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psy mii

psy mii

Description

School: Rutgers University
Department: Psychology
Course: Abnormal Psychology (01:830:340)
Professor: Teresa leyro
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Psychology
Cost: 25
Name: Ab. Psych - Anxiety, Trauma/Stressor-Related, and Obsessive Compulsive-Related Disorders Part I
Description: - anxiety. fear, and panic - biological, cognitive, and social factors of anxiety - fight/flight response - comorbidity of anxiety disorders - characteristics of anxiety disorders - Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) - Panic Disorder - Agoraphobia
Uploaded: 10/11/2016
7 Pages 187 Views 0 Unlocks
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Anxiety, Trauma / Stressor - Related, and Obsessive Compulsive / Related Disorders: Part 2

  1. Interoceptive conditioning

  1. Maintenance of Panic

Conditional avoidance: learning to avoid

  • Avoiding places reduces fear so avoidance is negative reinforcement
  • Will happen more often

CBT perspective:avoidance prevents the disconfirmation of the feared outcome

  • Never learn it won’t happen again
  • Catastrophic thinking is maintained
  1. Panic Disorder and Agoraphobia
  • Treatment
  • Medication:
  • BZ, SSRIs, SIVRs are the best indicated drugs. 50% relapse
  • Psychological intervention
  • Exposure to avoided situations
  • May be combined w/ relaxation or breathing retraining
  • These patients often still experience anxiety / panic attacks
  • Panic control treatment: interoceptive exposures / cognitive therapy
  • Must remain better after 2 years
  • Combo treatment

*Bottom line: CBT fares better in long run BUT drop response may be quicker

  • Statistics
  • 2.7% (past year)
  • 4.7% (lifetime)
  • Agoraphobia = 1.4% (lifetime)
  • Onset:
  • How might men cope w/ panic?
  • Cultural influences
  • Rates and symptoms relatively similar
  • AF - Anur’s more likely to experience hypertension
  • Somatic symptoms may be emphasized in 3rd world countries
  • Nocturnal panic
  • 60% of people with PD have had nocturnal panic
  • Research suggests these occur in deep sleep, not during nightmares
  • May be caused by transitional state and “letting go”

The PhobiasDon't forget about the age old question of What is a regulatory molecule with a shape?

Specific Phobias

  • Specific phobia: extreme, irrational fear of a specific object / situation
  • Intense distress
  • Avoidance
  • Recognized as excessive
  • Disruptive

If you want to learn more check out When is a molecule in its relaxed state?

Prevalence

  • Statistics:
  • 12.5% lifetime, 8.71 / year
  • Female: male = 4:1
  • Chronic course
  • Onset = ~7
  • Behavioral Therapy
  • Caused by trauma and classical conditioning
  • Maintained by avoidance and (-) reinforcement
  • Causes
  • Conditioning
  • True alarm
  • False alarm
  • Vicarious experience
  • Information transmission
  • “Prepared”
  • Inherited tendency to fear situations dangerous to humans
  • Other challenges to conditioning theory:
  • Experience does not lead to phobia
  • Treatment
  • Exposure - based exercises
  • Therapeutic supervision suggested
  • “Hierarchical” steps
  • In vivo  
  • “Overlearning” (not in vivo)

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Social Anxiety Disorder (social Phobia)

  • Extreme, irrational fear / shyness in social and / or performance situations
  • Fear they will be humiliated / embarrassed
  • Avoid social situations or endure them w/ distress
  • Avoidance / distress interferes with functioning
  • Prevalence:
  • 12.1% lifetime; 6.8% yearly
  • Female: male → 1:1
  • Onset: adolescence
  • Peak age of 13
  • Young (18-29 years), undereducated, single, and of low socioeconomic class, 13.6%
  • Over 60 = 6.6%
  • Causes

        

  • Treatment
  • Cognitive Intervention
  • Emphasis on real - life experiences to disprove automatic perceptions of danger
  • Cognitive - Behavior Intervention
  • Target maintenance factors
  • Avoidance
  • Directly make patient confront social mishaps to see what will happen

Don't forget about the age old question of After the death of Aristotle & Alexander the Great, there were four major schools of philosophy in Athens. What are those?

Obsessive - Compulsive Disorder (COD)

  • Obsessions: intensive, recurring thoughts, images, impulses
  • Attempts to ignore / suppress them
  • Compulsions: repetitive behaviors / mental actions repeated to reduce (neutralize) anxiety
  • Must be time - consuming
  • An hour or more per day

Obsessions

Compulsions

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Aggressive impulses

Sexual images

Harm to self or others

Need to heard / save

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Lucky / unlucky numbers

Somatic concerns

*can have obsessions without engaging in compulsive behavior

→ have intrusive thoughts, don’t neutralize

Cleaning / washing

Checking

Repeating acts

Arranging

Hoarding

Mental rituals (praying)

Touch or tap

*can engage in compulsions without obsessions

→ engage in behavior (repetitive) that isn’t adaptive / productive

*OCD is on a spectrum

→ not a problem until it consumes A LOT of time

  • Biology of OCD

Filter out irrelevant impulses

  • Input of stimuli

 

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