Sociology Midterm Study Guide
Sociology Midterm Study Guide SOCY 1004
Popular in Deviance in U.S. Society
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rachael Carrington on Tuesday October 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SOCY 1004 at University of Colorado at Boulder taught by Stephanie Bonnes in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 452 views. For similar materials see Deviance in U.S. Society in Sociology at University of Colorado at Boulder.
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Date Created: 10/11/16
Deviance in U.S. Society Study Guide – Midterm 1 Norm: culturally defined standard or rule of contact (informal understandings that govern behavior) Prescriptive vs Proscriptive: Prescriptive = societal encouragement (recycling, holding doors open) Proscriptive = societal discouragement (murder, talking in a movie theatre) Deviance: behavior, beliefs, or characteristics that violate or depart from a basic norm, likely to generate negative reactions *relative to who, where, what, and when ABC’s: o Attitudes = unpopular or unconventional beliefs that may or may not manifest themselves in overt actions o Behavior = any overt action (which includes failure to act) that is likely to attract condemnation, hostility, or punishment o Conditions = physical characteristics or traits that make someone a target of an audiences disapproval, avoidance, or other negative social reactions Societal Deviance: Includes actions and conditions that are widely recognized to be generally deviant Situational Deviance: Manifests in actual concrete social circles Critical Perspective: Deviance based on socio, economic, political, statuses, behaviors or conditions not inherently deviant Established by those in power (in order to maintain it and enhance it) Sanctions: rewards and punishments intended to ensure conformity to cultural guidelines Social Control: sum of sanctions in society by means of which conformity to cultural guidelines is ensured Formal vs Informal: o Formal: primarily takes place in large, complex societies, utilization of large, institutional agencies for conformity o Informal: takes place in interpersonal interactions enforced by nonofficials, consequences not as powerful as formal Social Construction of Deviance: Looks at how deviance is defined, conceptualized, and represented Why rules exist, their consequences, their enforcement Theoretical Perspectives: Functionalism: o Deviance is normal, needs balance, has function o Shows how social institutions help to maintain social order o Adheres to consensus paradigm (broad agreement of what is right/wrong) o Functionality and Crime: Crime is normal and serves a purpose Durkheim Crime: Clarifies moral boundaries and norms Provides social unity Causes social change in society Some crimes are socially accepted and some are out of bounds Goffman’s Tribal Stigma: deviance is already ascribed to an individual or group based on race, religion, or culture Relativism: we must understand deviant constructions and acts are relative to specific times, locations, and social groups Essentialism: object, deviance is specific and concrete Constructionism: looks at surrounding factors, looks at how deviance is defined, conceptualized and represented Conflict Theory: when one group benefits at the expense of others, focuses on criminalization process Labeling Theory: deviance occurs because certain behaviors are defined as deviant, looks at what happens once you have a deviant label on you Creation of Deviance: moral entrepreneurs, rule creators, and enforcers Moral Panics: threat to society depicted, media turns it into a feeding frenzy o Characterization: identification and targeting of distinct deviant population, emergence of an “innocent” victim population, emergence of brave hero, existence of a substantial threat to established norms o Construction: presentation of opinion as fact, value loaded terminology, anonymous or selected sources, stripping fact from context, linking to other problems o Why: media economic interest, governments wish to focus our attention on a mutually agreed upon issue, career advancement, etc. Stigma: Mark of disgrace, a stain or reproach on one’s reputation Phenomenon whereby an individual w/ an attribute which is deeply discredited by his/her society is rejected as a result of the attribute Process by which the reaction of others spoils normal identity Master Status: social position that is the primary identifying characteristics of an individual *Review Erving Goffman and Forms of Social Stigma Crime and Deviance: Instrumental: Crimes committed for material gain Expressive: Not committed for material gain, expressions of emotion Reporting Crime: o Uniformed Crime Reports (UCR) = only reports the most serious offenses known to police (murder, forcible rape, robbery, etc.) o Supplemental Homicide Reports (SHR) = in depth info concerning all of the homicides that have taken place o Advantages to both: comparisons can be made, consistence/reliability, SHR gives details o Disadvantages to both: unreported crimes not covered, crimes excluded, some don’t lead to arrest, bias, nonreporting o Victimization Survey: Advantages: consistency, not filtered by police, not dependent on reporting Disadvantages: some offenses not reported, memory, perception, info on offenders limited o SelfReport Survey: Advantages: don’t depend on victim to report, allow detailed info about offender, research design Potential Problems: underreporting, lying, forgetting, underrepresents serious crime Drugs and Deviance: o Common Causes = low selfcontrol, inability to delay gratification, overly developed patterns of pleasure seeking, taste for risk o Do Drugs Cause Deviance? Pharmacological Model EconomicCompulsive Model Systematic Violence Model Relationship to American Norms: responsibility, conventionality, participation – all stigmatize drug use Sex and Deviance Gender Socialization: A set of ideas about what constitutes appropriate masculine and feminine roles and behavior “Doing Gender” Theories of Deviance and Crime Motivational Theories: identify social factors that drive people to commit deviance and crime Constraint Theories: identify social factors that encourage conformity Conflict Theories: suggests that those in power create criminals in order to control threatening populations Empiricism: world is observable and can be known through our senses that give us impressions on the way things are Objectivism: social phenomena have a “realness” to them, common themes and patterns Determinism: why do we do what we do, world works in cause and effect Control Theory: we are all capable of deviance/crime so why don’t most offend? o Control prevents us from engaging in these acts Humans seek gratification Humans will minimize pain and punishment Hirschi: Social Bond Theory o Delinquent acts result when an individual’s bond to society is weak or broken o Variation in control o Social bond: adolescent’s relationship to society 1. Attachment = to conventional others 2. Commitment = to conventional lines of action 3. Involvement = in conventional activities 4. Belief= in conventional norms “SelfControl Theory” Gottfredson and Hirschi (1990) o Departure from Hirschi’s original thinking o Lowlevels of selfcontrol within the individual influence criminal behavior o Social experiences early in life shape one’s level of selfcontrol o Levels of selfcontrol do NOT change throughout life – source of controversy o If one possesses high selfcontrol, they will defer immediate gratification o Low selfcontrol is associated with criminality or the propensity to offend: Impulsive Insensitive Risktaking Shortsighted Nonverbal Physical Activity Rational Choice and Deterrence Theory o Offenders seek to benefit themselves by their criminal behavior o Classical perspective implies a rational choice Weighing the costs and benefits of interaction o Specific Deterrence: Punishment reduces crime for those people who are punished o General Deterrence: asks whether punishing offenders may deter nonoffenders from committing similar acts Other Materials to Review: Discussion Questions on D2L Past readings that have been mentioned in lecture Journals
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