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Exam 2 Review

by: Phuong Nguyen

Exam 2 Review BIOL 2041

Phuong Nguyen
GPA 3.7

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About this Document

Here is a review for Dr. Kim's second exam. Best of luck!
Dr. Hyunju Kim
Study Guide
50 ?




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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Phuong Nguyen on Tuesday October 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 2041 at University of North Texas taught by Dr. Hyunju Kim in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 105 views. For similar materials see Microbiology in Biology at University of North Texas.


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Date Created: 10/11/16
Chapter 9: Controlling Microorganisms Controlling Microbial Growth ● Prevent infection and food spoilage ● Sterilization = remove or destroy ​all​ microbial growth (on inanimate objects) ● Commercial​ sterilization = kills spores of ​Clostridium b​otulinum with heat but doesn’t turn to mush ● Disinfection =reduces/inhibits growth on ​non-living surface ● Decontamination = renders surface safe to handle. ​Mechanically​ remove most microbes ● Antisepsis = R/I of growth on ​living tissue ● -cide/-cidal = kill ● -stat/static = inhibit ● Microbes are dead if no colonies are present on solid medium, or turbid in liquid Microbial Death Rate ● Decimal reduction time = (D-value) = t required to kill 90% cells ● Heat treatments include: T, type, physiological state, other substances ● Calculations vital in industries and labs, critical balance of heat intensity to keep safe but retain quality, if too short period of time, ​Clostridium botulinum endospores will survive Relative Resistance of Microbial Forms ● Hightestl: prions, bacterical endospores ● Med: protozoan cysts, some fungal spores, viruses, some bacteria w vegetative cells ​Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas spp. ● Least: most bacterial vegetative cells, fungal spores, yeast, protozoan trophozoites ● Thermal Death Point - min T to kill all microbes in broth in 10 min ● Therma Death Time = min t to kill all microbes in broth at given T 3 Ways of Microbial Control Methods 1. Physical - heat, cold, radiation, drying, osmotic pressure a. Heat most important agent, kills by denaturing proteins/enzymes Moist heat - kills cells by denaturing proteins i. (boiling, kills most vegetative but not sterile ii. Autoclave (sterilization) kills endospores iii. Pasteurization - kills harmful microbes only (NOT sterilization) denatures protiens and slows spoilage of milk, hi T @ short t won’t alter flavor 1. Hi- T Short Time (HTST) 7•C for 15 min 2. Ultra-high T Processing (UHT) 140•C for 4 sec Dry Heat (sterilization) - interferes w cell oxidation to inactivate proteins I. direct flaming, incineration, hot-air sterilization, on materials that can withstand hi heat (Long periods: 160•C for 2hr, or 171•C for 1hr) b. Cold: many microbes not dead by delayed growth, doesn;’t kill, many die slowly, ​ isteria monocytogens c. Radiation (sterilization) a. UV (non-ionizing) wavelength 10-400nm, damages DNA, opt at 260nm, only sterilizes surface. Lethal but doesn’t penetrate galss, dirt, clothes or water b. Ionizing radiation: x rays and gamma rays sterilize by stripping e- forming higly reactive hydroxyl (penetrates deep) c. Filtration (physical) (doesn’t remove all cells: media, antibiotics, heat sensitive mat) d. Drying (not sterilization) evaporation (distorts membranes to preserve food) Lyophilizatin Chemical Controls ● Antimicrobial agents; chemotherapeutic agents to treat disease, germicides, germistats to disinfect and antisepsis ● 1200 germicides ● Selection ○ Damage tissue ○ Control target ○ Purpose of treatment Testing Germicides ● Paper disk method (lab technique w adding germicide to paper disk and placing disk on agar plate to incubate and observe zone of