unless, if, while, when, before, after, since, and others **after will connect sentences it is a conjunction Clauses Clauses: largest syntactic unit {Each clause is a sentence and each sentence is a clause}  Sentence has more than one clause What is the subject?! **sometimes subject is not the doer of the action! EX: The cat chased the mouse. The mouse was chased by the cat. {when we talk about the subject, we talk about a syntactic position, not about the meaning} What is a predicate?! EX: The cat chased the rat. The mouse was chased by the cat. {Not all subjects are doing an action, predicate is the verb phrase, not what the subject is doing} **predicate is everything that is NOT the subject Clause Word Trees  Largest syntactic unit  The clause is made up of NP + VP  The NP is the subject and the VP is the predicate Phrase: smallest syntactic unit  Any constituent of a clause o One word o String of words Constituents: the natural grouping or parts of a sentence  NP's  VP's  PP's  Adj P's  Adv P's {Can use movement tests, substitutions tests, & coordination tests} **Examples from lecture Constituent & Phrases Vampires frighten him.  Yes, it is a verb phrase. The skies deluged the earth with water.  Yes, prepositional phrase. A ghost has the spirit of a dead person.  Nope! Phrase Structures **Noun Phrases Example N: dogs Det + N: the dogs Det + AP + N: the very cute dogs Det + AP + N + XP: the very cute dogs in the park XP: a phrase of any category  NP ---> (det) (AP) N (XP) **Verb Phrases Example V: sleeps Aux. + V: is sleeping Aux: + V + XP: is sleeping on a couch Aux: + V + XP + XP: is sleeping on a couch in the living room XP: a phrase of any category  VP ---> Aux + (Adv.) V + (XP) **Adjective Phrases Example A: sad Deg + A: very sad Deg + A + PP: very sad about the upcoming test XP: a phrase of any category  AP ---> (Deg) + A + (PP) ** Prepositional Phrase Example P: over Deg + P: nearly over Deg + P + NP: nearly over the hill P: PP: out under the tree P + VP: before going on a walk XP: a phrase of any category  PP ---> (Deg) + P (XP) **Adverb Phrase Example: Adv: brightly Deg + Adv: more brightly Deg + Adv + PP: more brightly than his smile XP: a phrase of any category  AdvP: ---> (Deg) + Adv + (PP) Dummy Auxiliary Verb: DO Do Insertion: to perform subject-auxiliary inversion, negation, and tag question formation, insert do in auxiliary if aux is otherwise empty.  The aux position in VP is there, even is it isn't that can be inserted in aux to do the work for an aux verb under certain condition.  English has a dummy (pleonastic) auxiliary verb under certain conditions. Emphatic and Main Verb Do EX: But I DID feed the dogs! {Do is also used as the main verb of a sentences.} Subordinate Conjunction Subordinate clauses: cannot stand alone as a sentence because it does not provide a complete thought. The reader is left wondering, "what is next?"  Giving the meaning of the relationship; a dependent sentence  Consists of a subject and predicate and they are contained inside some larger constituent  Also called adverb subordinators {relative clauses are SC that attach to noun phrases. Because they ass information to a noun phrase, some grammarians call them adjectival clauses.} Adjective clause: follows the word that it describes EX: (from lecture)  The dean defended the prof who flunked me.  I like strawberries that are fresh.  How, when, where, and why? Syntax and Semantics Complimentizer:  Subordinate conjunctions (because, although)  "that" can be a complimentizer when it is not starting a sentence; if there are two separate clauses Sentences that are structurally ambiguous:  There are two possible meanings of each sentence, because the words can be combined into different constituent structures. EX: The boy saw [the man {with the telescope}]. Semantics: the study of linguistic meanings of morphemes, words, phrases, and sentences is called semantics  Lexical semantics  Phrasal/sentential semantics  Pragmatics Truth Conditional (Compositional) Semantics Jack runs: true or false? [ You see Jack run] Jack runs: true or false? [Somebody tells you but you don't see it] Tautologies (analytic): Sentences that are always true. EX: Circles are round. A person who is single is not married. {The truth of the sentence is guaranteed by their meaning} Contradictions: sentences that are always false. EX: Circles are square. A bachelor is married. Entailment: one sentence entails another if whenever the first sentence is true, the second one is also true in all possible circumstances. EX: Karen runs. Karen runs gracefully. Karen runs gracefully entails Karen runs. {Entailment goes only one direction.