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Anth 105 Exam 2 Study Guide

by: Vaidehi Panchal

Anth 105 Exam 2 Study Guide ANTH 105

Vaidehi Panchal

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About this Document

This Study guide includes Primate behavior and characteristics
Human Evolution
Pamela Whyms
Study Guide
primates, tarsiers, lemurs, Stepsirhini, Haplorini, Lories, apes
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Vaidehi Panchal on Tuesday October 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ANTH 105 at University of Illinois at Chicago taught by Pamela Whyms in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 52 views. For similar materials see Human Evolution in Biology/Anthropology at University of Illinois at Chicago.


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Date Created: 10/11/16
Study Guide Exam 2 Primate Traits Two major divisions are Stepsirhini and Haplorhini      Strepsirhini­ Wet noses (better for smell) o Small­bodied o Wet noses o Resemble our mammalian ancestry (look like cats or raccoons more than people) o Colorblind o Scent­marking­ on wrist and mark their tails o Many solitary species o Some nocturnal o Big eyes  Lemurs and lorises  Both have a mix of nails and claws. One grooming nail­thumb 1. Lemurs o Vertical clinging and leaping  Longer legs than arms  Hind limbs are much longer than their front limbs  Face upright against a tree trunk (essentially hugging it), leap off, turn in  the air and land upright on a nearby branch o Better sense of smell o Solitary o Small, nocturnal, eat insects  Some are diurnal  o Arboreal o Postorbital Bars, less reliant on eyes o Long Snout and Rhinarium  o Infused mandible, dental comb, mix of claws and nails  o Dental formula of 2. Lories o Small, found in Africa and Southeast Asia o Nocturnal, large eyes, more rods o Postorbital Bars­ does not fully enclose the eye o Long snout and Rhinarium­damp pad on the end of their nose o Eat Insects o Mix of nails and Claws o Dental comb and infused mandible 3. Galangos  Haplorhini­ Dry noses o Tarsiers, monkeys, apes o Better sense of Vision 1. Tarsiers 2. Anthropoids a. Platyrrhini (New World Monkeys)  Flat nose (flat/plat)  Nostrils point sideways  3 premolars­  Arboreal­ on trees  Some have prehensile tails b. Catarrhini (Old World Monkeys)  Nostrils point downwards  2 premolars­  Larger  More terrestrial­ ground  Projecting Nasal Septum   Smaller brains, Bilophodont molars, long tails, quadrupeds  Cercopithicoids­ Old World Monkeys  Colobines c. Apes o Brachiation   Under­branch actirm­swinging. Unique to the apes o Social o Big Brains, Simple molars, No tail  Hylobatidea­ Gibbons and Siamangs  Hominidae  Hominid now technically includes the great apes, so strict taxonomists will use hominin  when discussing human ancestors to make the distinction clear     All Primates o Lack specializations such as flippers, trunks, long necks o Quadrupeds – move around on four legs (like dogs, cats, squirrels, etc)­ except  humans   Although, locomotion on those four legs can be specialized  o unguiculate ­ nails or claws o claviculate ­ clavicle or collar bone o calcarine ­ occipital area toward back of skull o hallux ­ big toe o cecum ­ beginning of large intestine o Large brains  Higher cognitive function  Spatial and social cognitive power o Single Offspring  Nearly all primates give birth to one offspring at a time  Long maturation periods  More time invested into fewer offspring o Extended Ontogeny (life cycle)  Learned behavior is important to survival  Primates need to be socialized into their communities  Not necessarily longer lives, but longer time devoted to each period o Better vision than smell o Orbits encircled by bone  Gibbons have funny enclosed orbits o Forward facing eyes and stereoscopic vision o Grasping Hands with Opposable Thumbs and feet and toes o Nails instead of claws o Have 3 different types of teeth­ molars, premolars, incisors o and o Diurnal o Food  Leaves, gums, fruit, invertebrate fauna, vertebrate fauna o Do not migrate  Locamotions­ o Arboreal Quadrupedallism­ live on trees  Stereoscopic vision, grasping hands, opposable thumbs, nails  rather than claws all seem like adaptations to making a life in the  trees o Terrestrial Quadrupedallism­ live on the ground o Leaping o Knuckle­ walking Quadrupedallism o Suspensory climbing o Bipedalism   Geographic distribution of Primates o Mostly tropical o 2 non­tropical  Barbary & Japanese macaques o Primary and secondary rainforest o Woodlands o Savannas  Vertical Segregation­ Different species can live in the same area but occupy different  niches; live on different heights o Arboreal red tail monkeys (constantly in the trees) vs. terrestrial baboons (live on  the ground)  Taxonomy is concerned with the theory and practice of classifying organisms once these  relationships are known.   