inhibition. Classes of Germicides ● Alcohols ○ Disrupt liquids by attacking cytoplasmic membrane ○ Denature proteins ○ 50-70? Solutions more effective, increase plasmoysis (leaves cell) ● Oxidizing agents ○ Inactivate proteins by oxidizing functional groups ○ Halogens ○ Hydrogen peroxide ● Alkylating agents ○ Inactivate proteins ○ Formulin ○ Ethylene oxide - gas sterilization ● Surfactants ○ Break apart oily droplets ○ Soap as emulsifier ○ Penetrates cytoplasmic membrane ● Phenols and phenolics ○ Denature proteins ○ Act on lipids ○ Disrupt cytoplasmic membranes ○ Ex: hexachlorophene (prescription use) Food Preservation 1. Temperature 2. Water 3. pH 4. Chemicals Chapter 10: Classification ● Principles by which organisms are classified- Classification- a way to group similar things together Hierarchical Scheme- places individuals into groups that range from broad and more inclusive Taxonomy- the science of classifying organisms ( Goal- to show relationship among organisms) ● Biological classification- Domain-Damn (most inclusive) Kingdom- King Phylum- Philip Class- Came Order- Over Family- For Genus- Green Species (smallest)- Spaghetti ● People we should know- ​Hackel​- Classified organisms into animal or plant KINGDOM ​ Chatton​- Seperated bacteria into two groups (prokaryotic and eukaryotic) ​Whittaker​- noting the fungi life cycle and recognized a 5 kingdom scheme (Animal,Plants, fungi, protist, and monera) ● The concept of species and how it applies to organisms- Eukaryotic species is a group of organisms that inbreed​ UT DO NOT​ breed with individuals of another species. Bacteria species have similar characteristics, and many of them​ O NOT produce sexually. Strain are two clones of bacteria species that are genetically different and they derive from a single cell. ● Methods of classification Numerical taxonomy- these are measurements of characteristics each organism's share Dendograms- helps us determine the relatedness of organisms. It illustrates relationships. ● Three Traditional Methods 1.Morphology- shape,arrangement, flagella arrangement, and Gram reaction (+, -) 2.Biochemical and Physiological- Temperature and pH 3.​Serology-​based on their specific reaction to antibiotics in s​ hage Typing- viruses ​ that infect bacteria ● Four Genomic Methods 1.Percent G+C indicates relatedness ( Highly related bacteria has greater agreement on the % of G+C than bacteria that are less related) 2.Hybridization- Compares two organisms ( single strands from different sources are mixed) 3. Probes- is tagged (fluorescent dye) ​Ribosomal RNA as probe​ (1. Isolate rRNA, 2. Add DNA primer, 3. Reverse transcriptase, 4. RNA Polymerase) 4.​ DNA Sequence- ​ULTIMATE TOOL OF TAXONOMY Chapter 21: Antimicrobial Chemotherapy ​ ​ ​ 1) Gram negative are more resistant because of their outer membrane. ● ????-Lactamase(Penicillin Binding Protein) found in resistant bacterias’ peptidoglycan (Cell Wall) ● Semisynthetic Drugs: Chemically modified in the lab ● Synthetic Drugs: Use of chemical reactions to synthesize antimicrobial compounds in lab. Prokaryotic Cells ● Inhibits Cell Wall synthesis (Destroy Peptidoglycan) 1. Penicillin→Produced by Fungi 2. Cephalosporins →Should not be used for babies 3. Vancomycin 4. Bacitracin ● Inhibits Nucleic Acid Synthesis 1. R​ifampin ​ ​ A) 2. Quinolones (DNA) ● Inhibits Protein Synthesis/Peptide Bonds 1. Aminoglycosides 2. Chloramphenicol 3. Te​ tracycline →Stains ​T​eeth brown in children and pregnant women 4. Erythromycin ● Inhibits Folic Acid Synthesis ( Selective Toxicity because we do not make Folic acid) 1. Sulfonamides 2. Trimethoprim Drug Resistance ● Natural Drug Resistance: Intrinsic property of a microbial species ● Acquired Drug Resistance: Gained by individual strain ● Plasmid: Extrachromosomal, Circular, self-replicated often carry resistance gene. 1) Transposons → Jumping genes 2) Conjugacion 3) Transduction 4)


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