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Study guide part 2

by: Jane Sible

Study guide part 2 Phil 1020-05

Jane Sible
GPA 3.64

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week 7 notes
Philosophy: the Art of Thinking (Honors)
Dr. Margaret Holland
Study Guide
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jane Sible on Tuesday October 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Phil 1020-05 at University of Northern Iowa taught by Dr. Margaret Holland in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views.


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Date Created: 10/11/16
October 4, 2016 Consequence of stigma = people are less likely to express minority opinions. This is an effective silencer.  Pg. 35 o “Those in whose eyes… irreligious or immoral?” o Suppressing discussion of heretical opinions does not make the opinion disappear; it cramps the mental development of those who agree with the majority opinion o Never a clear discussion of those opinions that are silenced – if it is wrong, discussion may cause the collapse of the belief – no discussion perpetuates the belief even if it is wrong o Majority loses when minority is silenced; some people won’t raise questions if it’s met with disapproval  These people may have great ideas that are never spoken out of fear o If we don’t practice debating or determining what info. is relevant, we will never gain the skill when it is necessary such as in the House of Representatives or the Senate  Pg. 37 – dead dogma and living truth o The same belief can be a dead dogma in one person and a living truth in another o Dogma = unexamined, foundational truths o Need to listen to false minority opinions so that you understand your opinion, can provide evidence so that it is alive in you and not dead and unquestioned  Pg. 40 o Meaning = definition of a belief o Grounds = justification for that belief o If a belief isn’t discussed the meaning of the belief could be lost forever o It is dangerous for people to just believe things without questioning them  Pg. 37 o Believing is not the same thing as knowing the truth o “Whatever people believe…” o There are some things you need to know if it is right or wrong, other things are not as important for discussing, such as what’s your favorite color. Something that is important to find out the truth about is women’s rights o There is a line between being offended and being harmed; being offended is just part of being an adult  Pg. 38 o “He who knows only…” o You need to now alternatives before choosing an opinion: silencing a minority is bad because you have no reason to believe your own  Pg. 47: Mixed o Need discussion to have the complete truth  Pg. 53: Summary of Arguments 1. Silencing means you are assuming your own infallibility, which is bad. 2. The silenced minority might have part of the truth, you don’t know. 3. Without other opinions, nobody holds a ‘living truth’. 4. The meaning of the truth may be lost if it is not discussed  Pg. 55 o People may be unpleasant, which means you must have rules for a debate. They are as follows: 1. Give merited honor to everyone who can state their opponent’s opinion calmly and correctly. a. You need to understand their opinion in an accurate way to be able to refute it 2. Exaggerate nothing to your opponent’s discredit. 3. Keep nothing back that is in their favor. o The point of a debate is not to score points, but to move forward in understanding. It is a mutual endeavor, not one attacking the other  Majority = false, Minority = true; reasons for free discussion o Infallibility is assumed, we are not the judges of certainty o Certainty is only attainable with rigorous testing o Don’t you want to know the truth? And be right? o Society will be bettered o You cannot correct you mistakes if we do not allow opposing views o It recognizes the right of the minority  Utility gives you the right to think your judgement is better, but not to press it upon others o Pg. 24 – the process: examine alternatives, find reasons for alternatives, and better your judgement o What consequences does this view have?  Majority = true, Minority = false; reasons for free discussion o You can get better credit and understanding, you can justify your opinion better. o It gets rid of the false beliefs the minority holds  Mixed; reasons for free discussion o You receive the combined and whole truth. October 6, 2016 More vocab:  Counterpoise  Instigation  Polemic  Acquiescence  Semblance  Tenable  Intrinsic  Ostensible  Inculcate  Eccentricity  Ascetic Chapter 3: freedom of pursuits/ways of life  Pg. 56 o Only time speech could be stopped is if speech would provoke violence from an angry mob  The speech would give rise to actions that would be harmful  The ideas from the speech, or even the speech itself, could be in the paper the next day. No censoring of ideas, just the context of the ideas  Pg. 57 o It is useful to experiment with different ways of life  You only know if a way of life is good or bad is if you are allowed to put it into practice  “The majority being satisfied…”  The mentality of, “why can’t they just live like we do?” is a bad mentality to have and it pressures others into your way of life.  Pg. 59 o “thirdly, though the customs… because others believe it.” o “Yet to conform to custom as custom”  Conforming to custom simply because it’s a custom or because it’s expected of you and not because you want to is not something you should do.  Custom = a way of life in a certain place at a certain time  Human faculties = capabilities or capacities of a person  Sense perception, reason, judgement, feelings and moral preferences  Your faculties do not get developed if you blindly follow custom.  There is a process for doing something: 1. Deliberation: consider alternative and why one is better 2. Judgement: what actually is better, the step where you rank options 3. Choice: pick one 4. Action: actually do it  If you blindly follow custom, this process is absent. It is all internal until the fourth step; if you do not partake in the internal action then you cannot develop your mind.  You can follow custom if you think it through and decide that it is what you want to do.  You need practice in discerning what’s best for you o If you do not use your mental capabilities, you become weak. o Practice makes you more skillful – this mental practice is observable in small children.  “He who lets the world, or his own portion of it, choose his plan of life for him, has no need of any other faculty than the ape-like one of imitation.” o Socrates said that “the unexamined life is not worth living” o If you do not think than you are not using the gifts given to humanity and humanity only o You won’t be living a human life if you do not use your faculties.  Pg. 61 o “Not only in what concerns… to end of paragraph” o People aren’t asking what they want out of life. They’re asking what’s expected of me. What are my friends doing? People are even conforming in activities of pleasure. This doesn’t develop their own interests or preferences. o Trying to emulate those of the status above you puts an emphasis on money equaling success – is that what we want success to mean? Money is just meant to be a means to an end. o You must try a variety of things to find out what is your passion; this cookie cutter mold will not work for everyone. Possessing a variety of skills to decide what is your best skill, and pursuing that, means that you will have a more fulfilling life. o Eccentricities are shunned just as much as crimes are. SECOND TEST ON ALL PREVIOUS MATERIAL UP UNTIL PAGE 62 OF ON LIBERTY


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