Phylogenetics is the study of how genealogical relationships can be determined from  homologous similarities. Primate Behaviors­  Omnivore = eats animals and plants  Carnivore = eats animals  Herbivore = eats plants  Frugivore = fruit­eater  Folivore = leaf­eater  Insectivore = insect­eater   Gummivore = gum­eater  Small  animals must eat  easily digested foods  that can be processed  fast.  Larger primates are folivores­ eat a lot of plants such as gorillas  Spatial Decisions  o What to eat, where to eat and how far to travel to get the food o Relationship between day range length and diet  More leaves in a diet, less time spend moving in a day  The less the total mass of individuals in  the group, the smaller the  home  range  Philopatric = non­migratory  Spacing Terms­ o Day range­the distance moved in a day from sleep site to sleep site o Home range­ the area covered during normal movements and activities o  Core area­ the most intensively used part of a home range o Territory­ A defended home range  Costs of Grouping 1.  Increased feeding competition 2. Increased costs of movement  Larger group size= greater travel daily 3. Increased transmission of disease and parasite  Benefits of Group living 1. Reduction in vulnerability to predation  Rare predation  Presence of humans deters predations  Types of predators­ o Snakes, Crocodiles, raptors, carnivore  Earlier detection of types of predators  Predator deterrence through mobbing 2. Increased foraging success  Groups of closely related females  cooperate in joint  defense of food   resources  Dilution effect o Individuals could dilute the chances of being taken by associating with others. An  increase in safety if:  Predators take only a few animals per attack  Rate of attack is independent of group size  Mating System 1. Monogamy­ one male and one female (or male/male and  female/female) Two individuals.   aggression by mated females prevents males from  acquiring additional mates, e.g. gibbons.  Some tamarins and marmosets  And small body size (large babies relative to body size  – 25% their mother’s weight) 2. Polygamy­ having more than one mate, either females or males  Lots of competition and sexual dimorphism  3. Polygyny­ having more than one female mate o Females are the limiting resource  o Solitary Polygyny­ One male has exclusive access to a few  dispersed females   orangutans & other solitary primates  Arrested development 4. Polyandry­ Having more than one male mate  Characterized by high reproductive rate   Seasonal breeding reduces male competition (usually  no estrus and then all at once.  One male cannot  monopolize  Less competition and sexual dimorphism  What do primates want in mates o What do males want  Monopolize access to females?   Make and have a lot of kids o What do females what?  Healthy, fertile male (females have lower tolerance of risk)  Protection/ally (predators; other females; males)  Parental care  Food  Mating systems with solitary females o Some male/male competition (sexual dimorphism) o And sperm competition (when no monopolies on mating, sperm competition more important)  Infanticides­ Following the group takeover, the new male attacks and kills unweaned  infants o Population density hypothesis ­ Infanticide is due to high population densities,  and is an aberrant, dysfunctional behavior o Sexual Selection Hypothesis­ Infanticide is a male reproductive tactic  Loss of suckling infant leads to onset of estrus in the mother  Males gain a reproductive advantage through earlier conception by  females  Mothers will become sexually active earlier than if the infant lived.  Counterstrategies by females against Infantacide­ o Females form aggressive coalitions against males, they can use mobbing behavior o In baboons, females will try to make friends with another male, who may offer  her protection. He’s not related to her babies, but he may help her.  “Friend zone”  In hopes he can mate with her next time she’s ready o Promiscuity­ if you’ve mated with every male, they don’t know if that baby is  theirs, so they won’t kill it.  Chimps do this


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