} Entailment & Negation  One sentence entails another if whenever the first sentence is true, the second one is also true in all possible circumstances. EX: Karen doesn't run. Karen doesn’t run beautifully. {Negating both sentences reverses the entailment.} Synonyms: if two statements entail each other, they are synonyms of each other Antonyms: if a statement entails the negation of another statement, they are antonyms of each other Entailment and Related Notions EX: Karen put off the meeting. Karen postponed the meeting. {If one statement is true, the other must be true as well.} Contradictory sentences EX: Karen is alive. Karen is dead. Karen is alive and Karen is dead. (CON) {When one is true the other is false.} {Two sentences are contradictory is one entails the negative of the other.} Lexical Ambiguity: When at least one word in a phrase has more than one meaning EX: This will make you smart Smart: clever Smart: a sharp stinging pain, burning sensation Anomaly  Breaks no syntactic rule  Breaks no morphological rule  BUT breaks meaning rules Metaphors  It is a phrase that does not carry the the literal meanings of the words but is used to mean something different. (It has figurative meaning) EX:  Time is money.  She has a heart of gold.  He is a walking encyclopedia. Idioms  Collocations of words or phrases with nonliteral meanings.  Idioms are phrases whose meanings are not predictable. EX:  Kick the bucket  Tie the knot  Let the cat out of the bag Pragmatics  is the study of utterances that are dependent on the: o The speaker o The addressee o Context of utterance (social setting) o Generally observed principles of communication o The goals of the speaker {Pragmatics is a subfield of linguistics which studies how people use language within a CONTEXT and why they use language in particular ways}  Physical Context: where the conversation takes place  Epistemic Context: background knowledge shared by speakers and hearers  Linguistic Context: utterances previous to the utterance  Social Context: social relationship and setting of speakers and hearers Speech Acts:  People use language to do things  Offer greetings  Extend an invitation  Compliment  Insult  Flirt  Supply info Direct and Indirect Speech: Direct:  Please take out the trash. Indirect:  The garbage isn't out yet.  Could you take out the garbage? Lexical Semantics (Word Meanings)  What is meaning?  Dictionaries provide paraphrases rather than meaning.  We need referential and sense meaning to know what something is. Referential meaning: the meaning of a word is the actual person, object, abstract notion, event or state to which the expression makes reference, the entity the term picks out or identity. The meaning of a word is its reference, its association with the object refers to.  This real-world object is called referent. Semantic Relations Synonym: Two words are said to be synonymous if they mean the same thing in some or all contexts. EX: She is a real lady.  The referent is polite, kind , elegant and proper. She is a real woman.  The referent is strong and determined. Antonymy: a binary relationship between two words; the words that are opposite in meaning are antonyms. EX: Gradable Pairs Non-gradable Pairs Big x Small Complementary Pairs: Single x Married Hot x Cold Converse Pairs/Relational: Give x Receive, Come x Go, Able x Unable Happy x Sad {You can use comparatives and superlatives with these words.} Hyponomy: A hyponym is a subordinate, specific term whose referent is included in the referent of a superordinate term. EX: Color: Superordinate Blue, Red, Yellow, Green..: hyponyms {Can be multiple layers} Homographs: Homophones: Have the same spelling but different Have the same pronunciations but different meanings meanings Dove and dove Bear and bare Meronymy: One word is the subdivision of the other. EX: Part/Whole Relationship: Face: mouth, cheek, nose, eye (eye 'part of the face') Polysemy: when it has two or more related meanings {examples from lecture}  Plain English (easy, clear)  Plain white shirt (undecorated)  Plain yoghurt (no flavor) EX: The defendant was in the pub at the bar. He bought a bar of soap. Mary walked along the bank of the river. City Bank is the richest bank in the city. Semantic Properties  There are semantic features or properties that are part of word meanings and that reflect our knowledge about what words mean.


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