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Lab #6 Study Guide for Midterm

by: valerie zaid

Lab #6 Study Guide for Midterm Bio 203

Marketplace > Purdue University > Bio 203 > Lab 6 Study Guide for Midterm
valerie zaid

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About this Document

A full detailed study guide for Lab #6
Anatomy & Physiology
Study Guide
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by valerie zaid on Tuesday October 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Bio 203 at Purdue University taught by Bridges in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views.


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Date Created: 10/11/16
BIO 2O3-Midterm Study Guide LAB #6- Tissues 3: muscle tissue, muscular system and levers • muscle: important in all movements in the body and in maintaining posture. • CARDIAC MUSCLE: • location: walls of the heart • structure: cross-striations, branching networks, single nucleus. They contain actin, myosin, troponin, and tropomyosin. • Properties: Involuntary muscle and does not require nervous input to contract. • At the junction of two cardiac muscle fibers we find something calles a intercalated disc. • Generates its own signals, rate is affected by autonomic nervous system • SMOOTH MUSCLE: • Location: walls of gastrointestinal tract, blood vessels etc. • structure: shorter than skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle fibers. They contain actin and myosin arranged in myofibrils. Lack cross-striations and T-tubules. • Properties: They are not under voluntary control • SKELETAL MUSCLE: • location: attached to bones of the skeleton structure: any long, narrow muscle cells bound together with connective tissue. Contains • many nuclei, contains cross-striations • properties: Voluntary; important im maintaining body’s posture and balance, produce heat • Plasma membrane of a muscle fiber —> sarcolemma • Cytoplasm —> sarcoplasm; contains myofibrils composed of myosin and actin (thick filaments) and, troponin and tropomyosin (thin filaments). • endoplasmic reticulum —> sarcoplasmic reticulum • (Pg. 104-105 Diagram) • Proteins in Cardiac and Skeletal muscle Contractile Excitation sarcomeric cytoskeletal membrane contraction skeleton associated coupling actin troponin titin desmin dystrophin myosin tropomyosin nebulin microtubule proteins • How muscles contracts: • powered by ATP and has its basis in the interaction of actin and myosin. myosin molecules hydrolyses ATP to ADP and phosphate. • Troponin plays an important role in initiating contraction • Smooth muscle has actin, but does not have troponin and tropomyosin • Contraction of skeletal and cardiac muscle is initiated when a wave of electrical depolarization spreads over the sarcolemma, it penetrates into the interior of the muscle fibers by means of the T-tubules. This leads to the release of calcium ion into the sarcolemma which bind to troponin and then causes a shape change in the molecules of tropomyosin. Actin and myosin are then free to interact and muscles starts to contract. • In cardiac muscle, a large amount of calcium also enters the sarcolemma from extracellular fluid by passing through special channels in the T-tubules. Myosin molecule: • • myosin is ready for action • attachment of myosin head to actin • power stroke detachment and reorientation • • preparation for next attachment set up • (Pg. 108 Diagram) • Movements: MOVEMENT ACTION flexion decreases angle at joint extension increases angle at joint abduction moves away from midline adduction moves toward midline elevation upward movement depression downward movement supination palm is turned upward pronation palm is turned downward protraction pushes bone forward retraction pulls bone backwards dorsiflexion flexes ankle, moves foot inferiorly plantar flexion extends ankle, moves foot inferiorly compression reduction of volume or mass rotation moves around its longitudinal axis tension more rigid sphincter decreases size of an opening • Prime mover or agonist: muscle that is primarily involved in a movement • Antagonist: while the agonist contracts, this muscle is relaxing • “Helper” muscles that also contract when the prime mover contracts are called —> synergists; they help the prime mover to function more effectively, and also to stabilize the origin of a prime mover muscle • (Diagrams pgs. 111-120) Levers: serve to amplify muscle contraction (pg. 122) • • the contracting muscle provides the in-force • fulcrum is the point about which the lever moves • the out-force produces movement or lifts weight (movement of hand) • Advantages of levers: amplify motion of muscle • Disadvantages of levers: proportionately larger forces have to be generated • FIRST CLASS LEVER: • fulcrum is between the out-force and the in-force • common arrangement for muscles that produce extension of body parts • ex. neck up and down, elbow extension • SECOND CLASS LEVER: not good examples in body • • Out-force is between fulcrum and in-force • THIRD CLASS LEVER: • in-force is between fulcrum and the out-force • most common in human body • ex. elbow flexion • 40 muscles Table pgs. 123-124 (know muscle, origin, and insertion of each)


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